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  1. 1. Reaching and Teaching the Whole Child Prepared by Carla Piper, Ed. D.
  2. 2. The Whole Child Emotional Physical Intellectual Social Science Math Sensory Small Muscle Large Muscle Music Art Language Literacy Creative Movement Social Studies Literature Nutrition, Health, Safety Feeny, Christensen, Moravick Human Development Domains
  3. 3. The Whole Child <ul><li>ASCD Whole Child Website </li></ul><ul><li>About the Whole Child Initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Resources </li></ul><ul><li>The Learning Compact Redefined: A Call to Action </li></ul><ul><li>Human Development Domains in Early Childhood </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive </li></ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Whole Child Initiative <ul><li>Healthy </li></ul><ul><li>Safe </li></ul><ul><li>Engaged </li></ul><ul><li>Supported </li></ul><ul><li>Challenged </li></ul><ul><li>Click on image to view YouTube Video </li></ul>
  5. 5. Early Learning Standards <ul><li>Must Include all areas of early development and learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional </li></ul></ul><ul><li>• The content and desired outcomes are meaningful and important to children’s current well being and later learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Must recognize and accommodate variations and support positive outcomes for all children </li></ul><ul><ul><li>children’s cultures, languages, communities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>individual characteristics, abilities, and disabilities. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Each Child is a Unique Case <ul><li>“ When schools get obsessed with ensuring predicable results, they tend to treat children in uniform and standardized ways.” </li></ul><ul><li>Children differ: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperament </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aptitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social competence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional vulnerability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All children are alike in some ways and every child resembles certain children more than others. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Theory of Multiple Intelligences Prepared by Dr. Carla Piper
  8. 8. Definition of Intelligence <ul><li>The ability to solve problems that one encounters in real life </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to generate new problems to solve </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to make something or offer service that is valued within one’s culture </li></ul>Howard Gardner Gardner, 1983
  9. 9. Multiple Intelligences <ul><li>Diverse preferred modes of learning for each individual </li></ul><ul><li>Different ways of information processing </li></ul><ul><li>Result of years of scientific brain research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stroke victims </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accident victims </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alzheimers patients </li></ul></ul>Gardner 1983
  10. 10. Research Findings <ul><li>Intelligence is not fixed at birth.  It changes and grows through life.  It can be improved and expanded. </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence can be taught and improved by activating levels of perception. </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence is a multiple phenomenon that occurs in many different parts of the brain/mind/body system. </li></ul><ul><li>A stronger, more dominant intelligence can be used to train (improve or strengthen) a weaker intelligence. </li></ul><ul><li>Most persons possess all intelligences – but in varying strengths (at varying times) </li></ul>Gardner, 1983
  11. 11. Frames of Mind <ul><li>“ The ways in which intelligences combine and blend are as varied as the faces and personalities of individuals” </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence is changeable – not stagnant </li></ul><ul><li>Genetics influences intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>BUT providing a nurturing, positive, and stimulating learning environment is very important! </li></ul>Unique Gardner, 1983
  12. 12. Eight Intelligences <ul><li>Verbal-Linguistic Intelligence – word player </li></ul><ul><li>Logical-Mathematical Intelligence - questioner </li></ul><ul><li>Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence - mover </li></ul><ul><li>Visual-Spatial Intelligence - visualizer </li></ul><ul><li>Musical-Rhythmic Intelligence – music lover </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal Intelligence - socializer </li></ul><ul><li>Intrapersonal Intelligence - individualizer </li></ul><ul><li>Naturalist Intelligence – nature lover </li></ul>Gardner, 1983
  13. 13. How can we help our children develop their intelligences? <ul><li>Stage 1: Awaken - trigger the intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 2: Amplify - strengthen by practice </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 3: Teach - learn and acquire specific knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 4: Transfer the intelligence to real life - Knowing how to live in the real world </li></ul>Neurons (brain cells) make connections between different parts of the brain.
  14. 14. The Word Player <ul><li>Verbal Linguistic Learner </li></ul><ul><li>Uses words effectively </li></ul><ul><li>Has highly-developed auditory skills </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoys reading, playing word games, and writing </li></ul><ul><li>Has good memory for verse, lyrics, or trivia </li></ul><ul><li>Preschool age great for repetition and memorization </li></ul>poet
  15. 15. The Questioner <ul><li>Logical-Mathematical Learner </li></ul><ul><li>Thinks conceptually and abstractly </li></ul><ul><li>Is able to see and explore patterns and relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoys reasoning, calculating, playing logic games, solving puzzles. </li></ul><ul><li>Likes brain teasers, logical puzzles, and strategy games. </li></ul>scientist
  16. 16. The Mover <ul><li>Bodily-Kinesthetic Learner </li></ul><ul><li>Likes movement </li></ul><ul><li>Communicates well through body language </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoys physical activity </li></ul><ul><li>Excels at hands-on learning </li></ul><ul><li>Processes knowledge through bodily sensations – moving, touching, manipulation, role plays, creative movement </li></ul>dancer
  17. 17. The Visualizer <ul><li>Visual-Spatial Learner </li></ul><ul><li>Thinks in terms of physical space </li></ul><ul><li>Notices images and thinks in pictures </li></ul><ul><li>Learns best through drawings, designs, and imagery </li></ul><ul><li>Likes mazes, jigsaw puzzles, films, diagrams, maps, charts </li></ul>architect
  18. 18. The Music Lover <ul><li>Musical-Rhythmic Learner </li></ul><ul><li>Shows sensitivity to rhythm, melody, and sound </li></ul><ul><li>Notices non-verbal sounds in the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Learns more easily if sung or tapped out. </li></ul><ul><li>Musical intelligence develops very early </li></ul><ul><li>Most closely aligned to the verbal/linguistic </li></ul>End-state: composer
  19. 19. The Nature Lover <ul><li>Naturalistic Learner </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitivity to the world of nature </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrates ability to empathize with animals </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoys working with plants, (gardening, farming and horticulture </li></ul><ul><li>Has a natural sense of science and natural living energy forces (weather and physics) </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoys cooking and working with products of nature </li></ul><ul><li>Sees patterns in nature </li></ul>botanist
  20. 20. The Individual <ul><li>Intrapersonal Learner </li></ul><ul><li>Is in tune with their personal inner feelings, moods, and motivations </li></ul><ul><li>Has an accurate picture of personal strengths and limitations </li></ul><ul><li>Has capacity for self-discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Learns best through independent study and introspection </li></ul>Reflective Individual
  21. 21. The Socializer <ul><li>Interpersonal Learner </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoys interacting with others </li></ul><ul><li>Learns best through group activities </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitivity to facial expressions, voice and gestures and has ability to respond effectively to those cues </li></ul><ul><li>Understands and cares about people </li></ul><ul><li>Likes to socialize </li></ul>leader
  22. 22. Character Education Responsibility Civility Safety Initiative Respect Loyalty Courage Compassion Honesty The Golden Rule Perseverance
  23. 23. Gardner’s Quote of Emerson <ul><li>“ While I have spent decades </li></ul><ul><li>studying intelligences….. </li></ul><ul><li>Words from a Wise American </li></ul><ul><li>“ Character is more important than intellect.” </li></ul>Gardner, 2005 Ralph Waldo Emerson 1803-1882
  24. 24. What knowledge is important today? <ul><li>“ If knowledge doubles every year or two, we certainly cannot multiply the number of hours or teach twice as quickly. Some choice, some decisions about what can be omitted, is essential.” </li></ul><ul><li>The first dilemma: </li></ul><ul><li>What should be taught? </li></ul><ul><li>Howard Gardner – 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>From Multiple Intelligences after Twenty Years </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.pz.harvard.edu/PIs/HG_MI_after_20_years.pdf     </li></ul>
  25. 25. Howard Gardner <ul><li>What should be highlighted: facts, information? data? If so, which of the countless facts that exist? </li></ul><ul><li>Subject matters and disciplines--if so, which ones? </li></ul><ul><li>Which science, which history? </li></ul><ul><li>Should we nurture creativity , critical thinking ? </li></ul><ul><li>If there is to be an additional focus, should it be arts, technology, a social focus, a moral focus? </li></ul>
  26. 26. Aims of Education - Today <ul><li>Public schools in U.S. established for moral and social reasons as well as academic. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Surely we should demand more from our schools than to educate people to be proficient in reading and mathematics.” Educational Leadership, September, 2005 </li></ul>Noddings, 2005 Educational Leadership, September, 2005
  27. 27. Narrowed Educational Aim <ul><li>Industrial Revolution invented way of thinking about productivity. </li></ul><ul><li>Technical rationality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine best practice for achieving goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predict success for all </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High premium on effectiveness and efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement mania and competition </li></ul><ul><li>The speed of reaching the destination is considered a virtue. </li></ul><ul><li>Consider the faster student the brighter student </li></ul>Elliott Eisner, 2005
  28. 28. Elliot Eisner <ul><li>Consequences of current reform efforts and emphasis on boosting test scores. </li></ul><ul><li>Narrowed the curriculum and “blinkered” our vision of what we used to call “the whole child.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ To focus all our attention on measure academic performance is to blind us to these youngster’s need to live a satisfying life.” </li></ul><ul><li>Aim is not to simply focus on the narrowly cognitive , but to see how students respond emotionally, imaginatively, and socially. </li></ul><ul><li>The arts make it possible in vivid ways to eliminate a distinction between cognition and emotion. </li></ul>Eisner, 2005
  29. 29. Invention of Education <ul><li>One of the most magnificent of human inventions is the Invention of Education-- no other species educates its young as do we. </li></ul><ul><li>At this time of great change, we must remember the ancient value of education and preserve it— </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not just facts, data, information, but </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge, understanding, judgment, wisdom. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We must use the ancient arts and crafts of education to prepare youngsters for a world we can not anticipate or fully envision. </li></ul>Howard Gardner, 2003
  30. 30. Today’s Focus for Education <ul><li>What is Special about Human Beings </li></ul><ul><li>“ Human beings have done many terrible things but countless members of our species have done wonderful things as well: works of art, works of music, discoveries of science and technology, heroic acts of courage and sacrifice. </li></ul><ul><li>Our youngsters must learn about these achievements, come to respect them, have time to reflect about them (and what it took to achieve them) and aspire some day to achieve anew in the same tradition…or perhaps even to found a new tradition.” </li></ul>Howard Gardner, 2003
  31. 31. Quote of the Day! <ul><li>“ Children are not a </li></ul><ul><li>can of baked beans… Standardized in the cooking and canning process” </li></ul><ul><li>Assembly line model Products have little variability Uniformity is a virtue </li></ul><ul><li>Elliot Eisner </li></ul><ul><li>2005 </li></ul>