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  1. 1. The Arts in Education Why Teach the Arts? Carla Piper, Ed. D.
  2. 2. What is Teaching? Curriculum What do you teach? Instruction How should you teach it? Assessment How do you determine if you’ve taught it successfully? If learning is not the result, adjust instruction Results in Student Learning!
  3. 3. Based on Vision of Society <ul><li>Vision translated into Learning Experiences </li></ul><ul><li>What do you believe is worth knowing? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you know about the learners and their development? </li></ul>WHO? WHAT? HOW?
  4. 4. What Should be Taught? <ul><li>Essential knowledge changes throughout history and culture </li></ul><ul><li>Dictated by social and political pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Current California subjects considered “CORE” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>English-Language Arts* </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mathematics* </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>History-Social Science* </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Science* </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual and Performing Arts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>* Currently tested! </li></ul></ul>Should we teach only what’s tested?
  5. 5. Ancient Greece and Rome <ul><li>Believed that free human beings should strive for excellence in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spirit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Olympic games for amateur competition </li></ul><ul><li>Rejoiced in the fine arts </li></ul><ul><li>Plato – philosopher wrote The Republic </li></ul><ul><li>Established nursery schools </li></ul>Games, music, stories, drama to illustrate values needed by all good citizens
  6. 6. Plato’s Academy Recommended Course of Study <ul><li>“ The exact sciences would first be studied for ten years to familiarise the mind with relations that can only be apprehended by thought.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arithmetic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plane and solid geometry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Astronomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harmonics </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Enlightenment <ul><li>New emphasis on the potential of humankind </li></ul><ul><li>To understand universe </li></ul><ul><li>To transform society </li></ul><ul><li>Effort to make education more practical and scientific </li></ul><ul><li>Move away from influence of religion to a more humanistic view of life </li></ul>Advances in astronomy and mathematics led to scientific revolution
  8. 8. Head – Hands - Heart <ul><li>Johann Pestalozzi (1746-1827) </li></ul><ul><li>Believed all children have a right to education </li></ul><ul><li>Believed education had potential to awaken the potential in each child – and lead to social reform </li></ul><ul><li>The aim is to educate the whole child </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual education is only part of a wider plan. </li></ul>Concerned with equilibrium between elements - head, hands, and heart and the dangers of attending to just one.
  9. 9. Pestalozzi’s Orphans
  10. 10. Aims of Education in 1818 <ul><li>“ Objects of primary education” </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose to foster human qualities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Morals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding of duties to neighbors and country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge of rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faithfulness in social relations. </li></ul></ul>Noddings, 2005 Thomas Jefferson 1743 - 1826
  11. 11. Education for Democracy <ul><li>Improve society through schooling </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare citizens to live in a democratic society </li></ul><ul><li>School is a democratic society in itself, preparing students for community life </li></ul><ul><li>Children develop full personal potential: self actualization </li></ul><ul><li>Educate the whole child </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual </li></ul></ul>John Dewey 1859 - 1952 Value of knowledge resides in the ability to solve human problems.
  12. 12. The Whole Child Emotional Physical Intellectual Social Science Math Sensory Small Muscle Large Muscle Music Art Language Literacy Creative Movement Social Studies Literature Nutrition, Health, Safety Feeny, Christensen, Moravick Human Development Domains
  13. 13. Aims of Education - Today <ul><li>Public schools in U.S. established for moral and social reasons as well as academic. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Surely we should demand more from our schools than to educate people to be proficient in reading and mathematics.” Educational Leadership, September, 2005 </li></ul>Noddings, 2005 Educational Leadership, September, 2005
  14. 14. Narrowed Educational Aim <ul><li>Industrial Revolution invented way of thinking about productivity. </li></ul><ul><li>Technical rationality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine best practice for achieving goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predict success for all </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High premium on effectiveness and efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement mania and competition </li></ul><ul><li>The speed of reaching the destination is considered a virtue. </li></ul><ul><li>Consider the faster student the brighter student </li></ul>Elliott Eisner, 2005
  15. 15. Invention of Education <ul><li>One of the most magnificent of human inventions is the Invention of Education-- no other species educates its young as do we. </li></ul><ul><li>At this time of great change, we must remember the ancient value of education and preserve it— </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not just facts, data, information, but </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge, understanding, judgment, wisdom. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We must use the ancient arts and crafts of education to prepare youngsters for a world we can not anticipate or fully envision. </li></ul>Howard Gardner, 2003
  16. 16. Elliot Eisner <ul><li>Consequences of current reform efforts and emphasis on boosting test scores. </li></ul><ul><li>Narrowed the curriculum and “blinkered” our vision of what we used to call “the whole child.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ To focus all our attention on measure academic performance is to blind us to these youngster’s need to live a satisfying life.” </li></ul><ul><li>Aim is not to simply focus on the narrowly cognitive, but to see how students respond emotionally, imaginatively, and socially. </li></ul><ul><li>The arts make it possible in vivid ways to eliminate a distinction between cognition and emotion. </li></ul>Eisner, 2005
  17. 17. Ten Lessons the Arts Teach <ul><li>The arts teach children to make good judgments about qualitative relationships. Unlike much of the curriculum in which correct answers and rules prevail, in the arts, it is judgment rather than rules that prevail . </li></ul><ul><li>The arts teach children that problems can have more than one solution and that questions can have more than one answer . </li></ul>By Elliott Eisner
  18. 18. Ten Lessons the Arts Teach <ul><li>The arts celebrate multiple perspectives . One of their large lessons is that there are many ways to see and interpret the world. </li></ul><ul><li>The arts teach children that in complex forms of problem solving purposes are seldom fixed, but change with circumstance and opportunity. Learning in the arts requires the ability and a willingness to surrender to the unanticipated possibilities of the work as it unfolds. </li></ul>By Elliott Eisner
  19. 19. Ten Lessons the Arts Teach <ul><li>The arts make vivid the fact that neither words in their literal form nor numbers exhaust what we can know. The limits of our language do not define the limits of our cognition. </li></ul><ul><li>The arts teach students that small differences can have large effects . The arts traffic in subtleties. </li></ul><ul><li>The arts teach students to think through and within a material. All art forms employ some means through which images become real. </li></ul>By Elliott Eisner
  20. 20. Ten Lessons the Arts Teach <ul><li>The arts help children learn to say what cannot be said . When children are invited to disclose what a work of art helps them feel, they must reach into their poetic capacities to find the words that will do the job. </li></ul>By Elliott Eisner
  21. 21. Ten Lessons the Arts Teach <ul><li>The arts enable us to have experience we can have from no other source and through such experience to discover the range and variety of what we are capable of feeling . </li></ul><ul><li>The arts’ position in the school curriculum symbolizes to the young what adults believe is important . </li></ul>By Elliott Eisner
  22. 22. Quote of the Day! <ul><li>“ Children are not a </li></ul><ul><li>can of baked beans… Standardized in the cooking and canning process” </li></ul><ul><li>Assembly line model Products have little variability Uniformity is a virtue </li></ul><ul><li>Elliot Eisner </li></ul><ul><li>2005 </li></ul>
  23. 23. Each Child is a Unique Case <ul><li>“ When schools get obsessed with ensuring predicable results, they tend to treat children in uniform and standardized ways.” </li></ul><ul><li>Children differ: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperament </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aptitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social competence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional vulnerability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All children are alike in some ways and every child resembles certain children more than others. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Jean Piaget <ul><li>The Study of Knowledge and Development </li></ul><ul><li>Three Types of Knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical </li></ul></ul>1896 - 1980 Cognition Creativity
  25. 25. Piaget Quotes <ul><li>Equilibrium - balance between the structure of the mind and the environment </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;The principle goal of education is to create men who are capable of doing new things, not simply of repeating what other generations have done – men [women] who are creative, inventive and discoverers.“  </li></ul>
  26. 26. Developmental Concept Learning <ul><li>Assimilation – what makes sense in child’s environment </li></ul><ul><li>Accommodation – new in context with known </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptation – adjusts to the environment and learns the consequences of specific actions </li></ul><ul><li>Organization – integrates schemata and develop more complex logic </li></ul>
  27. 27. Sensorimotor Stage <ul><ul><li>Birth to two </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objects exist outside of their visual field - object permanence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn strictly through sensory experience within their environment - KINESTHETIC </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Pre-operational Stage <ul><li>Ages 2 - 7 </li></ul><ul><li>Period of Language Development </li></ul><ul><li>Egocentrism - only see self perceptions </li></ul><ul><li>Categorize by single obvious feature </li></ul>
  29. 29. Concrete Operational Stage <ul><li>Ages 7 – 12 </li></ul><ul><li>Develop ability to handle complex logic and make comparisons </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesize and reason ONLY about things they’ve experienced themselves </li></ul>
  30. 30. Formal Operational Stage <ul><li>Age 12 – Adult </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract thinking ability </li></ul><ul><li>Offer interpretations and draw conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Formulate hypotheses </li></ul>
  31. 31. Piagetian Stages From
  32. 32. Lev Vygotsky <ul><li>Advocate of preschool programs that meet the needs of the whole child </li></ul><ul><li>Children need to acquire a set of fundamental competencies that shape their minds for further learning: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linguistic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social-emotional </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lifelong process of development dependent on social interaction with adults and peers </li></ul>1896-1934
  33. 33. <ul><li>Changes in cognitive skills are related to intellectual growth and age </li></ul><ul><li>Child’s behavior not just result of external stimuli – but also internal stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>Social learning actually leads to cognitive development </li></ul><ul><li>Individual differences in children should be recognized and addressed </li></ul>Cognitive Development
  34. 34. The Whole Child <ul><li>Are our children… </li></ul><ul><li>Healthy? </li></ul><ul><li>Safe? </li></ul><ul><li>Engaged? </li></ul><ul><li>Supported? </li></ul><ul><li>Challenged? </li></ul><ul><li>“ Our children deserve an education that emphasizes academic rigor as well as the essential 21st-century skills of critical thinking and creativity.” </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>Teach through the arts!
  35. 35. The Whole Child <ul><li>ASCD - </li></ul><ul><li>About the Whole Child - </li></ul><ul><li>Resources - </li></ul><ul><li>Developing the Whole Child with the Arts - </li></ul><ul><li>Keep Arts in the Schools - </li></ul>