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Is dc

  1. 1. History of Instructional Design Part III EDUU566 Based on Reiser & Dempsey, 2006 & Reiser, 2001 Carla Piper, Ed. D. Course Developer
  2. 2. Four Phase Cycle of Instruction <ul><li>Learning is promoted when: </li></ul><ul><li>learners observe a demonstration </li></ul><ul><li>learners apply the new knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>learners engage in a task-centered instructional strategy </li></ul><ul><li>learners activate relevant prior knowledge or experience </li></ul><ul><li>learners integrate their new knowledge into their everyday world </li></ul>Reiser & Dempsey, 2006 David Merrill
  3. 3. Information is NOT Instruction <ul><li>&quot;If you don't provide adequate practice, if you don't have an adequate knowledge structure, if you don't provide adequate guidance, </li></ul><ul><li>people don't learn&quot; (Merrill, 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>David Merrill ’s Key to Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>provide structured knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provide practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provide guidance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Online Principles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acknowledge learner’s prior experience and preconceptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help learners transform facts and concepts into usable knowledge. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help learners monitor their own learning and learn independently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide learner-centered environment online </li></ul></ul>David Merrill
  4. 4. First Principle: Problem Centered <ul><li>Do you involve authentic real-world problems or tasks? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the objective show the learners what they will be able to do when they complete the task? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the problem broken down into component tasks which will help complete the whole task? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the instruction a progression of problems – and not just a single application? </li></ul>Mirror the job! Reiser & Dempsey, 2006
  5. 5. Principle: Activation <ul><li>Do you help learners recall, retell, describe, or apply prior knowledge? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the instruction relevant? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the instruction help the learner organize new knowledge? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphic organizers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concrete advanced organizers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conceptual models </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maps and Diagrams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Checklists </li></ul></ul>Where do I start? Reiser & Dempsey, 2006
  6. 6. Principle: Demonstration <ul><li>Show examples of what will be learned </li></ul><ul><li>Include demonstrations related to content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific how-to procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classify concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activate misconceptions and clarify </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detailed sequence of actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide visual models </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provide learner guidance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Narrated animations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signaling devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual representation of material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use structured tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Make instructional media relevant to the content to enhance learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multimedia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Narrated animations in natural voice </li></ul></ul>Show me! Reiser & Dempsey, 2006
  7. 7. Demonstration
  8. 8. Principle: Application <ul><li>Opportunity to practice and apply new skill or knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Check for understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Application and assessment consistent with learning objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Practice followed by corrective and systematic feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Enable learners to access context sensitive help </li></ul><ul><li>Provide coaching </li></ul><ul><li>Use a variety of instructional tasks </li></ul>Let me do it! Reiser & Dempsey, 2006
  9. 9. Task Centered: Coaching David Merrill
  10. 10. Principle: Integration <ul><li>Can student integrate the skill and knowledge into everyday life? </li></ul><ul><li>Publicly demonstrate their new knowledge or skill </li></ul><ul><li>Provide opportunity for reflection, discussion, defense of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Provide an opportunity to create, invent, and explore new ways to use this new knowledge. </li></ul>Watch Me! Reiser & Dempsey, 2006
  11. 11. Implementation <ul><li>Facilitate learner navigation through task </li></ul><ul><li>Allow learner to control pacing </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a course map </li></ul><ul><li>Use collaboration effectively </li></ul><ul><li>Structure group assignments around products or processes </li></ul><ul><li>Use multimedia </li></ul><ul><li>Use conversational style </li></ul>Reiser & Dempsey, 2006
  12. 12. 4C/ID Instructional Model <ul><li>Characterized by four components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning Tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supportive Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedural Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Part-Task Practice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tasks ordered by task difficulty </li></ul><ul><li>Each task offers scaffolding at the beginning </li></ul><ul><li>Scaffolding is reduced as the learner progresses. </li></ul>Merriënboer
  13. 13. Holistic Design Process Merriënboer 4C/ID Model Merriënboer
  14. 14. Kolb’s Model of Experiential Learning Accommodate Divergent Assimilative Convergent
  15. 15. Experiential Learning <ul><li>Learning is a process whereby knowledge is created through experience </li></ul><ul><li>Experiences are a transformational process </li></ul><ul><li>Students actively construct their experience within a socio-cultural context </li></ul><ul><li>Provides a framework for designing active, collaborative, and interactive learning experiences. </li></ul>Kolb Experiential Learning
  16. 16. Kolb’s Four Stage Cycle and Learning Styles <ul><li>Four-stage cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concrete Experience (CE) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflective Observation (RO) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abstract Conceptualization (AC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active Experimentation (AE) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Four learning styles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diverging (CE/RO) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assimilating (AC/RO) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Converging (AC/AE) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accommodating (CE/AE) </li></ul></ul>From Business Balls
  17. 17. Diagram of Kolb’s Learning Styles From Business Balls
  18. 18. Typology of Learners <ul><li>Activist = Accommodating </li></ul><ul><li>Reflector = Diverging </li></ul><ul><li>Theorist = Assimilating </li></ul><ul><li>Pragmatist = Converging </li></ul>Honey & Mumford Clark Website Take the Learning Style Inventory!
  19. 19. Keller's ARCS Model for Motivation <ul><li>Attention - gaining and keeping the learner's attention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Through the senses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Through inquiry - thought provoking questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Through variety - variance in exercises and use of different media </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relevance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Training needs to relevant. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;What's in it for me?&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Confidence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to feel confident in the program’s purpose and objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to believe they can succeed and that this is worthwhile for them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Satisfaction – What’s the reward? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to feel rewarded from the learning experience. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need entertainment or a sense of achievement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to achieve satisfaction in what they have learned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need see that their new skills can be immediately useful and beneficial on their job. </li></ul></ul>Go to the Official ARCS Website
  20. 20. Resources <ul><li>Instructional Design Models </li></ul><ul><li>TIP Theories </li></ul><ul><li>Wikipedia </li></ul><ul><li>EduTech Wiki </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Theories </li></ul><ul><li>Kolb Experiential Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Business Balls </li></ul><ul><li>Honey & Mumford </li></ul><ul><li>David Merrill </li></ul><ul><li>ARCS Model </li></ul><ul><li>UCDenver Instructional Design Models </li></ul><ul><li>Reiser & Dempsey (2006). Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology. </li></ul>