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  1. 1. History of Instructional Design Part II EDUU566 Based on Reiser & Dempsey, 2006 & Reiser, 2001 Carla Piper, Ed. D. Course Developer
  2. 2. Constructivism <ul><li>“ An epistemological and ontological conception of what reality, knowledge, the mind, thought, and meaning are” (Reiser & Dempsey, 2006, p. 46). </li></ul><ul><li>“ Reality is constructed by individuals and social groups based on their experiences with and interpretations of the world” (Reiser & Dempsey, 2006, p. 46). </li></ul><ul><li>Constructivists contrast with Objectivists </li></ul>
  3. 3. Behaviorist vs. Constructivist Behaviorist-Objectivist Approach Constructivist-Interpretivist Approach <ul><li>Sequential, linear, top-down, systematic </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Designed by professional instructional designers </li></ul><ul><li>Careful sequencing and teaching of subskills </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-selected knowledge is goal for learning </li></ul><ul><li>Summative evaluation for collecting objective data </li></ul><ul><li>Non-linear,chaotic, organic, reflective, and collaborative </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives emerge from design and development </li></ul><ul><li>Context is crucial – not content </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on learning and understanding in meaningful contexts </li></ul><ul><li>Formative evaluation through subjective data </li></ul>
  4. 4. Positivism and Objectivism <ul><li>Knowledge exists as absolute truth </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer knowledge from outside to inside the learner </li></ul><ul><li>Arrange conditions to promote specific goals </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher directed, learner receiving </li></ul><ul><li>Goals predetermined </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives defined </li></ul><ul><li>Activities, materials, assessment is teacher driven </li></ul><ul><li>Hand in products for teacher assessment </li></ul>
  5. 5. Relativism and Constructivism <ul><li>Knowledge is contructed by learner </li></ul><ul><li>Truth is contextual </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher guides learner to construct knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher provides rich context </li></ul><ul><li>Learner centered environment </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher facilitates, learner controls </li></ul>
  6. 6. Relativism and Constructivism <ul><li>Learning goals negotiated and problems are contextual and authentic </li></ul><ul><li>Activities, materials, assessment is context driven and individually constructed </li></ul><ul><li>Artifacts share and reflected on, collectively and individually </li></ul>
  7. 7. J. L. Bruner – Cognitive Theory <ul><li>Child processes information and builds increasingly complex models of the world </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation based on intrinsic value, curiosity, and cooperation/reciprocity </li></ul><ul><li>The way problems are structured must address a child’s intellectual development and maturation </li></ul><ul><li>Three modes of how things are represented: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enactive - touch, feel, manipulate objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iconic - images that stand for perceptual events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbolic representation – language and ideas </li></ul></ul>Constructivist
  8. 8. Cognitive Development <ul><li>Changes in cognitive skills are related to intellectual growth and age </li></ul><ul><li>Child’s behavior not just result of external stimuli – but also internal stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>Social learning actually leads to cognitive development </li></ul><ul><li>Individual differences in children should be recognized and addressed </li></ul>
  9. 9. Social Constructivist
  10. 10. Jean Piaget <ul><li>Three Types of Knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical, Social, Logical </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Developmental Concept Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assimilation – what makes sense in child’s environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accommodation – new in context with known </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptation – adjusts to the environment and learns the consequences of specific actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization – integrates schemata and develop more complex logic </li></ul></ul>Cognition
  11. 11. Piaget: Stages of Cognitive Development <ul><li>Sensorimotor Stage - Birth to two </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objects exist outside of their visual field - object permanence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn strictly through sensory experience within their environment - KINESTHETIC </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pre-operational Stage - Ages 2 - 7 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Period of Language Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Egocentrism - only see self perceptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Categorize by single obvious feature </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Piaget Stage Theory <ul><li>Concrete Operational Stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ages 7 - 12 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop ability to handle complex logic and make comparisons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothesize and reason ONLY about things they’ve experienced themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Formal Operational Stage – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Age 12 - Adult </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abstract thinking ability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offer interpretations and draw conclusions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formulate hypotheses </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Vygotsky - ZPD <ul><li>Social Cognitive Development </li></ul><ul><li>Zone of Proximal Development - ZPD </li></ul>
  14. 14. Constructivism in the Classroom <ul><li>Students construct new ideas by incorporating new material into the concepts and thought processes already in place. </li></ul><ul><li>Allow student thinking to drive lessons </li></ul><ul><li>Ask thoughtful, open-ended questions </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage metacognition - thinking about how they are learning </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage students to interact with each other and YOU – Cooperate and Collaborate. </li></ul><ul><li>Reflect and Predict! </li></ul>
  15. 15. Four Step Process to Teaching <ul><li>Teacher presents an invitation to learn - CAPTURE ATTENTION! </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher gives students opportunity to explore, discover, and create </li></ul><ul><li>Students propose explanations and solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Students take action on what they have learned. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Bloom’s Taxonomy <ul><li>KNOWLEDGE: define, list, name, memorize </li></ul><ul><li>COMPREHENSION: identify, describe, explain </li></ul><ul><li>APPLICATION: demonstrate, use, show, teach </li></ul><ul><li>ANALYSIS: categorize, compare, calculate </li></ul><ul><li>SYNTHESIS: design, create, prepare, predict </li></ul><ul><li>EVALUATION: judge, assess, rate, revise </li></ul>Thinking Levels
  17. 17. Ask Students to: <ul><li>Knowledge - recall information in original form </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehension - show understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Application - use learning in a new situation </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis - show s/he can see relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis - combine and integrate parts of prior knowledge into a product, plan, or proposal that is new </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation - assess and criticize on basis of standards and criteria </li></ul>
  18. 18. Blooming Questions <ul><li>Knowledge – Recalling Information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where – What – Who – How many – Point to… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Comprehension – Understanding, Meaning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tell me in your own words – What does it mean? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give me an example, describe, illustrate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Application – Using learning in a new situation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What would happen if…? Would you have done the same…? How would you solve this problem? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the library, find information about…. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Blooming Questions <ul><li>Analysis – Ability to see parts/relationships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What other ways…? Similar/Different (Venn) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpretation – What kind of person…? What caused the person to react in this way…? What part was most exciting, sad…? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Synthesis – Parts of information to create original whole </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What would it be like if…? Design, pretend, use your imagination, write a new ending… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evaluation – Judgment based on criteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Would you recommend this book to your friend? Why / Why not? What is the best part... Why? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which person in the story would you most like to meet? Why / Why not? </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Seymour Papert <ul><li>Constructionist learning based on constructivism </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is an active process, learners are actively constructing mental models and theories of the world around them. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Constructionism holds that learning can happen most effectively when people are actively making things in the real world” (Wikipedia). </li></ul><ul><li>Developed logo computer programming </li></ul><ul><li>Book - “Mindstorms: Children, Computers, and Powerful Ideas” </li></ul><ul><li>Read “Gears of my Childhood” - </li></ul>More on Papert Works
  21. 21. Constructional Design Theory <ul><li>Individuals are active learners and control their own learning processes </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals create concrete, tangible evidence (artifacts that reflect understanding) </li></ul><ul><li>Artifacts are shared collectively and reflected on individually to extend understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Learning problems and contexts are authentic and focused on solving practical problems. </li></ul>(Reiser, p. 58) Papert
  22. 22. Cognitive Apprentice <ul><li>Modeling -- involves an expert's carrying out a task so that student can observe and build a conceptual model of the processes that are required to accomplish the task. </li></ul><ul><li>Coaching - consists of observing students while they carry out a task and offering hints, feedback, modeling, reminders, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Articulation - includes any method of getting students to articulate their knowledge, reasoning, or problem-solving processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Reflection - enables students to compare their own problem-solving processes with those of an expert or another student. </li></ul><ul><li>Exploration - involves pushing students into a mode of problem solving on their own. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Cognitive Apprenticeship <ul><li>Modeling by experts - problem solving activities </li></ul><ul><li>Community of practice </li></ul><ul><li>Set desired goals and create a learning community </li></ul><ul><li>Provide scaffolds that aid pupils in applying problem-solving strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Model and coach students </li></ul>Making Thinking Visible
  24. 24. Cognitive Apprenticeship <ul><li>Establish communication in discussion to talk about real-life problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage students to make their thinking processes explicit </li></ul><ul><li>Students reflect on their own as well as others’ problem-solving approaches. </li></ul><ul><li>Implement formative assessment that captures the developmental process (portfolio) </li></ul>
  25. 25. ICON Model – Interpretation Construction <ul><li>Observation: Students make observations of authentic artifacts anchored in authentic situations </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation Construction: Students construct interpretations of observations and construct arguments for the validity of their interpretations </li></ul><ul><li>Contextualization: Students access background and contextual materials of various sorts to aid interpretation and argumentation </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Apprenticeship: Students serve as apprentices to teachers to master observation, interpretation and contextualization </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration: Students collaborate in observation, interpretation and contextualization </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple Interpretations: Students gain cognitive flexibility by being exposed to multiple interpretations </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple Manifestations: Students gain transferability by seeing multiple manifestations of the same interpretations </li></ul>ICON Model
  26. 26. Resources <ul><li>Instructional Design Central </li></ul><ul><li>TIP Theories </li></ul><ul><li>Wikipedia </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional Design Models </li></ul><ul><li>Reiser, R.A. (2001). History of Instructional Design (Website) </li></ul><ul><li>Reiser & Dempsey (2006). Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology. </li></ul><ul><li>A Journey into Constructivism </li></ul><ul><li>Piaget’s Constructivism and Papert’s Constructionism: What’s the Difference? </li></ul><ul><li>Edutopia – Seymour Papert and Project-based Learning </li></ul><ul><li>ICON Model </li></ul><ul><li>Applying Learning Theories to Online Instructional Design </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Apprenticeships </li></ul>