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  1. 1. Diffusion of Innovations A Theory of Communications in Contemporary Society by Everett Rogers Carla Piper, Ed. D.
  2. 2. Professional Development <ul><li>How do you get your colleagues or staff to embrace a technology innovation? </li></ul><ul><li>How can you organize your training? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Train the trainer model? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One on one </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the lab or in the classroom? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How can you motivate them to incorporate new technologies in their teaching? </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Innovation Decision Process <ul><li>What does it take to decide to use an innovation?: </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Persuasion </li></ul><ul><li>Decision </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Confirmation </li></ul>
  4. 4. Adopter Categories <ul><li>Innovativeness along the bell curve </li></ul><ul><li>Innovator - Venturesome (Not a change agent) </li></ul><ul><li>Early Adopter – Respectable (Not necessarily a good change agent) </li></ul><ul><li>Early Majority - Deliberate </li></ul><ul><li>Late Majority - Skeptical </li></ul><ul><li>Laggards – Traditional </li></ul>
  5. 5. What can you expect from staff?
  6. 6. Diffusion of Innovations Paradigm <ul><li>An Innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Communicated via Channels </li></ul><ul><li>Over Time </li></ul><ul><li>Among the Members of A Social System </li></ul>
  7. 7. Change Agents <ul><li>Provide Communication Link </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate the Flow of Innovations </li></ul><ul><li>Opinion Leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Technology Clusters </li></ul>
  8. 8. Early Adopters <ul><li>More social participation </li></ul><ul><li>More highly connected in social systems </li></ul><ul><li>Greater exposure to mass media channels </li></ul><ul><li>Engage in more information seeking </li></ul><ul><li>Often more literate and upward mobile </li></ul><ul><li>Seeking greater knowledge of innovations </li></ul>
  9. 9. Early Adopters <ul><li>Favor revolutionary change </li></ul><ul><li>Visionary </li></ul><ul><li>Strong technology focus </li></ul><ul><li>Risk Takers </li></ul><ul><li>Experimenters </li></ul><ul><li>Largely self-sufficient </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontally networked </li></ul>
  10. 10. Mainstream Staff and Teachers <ul><li>Typically favor evolutionary change </li></ul><ul><li>Pragmatic or conservative </li></ul><ul><li>Strong problem and process focus </li></ul><ul><li>Risk averse </li></ul><ul><li>Want proven applications of compelling value </li></ul><ul><li>May need significant support </li></ul><ul><li>Vertically networked </li></ul>
  11. 11. Advantages - What does the innovation offer to society? <ul><li>Gives Status </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Incentives </li></ul><ul><li>Profitability and Pay-off </li></ul><ul><li>Predominance of technology in society as a whole </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation for demands of workplace </li></ul><ul><li>Lifelong learning skill </li></ul>
  12. 12. Compatibility - Does the innovation fit into life style? <ul><li>Values and beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>P reviously introduced ideas and traditions (texts, paper, pencil) </li></ul><ul><li>Professional or personal needs (meeting curriculum standards as given by districts/state/national organizations) </li></ul><ul><li>Government policies and work pressures </li></ul>
  13. 13. Relative Advantage and Cultural Compatibility <ul><li>What will the change do? </li></ul><ul><li>What advantages do digital learning environments provide for education organizations that serve traditionally underrepresented and/or low-income populations? </li></ul><ul><li>How does changing the culture of educational organizations lead to digital equity? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Complexity - How difficult is the innovation to understand? <ul><li>Difficult to keep up with rapid changes </li></ul><ul><li>Platform compatibility issues </li></ul><ul><li>Antiquated systems in education </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of number of high level computers </li></ul><ul><li>Average age of staffs - older, non-educated or inexperienced in technology </li></ul><ul><li>Requires lots of hand holding, guidance – (Teachers unwilling to take that from peers) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Complexity and Trialability <ul><li>How easily can the change be used? </li></ul><ul><li>What processes help educational organizations move toward digital equity? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some small-scale practices that could easily be tried? </li></ul><ul><li>What technology integration practices can organizations easily adopt to increase digital equity? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Trialability and Observability <ul><li>Experiment with on a limited basis </li></ul><ul><li>Improving as teachers get computers at home and at school </li></ul><ul><li>Much more accessible in private environments </li></ul><ul><li>Degree to which results are visible to others </li></ul><ul><li>View more global sharing through web </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers view products produced by students or teachers in other settings </li></ul>
  17. 17. Observability <ul><li>Where can people see a demonstration of the change? </li></ul><ul><li>What models provide direction for successful system change that promotes digital equity? </li></ul>