Published on

early childhood

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 1. Working with Children with Special Needs: Inclusion and Universal Design for Learning Adapted from Who Am I in the Lives of Children Feeney, Christensen, Moravcik CAST and NAEYC Prepared by Dr. Carla Piper
  2. 2. Special Needs <ul><li>Everyone has special needs! </li></ul><ul><li>You will find as many distinctive needs as there are children </li></ul><ul><li>Every child requires attention to his/her individual characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>An individualized approach is required for every child </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Exceptional Child <ul><li>A child with special needs </li></ul><ul><li>A child who is different enough from the “standard” or “average” child to require special methods, services, and possibly equipment in order to attain desired learning objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>May differ at rate at which they learn </li></ul><ul><li>May learn in different ways </li></ul>McCormick 1994
  4. 4. Guidelines for Reference to Disabilities <ul><li>Speak of the child first and the disability second </li></ul><ul><li>Do not demean or stereotype </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasize child’s abilities, not disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Refer to disability only when that information is relevant in a situation </li></ul><ul><li>Use “people first” language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refer to child by name </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t label child by disability </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Identifying a Child with Special Needs <ul><li>Use your knowledge of child development and your observation skills </li></ul><ul><li>Early identification and appropriate intervention can avoid developmental problems that become more difficult to remedy as child gets older. </li></ul><ul><li>Not your role to diagnose a disability </li></ul><ul><li>Begin with observation </li></ul>
  6. 6. Observation Steps <ul><li>Note the child’s strengths </li></ul><ul><li>Look at the ways he/she is functioning with others </li></ul><ul><li>Pinpoint ways that child’s behavior or skills concern you </li></ul><ul><li>Make written anecdotal records </li></ul><ul><li>Make objective statements about what you observe the child doing </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate the problem behavior: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When is it occurring? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In what context does it occur? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it age appropriate? </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Getting Help <ul><li>Share concerns and observation notes with a co-worker or supervisor </li></ul><ul><li>Have your colleagues conduct independent observations </li></ul><ul><li>Be careful not to come to conclusions too quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Enlist the support of program administrators </li></ul><ul><li>Ask for ideas on community resources </li></ul>
  8. 8. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) <ul><li>Mandates a free and appropriate education for all children ages 3-21 </li></ul><ul><li>Educational services are to be provided in the “least restrictive environment” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Educate each child in the same school he/she would attend if no disability existed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children with disabilities to be included with typically developing peers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educated in regular school programs </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Inclusion <ul><li>All children benefit by having children with range of abilities together in the classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Assumes that all children differ in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Classroom environment can be designed to provide learning experiences for every child. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides valuable lessons in caring and helping </li></ul><ul><li>Involves making some modifications in the curriculum and in the classroom </li></ul>
  10. 10. Preparing for Inclusion <ul><li>Best source of information to help you learn about the child – family members </li></ul><ul><li>Consult with child’s doctor, therapist, and former teachers to find out </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What types of therapy child is taking part in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precautions you must take </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limitations or requirements you need to know </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maintain regular communication with family and other specialists </li></ul>
  11. 11. Suggestions for Inclusion <ul><li>Find out what services are available to support your work with the child </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorm with experts and consultants on how you can best support the development of the child </li></ul><ul><li>Ask yourself: “How can I make group time relevant to this child and also meet needs of the other children?” </li></ul><ul><li>Be patient – the child may have to be told or shown many times </li></ul><ul><li>Be flexible and open to learning new things </li></ul>
  12. 12. Preparing Your Students <ul><li>Use simple explanations of the disability </li></ul><ul><li>Answer other children’s questions honestly and directly </li></ul><ul><li>Help them understand any differences they observe </li></ul><ul><li>Assure them that a disability isn’t “catching” </li></ul><ul><li>Treat the special needs child as much like any other child </li></ul><ul><li>Help children understand that no one can do everything and each of us has strengths and weaknesses </li></ul>
  13. 13. Suggested Teaching Strategies <ul><li>With ALL Students: </li></ul><ul><li>Respond to their interests </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on what they are intending to communicate rather than their actual work </li></ul><ul><li>Arrange the learning environment to promote engagement and interactions with peers </li></ul><ul><li>Use open-ended and thought-provoking questions to assist them in interacting successfully with people and materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Use modeling and assist them to learn through observation and interaction with their peers </li></ul>
  14. 14. Developmentally Appropriate Practice: Inclusion <ul><li>NAEYC’s Position Statement on Inclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusion, as a value, supports the right of all children, regardless of their diverse abilities, to participate actively in natural settings within their communities. A natural setting is one in which the child would spend time had he or she not had a disability. Such settings include, but are not limited to, home and family, play groups, child care, nursery schools, Head Start programs, kindergartens, and neighborhood school classrooms. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Developmentally Appropriate Practice: Inclusion <ul><li>Desired Results Access – State of California Program Standards for Child Development Division - </li></ul><ul><li>The program is inclusive of children with exceptional needs and consistent with their Individualized Family Service Plan or Individual Education Plan and provides an environment of acceptance. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Circle of Inclusion Guidelines Reproducible Forms Index
  17. 17. Universal Design for Learning UDL for Inclusion <ul><li>Multiple means of representation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to give learners various ways of acquiring information and knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multiple means of action and expression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to provide learners alternatives for demonstrating what they know </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multiple means of engagement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to tap into learners' interests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>offer appropriate challenges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increase motivation </li></ul></ul>CAST
  18. 18. UDL – Teaching Diverse Learners <ul><li>Learning disabilities such as dyslexia </li></ul><ul><li>English language barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional or behavioral problems </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of interest or engagement </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory and physical disabilities </li></ul>One-size-fits-all approach to education simply does not work! How can teachers respond to individual differences? CAST
  19. 19. Three Primary Brain Networks <ul><li>Recognition networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gathering facts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How we identify and categorize what we see, hear, and read </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifying letters, words, or an author's style are recognition tasks—the &quot;what&quot; of learning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strategic networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning and performing tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How we organize and express our ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Writing an essay or solving a math problem are strategic tasks—the &quot;how&quot; of learning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Affective networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How students are engaged and motivated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How they are challenged, excited, or interested </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These are affective dimensions—the &quot;why&quot; of learning </li></ul></ul>CAST
  20. 20. UDL Changes Teaching <ul><li>Children with disabilities fall along a continuum of learner differences rather than constituting a separate category. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers adjust for learner differences for ALL children , not just those with disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum materials should be varied and diverse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>including digital and online resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>not merely a single resource </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Teachers allow for flexibility to accommodate learner differences rather than set curriculum </li></ul>The Universal Design of Early Education: Moving Forward for All Children
  21. 21. UDL in Early Education <ul><li>A one-size-fits-all approach to education simply will not work! </li></ul><ul><li>Need to design curricula to meet the needs of diverse classroom populations </li></ul><ul><li>ALL children who attend early education programs will be successful in their development and learning. </li></ul>The Universal Design of Early Education: Moving Forward for All Children
  22. 22. Physical, Social, Emotional, Cognitive Learning Environments <ul><li>Does every child: </li></ul><ul><li>Feel welcome as a full and equal member in your classroom? </li></ul><ul><li>Access and engage in all learning opportunities during your day? </li></ul><ul><li>Learn according to his or her individual strengths and interests? </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate his or her learning in ways that reflect individual’s strengths? </li></ul>The Universal Design of Early Education: Moving Forward for All Children
  23. 23. UDL in Preschool Environments <ul><li>The physical environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enables all children to have access and equitable opportunities for full participation in all program activities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes structures, permanent and movable equipment and furnishings, storage, and materials. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Health and safety components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promote wellness and minimize risks and hazards for all children. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All children, regardless of health status or conditions, have ongoing access to learning without interruptions due to illness and injury </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The social-emotional environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Offers all children equitable access to and full membership in the social-emotional life of the group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports their social-emotional development </li></ul></ul>The Universal Design of Early Education: Moving Forward for All Children
  24. 24. UDL in Preschool Settings <ul><li>The teaching environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives all children equitable access to learning opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>information and activities in multiple formats </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>multiple means for engagement, expression, and learning. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes the curriculum, teaching practices, materials, and activities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Individual assessment and program evaluation practices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide multiple approaches to finding out what children know and can do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equitably assess individual learning, development, and educational progress </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Family involvement practices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support the equitable access and engagement of all families in the full range of experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes ongoing communication, learning opportunities, and program involvement activities </li></ul></ul>The Universal Design of Early Education: Moving Forward for All Children
  25. 25. Physical Environment <ul><li>How can the space be arranged to accommodate everyone? </li></ul><ul><li>How will children be seated to accommodate different motor abilities and activity levels so that everyone can move about or attend as needed? </li></ul><ul><li>What materials are needed to allow for the range of motor abilities? </li></ul>The Universal Design of Early Education: Moving Forward for All Children
  26. 26. Physical Environment <ul><li>Expand the group meeting area so that all children can be present and focus their attention on the activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide varied seating options so each child may lie on the floor, sit on a mat or chair, or use specialized seating. </li></ul><ul><li>Use other materials of different sizes, textures, and shapes to help each child actively manipulate the objects for learning. </li></ul>The Universal Design of Early Education: Moving Forward for All Children
  27. 27. Health and Safety Practices <ul><li>How should the physical space be arranged to ensure that all children can safely move around? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the flooring safe for all children to move about and be seated? </li></ul><ul><li>Do the planned activities accommodate all individual energy levels and health conditions? </li></ul>The Universal Design of Early Education: Moving Forward for All Children
  28. 28. Health and Safety Practices <ul><li>Provide clear, wide paths throughout the classroom so each child may safely and easily reach the meeting area. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure safe floor covering for safe passage for any child, including for example a child who is in a hurry, has visual impairments, or uses a wheeled stander. </li></ul><ul><li>Consider each child’s energy level and health conditions in planning activities. </li></ul>The Universal Design of Early Education: Moving Forward for All Children
  29. 29. Social-Emotional Environment <ul><li>What strategies will ensure that all children are included, eliminating any barriers that might segregate or stigmatize a child? </li></ul><ul><li>How will I communicate necessary rules and expectations for behavior so that all children can understand? </li></ul><ul><li>How can I support children in interacting with, learning from, and helping one another? </li></ul>The Universal Design of Early Education: Moving Forward for All Children
  30. 30. Social-Emotional Environment <ul><li>Invite and encourage all children to join in, using multiple means of communication (e.g., speaking English and/or children’s home language, signing, displaying symbols). </li></ul><ul><li>Give simple directions using multiple means (e.g., verbally, signed, in print, modeled) so each child may see, hear, and understand any rules and expectations. </li></ul><ul><li>Use books, songs, and communication that involve and represent all children, regardless of cultural predominance or linguistic and skill levels. </li></ul>The Universal Design of Early Education: Moving Forward for All Children
  31. 31. Teaching Environment <ul><li>What goals do I have for the activity so that all children are engaged and learning? </li></ul><ul><li>What different ways do I need to present information so that everyone understands and is engaged? </li></ul><ul><li>What kinds of support or encouragement will be needed to engage and ensure learning among all children? </li></ul>The Universal Design of Early Education: Moving Forward for All Children
  32. 32. Teaching Environment <ul><li>Vary your expectations for participation and performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: If children are listening to a story and are asked to recall events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>some may attend to and repeat back key words </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>others may recall the names of characters by pointing to pictures or using signs and gestures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>even others may predict what will happen next using complete sentences in English </li></ul></ul></ul>The Universal Design of Early Education: Moving Forward for All Children
  33. 33. Teaching Environment <ul><li>Present content in multiple formats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>verbal, print, video, or concrete objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>repeating key words/phrases in children’s home language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>using simple sentences with gestures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use physical cues to focus children’s attention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pointing to the picture in the book </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>giving verbal prompts to help children begin a response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>offering language models for children to imitate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>encouraging children to keep thinking and trying </li></ul></ul>The Universal Design of Early Education: Moving Forward for All Children
  34. 34. Individual Assessment and Program Evaluation <ul><li>What are some different ways to assess what all children are learning from the activity? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some different ways children can demonstrate their engagement and learning? </li></ul>The Universal Design of Early Education: Moving Forward for All Children
  35. 35. Individual Assessment and Program Evaluation <ul><li>Request information or action in various ways </li></ul><ul><ul><li>complex questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>simple phrases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>emphasis and repetition of key words or phrases </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identify the multiple ways children can show what they learn during activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the child waits for another child to respond to a teacher’s request </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to handle a show-and-tell object being passed around </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to choose the song demonstrates turn taking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some children may respond to the request using complete and accurate sentences spoken in English, while others may need to point, sign, or use words in their home language. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others may point to the object or event in the book in response to simple questions. </li></ul></ul>The Universal Design of Early Education: Moving Forward for All Children
  36. 36. Family Involvement <ul><li>What information will I share with families about this activity, and what forms of communication will I use? </li></ul><ul><li>What reading levels and languages should I keep in mind? </li></ul><ul><li>What opportunities for involvement can I provide that accommodate varied work demands and time constraints? </li></ul>The Universal Design of Early Education: Moving Forward for All Children
  37. 37. Family Involvement <ul><li>Share information with families through a newsletter written at an appropriate level </li></ul><ul><li>Have key phrases translated into families’ home languages, and include photographs of children engaged in an activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide multiple opportunities for families to be involved </li></ul><ul><li>Bilingual parents might be willing to translate the information for monolingual families </li></ul><ul><li>Families could support their child’s involvement by asking specific questions about the activity and/or the book read to the group. </li></ul>The Universal Design of Early Education: Moving Forward for All Children