Families Resources Infants, Toddlers, and Caregivers (2008). Gonzalez-Mena & Eyer California Infant/Toddler Learning & Dev...
Focus on the Family <ul><li>Parent Services Project (PSP) </li></ul><ul><li>Foster the well being of the parents as a way ...
A Way to Build Relationships with Families: <ul><li>Acknowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be aware of different cultural assum...
Communicating with Family <ul><li>Encourage parents to drop in anytime </li></ul><ul><li>Share good news with parents ever...
Opportunities for Family Participation <ul><li>Give parents opportunities to make decisions about child’s activities </li>...
Providing Support to Families <ul><li>Support families under stress </li></ul><ul><li>Work with parents on behavior strate...
Developing a Partnership with Parents <ul><li>Respond to parents’ concerns or questions </li></ul><ul><li>Try parents’ sug...
What Parents Know… <ul><li>Health and growth history </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships with other family members </li></ul><...
What caregivers know… <ul><li>Favorite play materials </li></ul><ul><li>Which toys are too frustrating </li></ul><ul><li>W...
Ways for Parents to be Involved <ul><li>Have parents complete a brief questionnaire about ways they would like to be invol...
Reaching Out to Families <ul><li>Recognize when parents are under stress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important that you not add ...
The NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct <ul><li>Available online: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.naeyc.org/positionstatements/...
Core Values: NAEYC <ul><li>Appreciate childhood as a unique and valuable stage of the human life cycle </li></ul><ul><li>B...
Core Values: NAEYC <ul><li>Respect the dignity, worth, and uniqueness of each individual (child, family member, and collea...
Ethical Responsibility to the Child: Principles <ul><li>P-1.1—Above all, we shall not harm children. We shall not particip...
Ethical Responsibility to the Child <ul><li>P-1.4—We shall involve all those with relevant knowledge  (including families ...
Ethical Responsibility to the Families <ul><li>Ideal-2.4—To listen to families, acknowledge and build upon  their strength...
Ethics and Child Abuse <ul><li>P-1.8—We shall be familiar with the risk factors for and  symptoms of child abuse and negle...
The Process of Resolving an Ethical Dilemma <ul><li>Identify the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Decide if it involves ethics </...
The Abused Child <ul><li>Mary Lou, a three-year-old in your center, is showing several signs of possible abuse: multiple b...
The Abused Child <ul><li>What should an early childhood professional do? </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorm Ideas </li></ul>
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Families

  1. 1. Families Resources Infants, Toddlers, and Caregivers (2008). Gonzalez-Mena & Eyer California Infant/Toddler Learning & Development Program Guidelines (2006) Dodge, Dombro, & Koralek (2000). CDA Teaching Strategies NAEYC Code of Ethics (2005)
  2. 2. Focus on the Family <ul><li>Parent Services Project (PSP) </li></ul><ul><li>Foster the well being of the parents as a way of caring for their children </li></ul><ul><li>Bring parents together to make connections and develop social networks. </li></ul><ul><li>Builds on family strengths and resources </li></ul><ul><li>Regards cultural sensitivity and inclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships between parents and staff is one of equality and respect </li></ul>Gonzalez-Mena & Eyer, 2008
  3. 3. A Way to Build Relationships with Families: <ul><li>Acknowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be aware of different cultural assumptions about infant/toddler development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ask </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gather information about families’ cultural beliefs and values </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adapt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use information gathered to resolve conflicts caused by cultural differences </li></ul></ul>California Infant/Toddler Program Guidelines (2006)
  4. 4. Communicating with Family <ul><li>Encourage parents to drop in anytime </li></ul><ul><li>Share good news with parents every day </li></ul><ul><li>Use information provided by parents about the interests of children </li></ul><ul><li>Give parents information about child’s routines and activities at the center </li></ul><ul><li>Suggest ways parents can extend learning at home </li></ul><ul><li>Learn each parent’s name and something about them to build trust. </li></ul>Dodge, Dombro, & Koralek (2000).
  5. 5. Opportunities for Family Participation <ul><li>Give parents opportunities to make decisions about child’s activities </li></ul><ul><li>Ask parents to help you include their culture in your activities </li></ul><ul><li>Set up workshops on topics parents are interested in </li></ul><ul><li>Sponsor a weekend fix-up day when parents work together to fix up the center </li></ul><ul><li>Find innovative ways for working parents to help at other times in the day/evening </li></ul>Dodge, Dombro, & Koralek (2000).
  6. 6. Providing Support to Families <ul><li>Support families under stress </li></ul><ul><li>Work with parents on behavior strategies for their child </li></ul><ul><li>Use what you know about development to help parents understand what their children are learning </li></ul><ul><li>Use familiar terms with parents rather than jargon </li></ul><ul><li>Interpret children’s behavior to their parents </li></ul>Dodge, Dombro, & Koralek (2000).
  7. 7. Developing a Partnership with Parents <ul><li>Respond to parents’ concerns or questions </li></ul><ul><li>Try parents’ suggestions </li></ul><ul><li>Help parents focus on child’s accomplishments </li></ul><ul><li>Help children and parents feel good about belonging to the same family </li></ul><ul><li>Wait unit you are asked before offering advice </li></ul><ul><li>Tell parents about the good things that happen each day </li></ul>Dodge, Dombro, & Koralek (2000).
  8. 8. What Parents Know… <ul><li>Health and growth history </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships with other family members </li></ul><ul><li>Ways the child likes to be held or comforted </li></ul><ul><li>Which foods the child enjoys or cannot eat </li></ul><ul><li>How the child reacts to changes in routines </li></ul><ul><li>What the child likes to do at home </li></ul><ul><li>What the child is afraid of </li></ul><ul><li>What the child did last night, over the weekend, on vacation </li></ul><ul><li>Who the child plays with at time </li></ul><ul><li>The child’s lifestyle </li></ul><ul><li>How the child “used to be” compared to the present </li></ul>Dodge, Dombro, & Koralek (2000).
  9. 9. What caregivers know… <ul><li>Favorite play materials </li></ul><ul><li>Which toys are too frustrating </li></ul><ul><li>What challenges the child enjoys </li></ul><ul><li>How the child plays with others </li></ul><ul><li>How the child reacts to changes in the environment </li></ul><ul><li>How the child tells others what she or he is feeling </li></ul><ul><li>What the child talks about during the day </li></ul><ul><li>What the child does when his or her parents leave </li></ul>Dodge, Dombro, & Koralek (2000).
  10. 10. Ways for Parents to be Involved <ul><li>Have parents complete a brief questionnaire about ways they would like to be involved </li></ul><ul><li>Hold an orientation for parents several times a year </li></ul><ul><li>Hold a family movie night or organize a family dinner </li></ul><ul><li>Set up a parent corner with books, magazines, brochures, resources </li></ul><ul><li>Projects for Parents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Building or landscaping projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Fix-it” night or Saturday </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job Jar – index cards listing center-related jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parents as book reviewers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photo album organizers </li></ul></ul>Dodge, Dombro, & Koralek (2000).
  11. 11. Reaching Out to Families <ul><li>Recognize when parents are under stress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important that you not add to their stress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Notify director when you think professional help is needed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Help parents locate resources </li></ul><ul><li>Give parents information and guidance on growth and development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observe a child together and discuss experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide workshops on topics of interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include parents in staff workshops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use center newsletter to inform parents on growth and development </li></ul></ul>Dodge, Dombro, & Koralek (2000).
  12. 12. The NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct <ul><li>Available online: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.naeyc.org/positionstatements/ethical_conduct </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Offers guidelines for responsible behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Sets forth a common basis for resolving the principal ethical dilemmas encountered in early education & care </li></ul><ul><li>Ideals & principles direct practitioners to those questions that, when answered, provide basis for conscientious decision making </li></ul>
  13. 13. Core Values: NAEYC <ul><li>Appreciate childhood as a unique and valuable stage of the human life cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Base our work on knowledge of how children develop and learn </li></ul><ul><li>Appreciate and support the bond between the child and family </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize that children are best understood and supported in the context of family, culture, community, and society </li></ul>http://www.naeyc.org/files/naeyc/file/positions/PSETH05.pdf
  14. 14. Core Values: NAEYC <ul><li>Respect the dignity, worth, and uniqueness of each individual (child, family member, and colleague) </li></ul><ul><li>Respect diversity in children, families, and colleagues </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize that children and adults achieve their full potential in the context of relationships that are based on trust and respect </li></ul>http://www.naeyc.org/files/naeyc/file/positions/PSETH05.pdf
  15. 15. Ethical Responsibility to the Child: Principles <ul><li>P-1.1—Above all, we shall not harm children. We shall not participate in practices that are emotionally damaging, physically harmful, disrespectful, degrading, dangerous, exploitative, or intimidating to children. This principle has precedence over all others in this Code. </li></ul><ul><li>P-1.2—We shall care for and educate children in positive emotional and social environments that are cognitively stimulating and that support each child’s culture, language, ethnicity, and family structure. </li></ul><ul><li>P-1.3—We shall not participate in practices that discriminate against children by denying benefits, giving special advantages, or excluding them from programs or activities on the basis of their sex, race, national origin, religious beliefs, medical condition, disability, or the marital status/family structure, sexual orientation, or religious beliefs or other affiliations of their families. (Aspects of this principle do not apply in programs that have a lawful mandate to provide services to a particular population of children.) </li></ul>http://www.naeyc.org/files/naeyc/file/positions/PSETH05.pdf
  16. 16. Ethical Responsibility to the Child <ul><li>P-1.4—We shall involve all those with relevant knowledge (including families and staff) in decisions concerning a child, as appropriate, ensuring confidentiality of sensitive information. </li></ul><ul><li>P-1.5—We shall use appropriate assessment systems, which include multiple sources of information, to provide information on children’s learning and development. </li></ul><ul><li>P-1.7—We shall strive to build individual relationships with each child; make individualized adaptations in teaching strategies, learning environments, and curricula; and consult with the family so that each child benefits from the program. If after such efforts have been exhausted, the current placement does not meet a child’s needs, or the child is seriously jeopardizing the ability of other children to benefit from the program, we shall collaborate with the child’s family and appropriate specialists to determine the additional services needed and/or the placement option(s) most likely to ensure the child’s success. </li></ul>http://www.naeyc.org/files/naeyc/file/positions/PSETH05.pdf
  17. 17. Ethical Responsibility to the Families <ul><li>Ideal-2.4—To listen to families, acknowledge and build upon their strengths and competencies, and learn from families as we support them in their task of nurturing children. </li></ul><ul><li>Ideal-2.5—To respect the dignity and preferences of each family and to make an effort to learn about its structure, culture, language, customs, and beliefs. </li></ul><ul><li>Ideal-2.6—To acknowledge families’ childrearing values and their right to make decisions for their children. </li></ul><ul><li>Principle-2.4—We shall involve the family in significant decisions affecting their child. </li></ul><ul><li>Principle-2.5—We shall make every effort to communicate effectively with all families in a language that they understand. We shall use community resources for translation and interpretation when we do not have sufficient resources in our own programs. </li></ul>http://www.naeyc.org/files/naeyc/file/positions/PSETH05.pdf
  18. 18. Ethics and Child Abuse <ul><li>P-1.8—We shall be familiar with the risk factors for and symptoms of child abuse and neglect, including physical, sexual, verbal, and emotional abuse and physical, emotional, educational, and medical neglect. We shall know and follow state laws and community procedures that protect children against abuse and neglect. </li></ul><ul><li>P-1.9—When we have reasonable cause to suspect child abuse or neglect, we shall report it to the appropriate community agency and follow up to ensure that appropriate action has been taken. When appropriate, parents or guardians will be informed that the referral will be or has been made. </li></ul><ul><li>P-1.10—When another person tells us of his or her suspicion that a child is being abused or neglected, we shall assist that person in taking appropriate action in order to protect the child. </li></ul><ul><li>P-1.11—When we become aware of a practice or situation that endangers the health, safety, or well-being of children, we have an ethical responsibility to protect children or inform parents and/or others who can. </li></ul>
  19. 19. The Process of Resolving an Ethical Dilemma <ul><li>Identify the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Decide if it involves ethics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it a dilemma or responsibility? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can it be finessed? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Look for guidance in the NAEYC Code </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the conflicting values? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How should they be prioritized? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is the most ethically defensible course of action? </li></ul>
  20. 20. The Abused Child <ul><li>Mary Lou, a three-year-old in your center, is showing several signs of possible abuse: multiple bruises, frequent black eyes, and psychological withdrawal. Her mother, a high-strung woman, says Mary Lou falls a lot, but nobody at the center has seen the child do this. On two occasions, the child’s father appeared to be drunk when he picked her up. </li></ul><ul><li>The law says you are a mandated reporter who must report suspicions of child abuse to Child Protective Services, But in your experience, when the authorities get involved they are usually unable to remove the child from the home or improve the family’s behavior. Sometimes the families simply disappear, or things become worse for the children. </li></ul>Koralek, Dodge, & Pizzolongo (2000). p. 335
  21. 21. The Abused Child <ul><li>What should an early childhood professional do? </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorm Ideas </li></ul>

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