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  1. 1. EDSU533
  2. 2. <ul><li>Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (1956) </li></ul><ul><li>Various types of learning outcomes within the cognitive domain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objectives could be classified according to type of learner behavior described </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A hierarchical relationship exists among the various types of outcomes </li></ul></ul>Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge
  3. 3. <ul><li>KNOWLEDGE: define, list, name, memorize </li></ul><ul><li>COMPREHENSION: identify, describe, explain </li></ul><ul><li>APPLICATION: demonstrate, use, show, teach </li></ul><ul><li>ANALYSIS: categorize, compare, calculate </li></ul><ul><li>SYNTHESIS: design, create, prepare, predict </li></ul><ul><li>EVALUATION: judge, assess, rate, revise </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Ask students to demonstrate: </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge - recall information in original form </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehension - show understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Application - use learning in a new situation </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis - show s/he can see relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis - combine and integrate parts of prior knowledge into a product, plan, or proposal that is new </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation - assess and criticize on basis of standards and criteria </li></ul>
  5. 5. Remembering Understanding Applying Analyzing Evaluating Creating <ul><li>Creating – designing, constructing, planning, producing, inventing, devising, making </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating – checking, hypothesizing, critiquing, experimenting, judging, testing, detecting, monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzing – comparing, organizing, deconstructing, attributing, outlining, finding, structuring, integrating </li></ul><ul><li>Applying – implementing, carrying out, using, executing </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding – interpreting, summarizing, inferring, paraphrasing, classifying, comparing, explaining, exemplifying </li></ul><ul><li>Remembering – recognizing, listing, describing, identifying, retrieving, naming, locating, finding </li></ul>http:// uwf.edu/cutla/assessstudent.cfm
  6. 6. <ul><li>Knowledge or Remembering – Recalling Information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where – What – Who – How many – Point to… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Comprehension or Understanding – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tell me in your own words – What does it mean? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give me an example, describe, illustrate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Application – Using learning in a new situation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What would happen if…? Would you have done the same…? How would you solve this problem? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the library, find information about…. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Analysis – Ability to see parts/relationships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What other ways…? Similar/Different (Venn) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpretation – What kind of person…? What caused the person to react in this way…? What part was most exciting, sad…? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Synthesis – Parts of information to create original whole </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What would it be like if…? Design, pretend, use your imagination, write a new ending… </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Evaluation and Synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Judgment based on Criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Literature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Would you recommend this book – WHY or WHY not? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Select the best – WHY? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which person in history would you most like to meet – and WHY? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the quality good or bad? WHY? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could this story have happened? WHY? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Creating at top of revised Bloom’s Taxonomy - Innovation </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Essential Questions at the top of Bloom’s Taxonomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create - innovate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate – make a thoughtful choice between options, with the choice based on a clearly stated criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synthesize – invent a new or different version </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze – develop a thorough and complex understanding through skillful questioning. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Spark our curiosity and sense of wonder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Desire to understand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Something that matters to us </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Answers to EQs can NOT be found </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students must construct own answers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make their own meaning from information they have gathered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create insight </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Answering such questions may take a lifetime! </li></ul><ul><li>Answers may only be tentative </li></ul><ul><li>Information gathering may take place outside of formal learning environments </li></ul><ul><li>Engage students in real life applied problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>EQ lend themselves to multidisciplinary investigations. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Framed by students themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Best to start with subsidiary questions that might help support the main question </li></ul><ul><li>Formulate categories of related questions </li></ul><ul><li>“ What else do we need to know? </li></ul><ul><li>State suppositions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothesizing and Predicting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thought process helps provide a basis for construction of meaning. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>What are the big ideas? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Core concepts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focusing themes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>On-going debates/issues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insightful perspectives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Illuminating paradox/problem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organizing theory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overarching principle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Underlying assumption </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>What’s the evidence? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we get there? </li></ul>Enduring Understanding
  14. 14. <ul><li>Desired Results: What will the student learn? </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptable Evidence: How will you design an assessment that accurately determines if the student learned what he/she was supposed to learn? </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson Planning: How do you design a lesson that results in student learning? </li></ul>Identify desired results Determine acceptable evidence Plan learning experiences and instruction
  15. 15. Will this lesson lead to enduring understanding? Worth being familiar with Important to know and do Enduring Understanding
  16. 16. <ul><li>Assessment Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional quizzes and tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paper/pencil </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Selected response </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Constructed response </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance tasks and projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Open-ended </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Complex </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Authentic </li></ul></ul></ul>Performance tasks and projects need assessments that are more authentic than traditional quizzes and tests. Worth being familiar with Important to know and do Enduring Understanding