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Early Childhood

Published in: Education


  1. 1. Disabilities Adapted from Who Am I in the Lives of Children Feeney, Christensen, Moravcik (2001) Prepared by Dr. Carla Piper
  2. 2. IDEA -Individuals with Disabilities Act Categories defined as: Mental Retardation Autism Hearing Impairment Traumatic Brain Injury Speech or Language Other Health Impairment Impairments Visual Impairment Specific Learning Severe Emotional Disability Disturbance Developmental Delay Orthopedic Impairments IDEA 2004
  3. 3. IDEA - Individuals with Disabilities Act 2004 -
  4. 4. Limitations in Four Functioning Areas Mobility Communication Information Acquisition Information Processing Or limitations in more than one functioning area Understanding may help you recognize signs or symptoms and be better able to support children with disabilities.
  5. 5. Orthopedic Impairments Children who are mildly or moderately physically impaired may have some or all of the following characteristics: Stumble and bump into things often Have difficulty with large muscle activities such as crawling, climbing stairs, or riding a tricycle Have difficulty with activities involving eye-hand coordination, such as stringing beads, building a tower of blocks, cutting, or drawing (also a sign of visual impairment) Have speech problems due to inability to control breathing and muscles needed in articulation. Have difficulty chewing or swallowing Show a lack of stamina and display overall weakness.
  6. 6. Orthopedic Adaptations For children with problems involving skeleton, joints, and muscles Encourage child to participate as fully as possible Rearrange and adjust furniture to make things more accessible Allow children to play as typically as possible with other children Let children discover abilities and limitations by trying the activities themselves
  7. 7. Visual Impairments Children with vision problems may have some or all of the following characteristics: Rub their eyes excessively, squint, or frown Shut or cover their eyes or tilt or thrust their head forward Hold objects close to their eyes and show difficulty with tasks requiring close use of eyes Stumble over objects Be unable to identify distant things Be irritable or blink frequently when doing close work Have inflammation or other eye problems such as swelling or sties.
  8. 8. Visual Adaptations Child may have partial sight that is correctable with glasses Many can see light and dark, broad shapes but not details Provide good overall lighting and avoid glare or deep contrasts between dark and light Keep room traffic patterns simple and uncluttered Let children help in changing furniture Provide detailed verbal descriptions to accompany your actions. Keep the child close to you in group activities Provide child with larger toys with textures and sounds
  9. 9. Hearing Impairments Children with hearing problems may have some or all of the following characteristics: Have trouble paying attention, especially in group activities Not answer when called Get confused about directions or not understand them at all Give the wrong answer to questions. Say “what?” or look confused by questions, statements, or directions Have undeveloped speech, substitute sounds, omit sounds, or have poor voice quality Avoid people: Prefer to play alone Get tired early in the day Turn one side of the head towards sounds, indicating a hearing loss in one ear.
  10. 10. Hearing Adaptations Problem may be in perceiving the volume or clarity of sounds Damage to outer or middle ear – conductive loss Damage to inner ear or nerves that carry sound to the brain – Sensori-neural loss Place yourself facing the light source at child’s eye level to establish eye contact Sit in circle so all faces are visible Use simple sentences and rephrase sentences when child doesn’t understand rather than simply repeating same sentence Address child by name Use visual cues to aid understanding Encourage dramatic play and puppets
  11. 11. Speech and Language Impairments Children with speech-language problems may have some or all of the following characteristics: Not talk by age two. Not speak in two- or three-word sentences by age three Be very difficult to understand after age three (still relying mostly on vowel sounds and omitting the beginnings and endings of words). Use poor sentence structure after age five, such as “Me school go” Stutter after age five
  12. 12. Speech and Language Impairments Have poor voice quality Have difficulty hearing speech sounds Have difficulty understanding what is said Appear shy and embarrassed when speaking Have trouble compared with other children: following directions describing things using correct parts of speech putting words into sentences
  13. 13. Speech and Language Adaptations May be associated with other conditions – hearing, cleft palate, autism, cerebral palsy, attention deficit disorder, emotional problems, or learning disability Auditory processing problems Unable to tell the difference between speech sounds (auditory discrimination) Trouble isolating important sounds from noise May have trouble remembering what they hear or
  14. 14. Speech and Language Adaptations Be careful not to rush, interrupt, or pressure child Model correct language Build on language activities Incorporate songs, rhymes, and chants into daily routines Listen closely to decipher communication Encourage talking among children and use them to help
  15. 15. Mental Retardation Children with mild to moderate cognitive deficits may have some or all of the following characteristics: Be unable to follow directions that contain more than one or two steps Have a short attention span for their age Not be able to choose an activity independently Have a tendency to imitate rather than create Have poor eye-hand coordination Be slow to learn simple games or classroom routines Be slow in learning language
  16. 16. Mental Retardation Adaptation Mildly retarded children may have difficulties in self- help skills, motor development, social skills, and language development Relate to child as you would a slightly younger child Give directions one at a time Simplify and guide daily routines Allow more time to make transitions
  17. 17. Mental Retardation Adaptation Use shorter sentences and simplified vocabulary Use a multi-sensory approach to teaching Provide many opportunities for practicing new skills Encourage independence with self-help skills Give many examples of a concept to reinforce learning
  18. 18. Learning Disabilities Children with learning disabilities may have some or all of the following characteristics: Engage in constant motions and purposeless activity Have poor perceptual motor skills Have a low tolerance for frustration Be distractible, have a short attention span Have poor coordination, both large and small muscle Have poor auditory and visual memory Have a variety of language deficits
  19. 19. Learning Disabilities Focus on child’s strengths Provide children with descriptive praise when they are successful Give directions one at a time and allow adequate time for child to comply Verify child’s understanding of a request Practice tasks over and over Teach with concrete materials Use several sensory modalities Control the amount of stimulation by simplifying a task Keep transitions short Plan all procedures and organize materials Large groups may be over-stimulating Focus on task at hand and use attention-getting words – “Watch me”
  20. 20. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Children with attention deficit disorders may have some or all of the following characteristics: Be impulsive, acting quickly without thinking about the consequences Have a short attention span Unable to concentrate on one task or activity long enough to complete it May switch from activity to activity without seeming to gain satisfaction
  21. 21. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Have difficulty organizing and completing work and lack direction Be distractible, Have trouble paying attention to the task at hand Unable to redirect attention to original task once distracted Be constantly in motion and fidget and squirm when seated Have trouble following through on instructions and directions (not due to noncompliance or lack of understanding)
  22. 22. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Adaptations Be careful not to assume that every active child has ADD or ADHD Some teachers have had unrealistic expectations for children’s behavior and doctors have over- prescribed medicines Provide a clear structure for a child with ADHD Simplify physical environment and reduce visual stimulation Define child’s work or play area
  23. 23. ADHD Adaptations Position yourself nearby for assistance and encouragement Make picture charts showing sequence of daily routines Warn children of changes in schedule State your expectations for behavior clearly Acknowledge constructive and appropriate conduct
  24. 24. Students with Serious Emotional Disturbance Tend to be more aggressive, unhappy, anxious, or withdrawn Unusual behaviors – rocking, self- mutilation, running with arms flapping, extreme fearfulness, withdrawal or loss of self control Document your observations Consults with a mental health professional
  25. 25. Abused or Neglected Children Children who have been abused or neglected may have some or all of the following characteristics: Be overly compliant and passive or show extreme avoidance of confrontation with children and adults Be extremely demanding, aggressive, and filled with rage Be prematurely competent; for example, they may prepare meals, take the bus alone, or care for younger siblings when it is neither developmentally nor culturally appropriate to do so Be extremely dependent Be developmentally delayed or regressed with infantile behavior
  26. 26. Gifted Children Children who are gifted may have some or all of the following characteristics: Exhibit intense curiosity ask many questions conduct investigations into how things work Develop passionate interest in a particular topic (or topics) Have advanced reasoning ability or demonstrate the capacity for abstract thinking and the use of symbol systems at an early age Be highly independent in thought and behavior
  27. 27. Gifted Children Continued Be unusually perceptive and aware of people and things in their environment Have extraordinary memories Show great persistence in self-chosen tasks Motivated to pursue an interest and accomplish a goal at a self-determined high standard Have advanced language ability with an unusually large and sophisticated vocabulary the ability to use and appreciate verbal humor
  28. 28. Gifted Children Adaptations Make observations and discuss with family Provide opportunities for child to pursue interests Provide open-ended learning materials for self-directed involvement Find out what child really wants to know and find materials to support his/her interest Find materials designed for older children May need less structure than most children Allow for large blocks of time for exploration Allow child to concentrate and work in depth Be available as a resource