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  1. 1. Writing Lesson Objectives Using Bloom’s Taxonomy EDSU533
  2. 2. Benjamin Bloom <ul><li>Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (1956) </li></ul><ul><li>Various types of learning outcomes within the cognitive domain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objectives could be classified according to type of learner behavior described </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A hierarchical relationship exists among the various types of outcomes </li></ul></ul>Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge
  3. 3. Bloom’s Learning Domains <ul><li>Affective - feelings, emotions and behavior, ie., attitude, or 'feel' </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How emotions affect learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotions, feelings, values, likes, desires </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Behavioral - Psychomotor and Multisensory - manual and physical skills, ie., skills, or 'do' </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How the movement of the body is involved in learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actions, physical, doing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cognitive - intellectual capability, ie., knowledge, or 'think' </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning factual information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing higher-level thinking and analytical skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thoughts, understanding, conceptual knowledge </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Bloom’s Taxonomy: Cognitive Domain in Action <ul><li>KNOWLEDGE: define, list, name, memorize </li></ul><ul><li>COMPREHENSION: identify, describe, explain </li></ul><ul><li>APPLICATION: demonstrate, use, show, teach </li></ul><ul><li>ANALYSIS: categorize, compare, calculate </li></ul><ul><li>SYNTHESIS: design, create, prepare, predict </li></ul><ul><li>EVALUATION: judge, assess, rate, revise </li></ul>
  5. 5. Thinking Levels <ul><li>Ask students to demonstrate: </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge - recall information in original form </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehension - show understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Application - use learning in a new situation </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis - show s/he can see relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis - combine and integrate parts of prior knowledge into a product, plan, or proposal that is new </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation - assess and criticize on basis of standards and criteria </li></ul>
  6. 6. Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy Remembering Understanding Applying Analyzing Evaluating Creating <ul><li>Creating – designing, constructing, planning, producing, inventing, devising, making </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating – checking, hypothesizing, critiquing, experimenting, judging, testing, detecting, monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzing – comparing, organizing, deconstructing, attributing, outlining, finding, structuring, integrating </li></ul><ul><li>Applying – implementing, carrying out, using, executing </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding – interpreting, summarizing, inferring, paraphrasing, classifying, comparing, explaining, exemplifying </li></ul><ul><li>Remembering – recognizing, listing, describing, identifying, retrieving, naming, locating, finding </li></ul>http://
  7. 7. Blooming Questions <ul><li>Knowledge or Remembering – Recalling Information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where – What – Who – How many – </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Comprehension or Understanding – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tell me in your own words – What does it mean? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give me an example, describe, illustrate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Application – Using learning in a new situation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What would happen if…? Would you have done the same…? How would you solve this problem? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the library, locate and report information about…. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Framing Essential Questions <ul><li>Essential Questions at the top of Bloom’s Taxonomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create - innovate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate – make a thoughtful choice between options, with the choice based on a clearly stated criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synthesize – invent a new or different version </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze – develop a thorough and complex understanding through skillful questioning. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Highest Levels of Questioning <ul><li>Evaluation and Synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Judgment based on Criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Literature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Would you recommend this book – WHY or WHY not? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Select the best – WHY? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which person in history would you most like to meet – and WHY? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the quality good or bad? WHY? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could this story have happened? WHY? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Creating at top of revised Bloom’s Taxonomy - Innovation </li></ul>
  10. 10. More Blooming Questions <ul><li>Analysis – Ability to see parts/relationships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What other ways…? Similar/Different (Venn) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpretation – What kind of person…? What caused the person to react in this way…? What part was most exciting, sad…? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Synthesis – Parts of information to create original whole </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What would it be like if…? Design, pretend, use your imagination, write a new ending… </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Writing Lesson Objectives Using Bloom’s Taxonomy <ul><li>The ideal learning objective has 3 parts: </li></ul><ul><li>A measurable action verb </li></ul><ul><li>The important condition (if any) under which the performance is to occur </li></ul><ul><li>The criterion of acceptable performance </li></ul>
  12. 12. Components of a Lesson Objective <ul><li>Avoid terms that cannot be clearly understood by the reader. </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate an objective as clearly as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe intended instructional result by describing the purpose of the instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Exclude the greatest number of possible meanings other than the one intended. </li></ul>
  13. 13. ABCD's of Learning Objectives <ul><li>Audience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The learners: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify who it is that will be doing the performance (not the instructor) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Behavior (Performance): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What the learner will be able to do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure it is something that can be seen or heard </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Condition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The conditions under which the learners must demonstrate their mastery of the objective: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What will the learners be allowed to use? What won't the learners be allowed to use? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Degree (or criterion) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HOW WELL the behavior must be done </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. What do you want your students to learn as a result of this lesson? <ul><li>Three-step process below for creating defining learning objectives.     </li></ul><ul><li>Create a stem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After completing the lesson, the student will be able to . . . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After this unit, the student will have . . . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By completing the activities, the student will . . . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At the conclusion of the course/unit/study the student will . . . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>After you create the stem, add an action verb:   analyze, recognize, compare, provide, list, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>One you have a stem and a verb, determine the actual product, process, or outcome:   After completing these lesson, the student will be able to……. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>create Venn Diagrams which compare and contrast . . . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>demonstrate learning by producing a …… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>solve a numerical expression using…..(the standard order of operations, etc.) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Refer to explicit rather than vague behaviors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asking students to &quot;grasp the significance,&quot; or &quot;appreciate&quot; something will only lead to confusion. Using more explicit behaviors such as &quot;identify,&quot; or &quot;sort,&quot; will clarify the performance expected of students. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Table on next slide lists: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>explicit behaviors representative of different levels of cognition or thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>common products or outcomes of those behaviors </li></ul></ul>How to Write Goals for Specific Behaviors Virginia Tech -
  16. 16. Bloom’s Original Taxonomy with Action Verbs and Products Virginia Tech - Know Remember Comprehend Understand Use Apply Analyze Take Apart Synthesize Create New Evaluate Judge Behaviors: Action Verbs name memorize record list match write state repeat describe discuss give examples locate tell find report predict review recognize estimate translate practice illustrate sketch solve show employ sort classify distinguish experiment compare contrast diagram debate solve examine inventory design plan propose arrange assemble develop produce organize manage revise rate value appraise decide choose score select assess debate recommend Products: Outcomes Assignments Assessments Presentations Experiments Performances facts events models filmstrips books puzzles stories games journals illustrations drawings maps sculptures diorama scrapbook mobile collections diagrams graphs surveys questionnaires reports objects news articles poems machines songs plays hypotheses polls panels recommendations discussions simulations evaluations surveys
  17. 17. How will you measure learning outcomes? <ul><li>What will students say or do to show you objectives were met? </li></ul><ul><li>What will you collect to show student’s learning (portfolios, observations, work samples, photographs, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>How will you evaluate student work? </li></ul><ul><li>How will you grade the student? </li></ul>
  18. 18. Understanding by Design: Theory of Backwards Design <ul><li>Desired Results : What will the student learn? </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptable Evidence : How will you design an assessment that accurately determines if the student learned what he/she was supposed to learn? </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson Planning : How do you design a lesson that results in student learning? </li></ul>Identify desired results Determine acceptable evidence Plan learning experiences and instruction
  19. 19. Theory of Backwards Design <ul><li>Understanding by Design: Wiggins & McTighe </li></ul><ul><li>What are the big ideas? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Core concepts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focusing themes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>On-going debates/issues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insightful perspectives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Illuminating paradox/problem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organizing theory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overarching principle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Underlying assumption </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>What’s the evidence? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we get there? </li></ul>Enduring Understanding
  20. 20. Will this lesson lead to enduring understanding? Worth being familiar with Important to know and do Enduring Understanding
  21. 21. Assessment: How do you measure what students have learned? <ul><li>Traditional quizzes and tests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paper/pencil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Selected response </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Constructed response </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Performance tasks and projects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open-ended </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authentic </li></ul></ul>Worth being familiar with Important to know and do Enduring Understanding Understanding by Design
  22. 22. Rubrics and Checklists for Alternative Performance Assessment <ul><li>Rubric - a scoring guide for evaluating student performance </li></ul><ul><li>Allows for a variety of criteria or categories to be evaluated on a sliding rating scale (not subject to one final percentage score as in testing) </li></ul><ul><li>A way to measure real-life, authentic learning experiences in the classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Provides a guide for students in determining expectations of assignments </li></ul><ul><li>Shows students and parents how the teacher is judging student performance </li></ul>
  23. 23. How will you use the results of your assessment to plan your next lesson? <ul><li>How will your assessment guide your teaching practice? </li></ul><ul><li>What needs to be &quot;re-taught&quot; and how can you teach it differently when assessment demonstrates that some students did not learn the material? Is there a better way to teach this material? </li></ul><ul><li>What will you do differently next time? </li></ul><ul><li>How could you extend this activity for another lesson? </li></ul><ul><li>Was your instruction effective in promoting student learning? </li></ul>Reflective Practitioner