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  1. 1. Designing your Course Using Aesthetic Principles Prepared by Dr. Carla Piper Patrick Parrish (2006) Clark & Mayer in Reiser & Dempsey (2006) EDUU566
  2. 2. Components of Learning Experiences <ul><li>Subject Matter: central component of traditional education </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology: the instructional strategies used to instigate learning </li></ul><ul><li>Learner: readiness, personal relevance, learning style, intentions and purpose </li></ul>Parrish, 2006
  3. 3. The Learning Environment Learner Experience Learner Context Method Instructor Subject Matter Learning experience is different for each learner Parrish, 2006
  4. 4. Learning Experience <ul><li>“ Experience is an active, not passive, event, a two-way encounter between a person and the environment.” </li></ul><ul><li>Pattern of Inquiry (Dewey) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>feel need </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>generate and test ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>get feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reinforce learning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learning experience qualities: cognitive,emotional, social, cultural, political, and aesthetic </li></ul>Parrish, 2006
  5. 5. Aesthetic Experiences <ul><li>Demonstrate the expressive power of life </li></ul><ul><li>Show how we can use our powers to discover and create meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Give promise of revelation of meaning or fruitful outcome </li></ul><ul><li>Stimlulate interest and emotional anticipation </li></ul><ul><li>Promote a desire to engage with the learning experience </li></ul><ul><li>Provide the motivation needed to see learning through to its completion </li></ul>Parrish, 2006
  6. 6. Guidelines for Artful Instructional Design <ul><li>Correspond to three common concerns of literary criticism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Character </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theme </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>setting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>tone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>frame of reference </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Relate to instructional components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>methodology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>learner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>subject matter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>context </li></ul></ul>Parrish, 2006
  7. 7. Principle 1: Learning Experiences Have Beginnings, Middles, and Endings <ul><li>Problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>information seeking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>solution generation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>resolution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Begin by instilling tension, posing a problem, or pointing out conflicting information </li></ul><ul><li>Learning experiences should create anticipation of consummation </li></ul><ul><li>Create sustained suspense by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>withholding information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>enhancing the complication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>providing misdirection </li></ul></ul>Parrish, 2006
  8. 8. Principle 1: Learning Experiences Have Beginnings, Middles, and Endings <ul><li>Use pattern, routine, or an established motif </li></ul><ul><li>Endings should integrate everything that has occurred up to that point. </li></ul><ul><li>Connect to past and future experience. </li></ul><ul><li>“ If we pay attention to the needs, thoughts, and feelings of learners in each of these phases, and anticipate them in our instructional designs, we have a better chance to create an aesthetic learning experience.” </li></ul>Parrish, 2006
  9. 9. Student Engagement <ul><li>Built on a sustained feeling of achievement and maintained focus </li></ul><ul><li>Requires continual struggle and expectation </li></ul><ul><li>Needs to be continually reinforced to avoid having the learning situation become boring routine </li></ul><ul><li>Successful learning experience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>learners take away new capabilities and new perspectives that can be applied in future learning experiences. </li></ul></ul>Parrish, 2006
  10. 10. Related Learning Theories <ul><li>Theories </li></ul><ul><li>Inquiry Learning Approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Problem-based Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Problem–centered Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Project-based Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Goal-based Scenarios </li></ul><ul><li>Elaboration Theory </li></ul>Click on each Learning Theory For more Information Parrish, 2006
  11. 11. Principle 2: Learners are the Protagonists of Their Own Learning Experiences. <ul><li>Accept that learners, as protagonists, are fully human. </li></ul><ul><li>Allow dialogue to reveal character </li></ul><ul><li>Stage or encourage a turning point or “aha” moment. </li></ul><ul><li>Foster a change or growth in sense of identity, make learning a rite of passage. </li></ul>Parrish, 2006
  12. 12. Related Theories <ul><li>Constructivist Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Learning styles </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional Role-playing </li></ul><ul><li>Dialogical Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Context can be given or created </li></ul><ul><li>Accommodate the many given context qualities in an instructional design </li></ul><ul><li>Create aspects of the instructional context to support instructional goals </li></ul>Click on each Learning Theory For more Information Parrish, 2006
  13. 13. Learner Centered Goals <ul><li>Include opportunities for learners to establish personal learning goals </li></ul><ul><li>Learners choose approaches to learning activities and set an appropriate pace </li></ul><ul><li>Learners share personal experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Learners enjoy an aesthetic experience, as well as gain knowledge </li></ul>
  14. 14. Principle 3: Learning activity, Not Subject Matter, Establishes the Theme of Instruction <ul><li>Theme arises from subject matter, but it should be more than subject matter. </li></ul><ul><li>The theme should be believable and connect to experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Sources of aesthetic tension and consummation should arise from problems and issues emerging from the subject matter. </li></ul>Parrish, 2006
  15. 15. Related Theories <ul><li>Constructivist Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Situated Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Communities of Practice </li></ul><ul><li>Project-based Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Activity Theory </li></ul><ul><li>“ Subject matter represents the culmination of a history of research within a domain of knowledge, and it can’t simply be handed to learners for their consumption. If we accept that learning arises from experience, learners need to engage in experiences within that domain of knowledge, like the researchers, theorists, and practitioners who created it” </li></ul><ul><li>(Dewey, 1916 as cited in Parrish, 2006). </li></ul>Click on each Learning Theory For more Information Parrish, 2006
  16. 16. Principle 4: Context Contributes to Immersion in the Instructional Situation <ul><li>Allow Context to Support Theme and Character </li></ul><ul><li>Use Frames to Set Off the Context of the Learning Experience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calling an event a learning experience is a step toward establishing it as aesthetic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Honor Setting in Instruction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create immersion in a world that supports online activities for learning - Images, posters, audio/video and interactive tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems can be centered on place-based concerns - research and application projects, themes, examples, and information resources can be drawn from the local setting . </li></ul></ul>Parrish, 2006
  17. 17. Related Theories <ul><li>Context Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Ecological Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Environments </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional Role-plays </li></ul><ul><li>Scenario-based Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Place-centered Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Legitimate Peripheral Participation </li></ul>Click on each Learning Theory For more Information Parrish, 2006
  18. 18. Principle 5: Instructors and Instructional Designers Are Authors, Supporting Characters, and Model Protagonists <ul><li>Instructor as Author and Character </li></ul><ul><li>Active contributor and key character </li></ul><ul><li>Model protagonist </li></ul><ul><li>Show love of subject matter and willingness to guide </li></ul><ul><li>Related Theories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constructivist Learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive Apprenticeship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning as Journey Metaphors </li></ul></ul>Click on each Learning Theory For more Information Parrish, 2006
  19. 19. Using Rich Media Wisely <ul><li>Rich media – learning products that incorporate high-end media (video, audio, animation, sound, simulation) </li></ul><ul><li>The Paradox of Rich Media -“Current technology has greater capacity to deliver information to learners than learners have psychological capacity to assimilate that information” (p. 312). </li></ul>Reiser & Dempsey, 2006)
  20. 20. Instructional Methods <ul><li>Instructional methods – the elements included in instruction for the purpose of supporting methods to encourage learners to use appropriate cognition during learning </li></ul><ul><li>Only effective if instruction supports cognitive processing during learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual – still/moving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Games/thematic treatments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accommodation of the learner’s characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simulations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>p. 314 </li></ul></ul>Reiser & Dempsey, 2006
  21. 21. Cognitive Processes of Learning <ul><li>Attention – focus on what is relevant </li></ul><ul><li>Activation of prior knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Encoding - integrate “new” into prior knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer of learning from short term to long term memory </li></ul><ul><li>Management of learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Setting learning goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selecting good learning techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring progress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjusting learning activities if needed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Motivation – edutainment </li></ul><ul><li>p. 315 </li></ul>Reiser & Dempsey, 2006
  22. 22. Using Visuals Effectively <ul><li>Illustrate content </li></ul><ul><li>Relevant visuals based on functional properties rather than surface features. </li></ul><ul><li>Students learn from words and pictures rather than just words alone </li></ul><ul><li>Not all visuals are effective! </li></ul><ul><li>Transformational graphics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visuals that illustrate change or motion in time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most effective </li></ul></ul>Reiser & Dempsey, 2006
  23. 23. Communication Functions of Graphics <ul><li>Decorative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>add aesthetic appeal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Representational </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depict realistic object – photo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Screen capture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mnemonic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide retrieval cues for facts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organizational </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Show qualitative relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concept map </li></ul></ul>Reiser & Dempsey, 2006, p. 317
  24. 24. Communication Functions of Graphics <ul><li>Relational </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Show quantitative relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chart or graph </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transformational </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Show changes over time or space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animations and videos </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interpretive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Illustrate theory or cause and effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schematic diagram or animation </li></ul></ul>Reiser & Dempsey, 2006, p. 317
  25. 25. Psychological Function of Graphics <ul><li>Support attention </li></ul><ul><li>Activate or build prior knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize cognitive load </li></ul><ul><li>Build mental models </li></ul><ul><li>Support transfer of learning </li></ul><ul><li>Support motivation </li></ul>Reiser & Dempsey, 2006, p. 318
  26. 26. Engaging Learners with Media <ul><li>Use audio with video </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize irrelevant audio </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize unncessary visuals and text </li></ul><ul><li>Use cognitive sources of motivation rather than emotional </li></ul><ul><li>Simulations have potential to improve learning </li></ul><ul><li>Single most important variable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tap into learners prior knowledge! </li></ul></ul>Reiser & Dempsey, 2006. p. 319-320
  27. 27. Resources <ul><li>Parrish, P. E. (2006). Aesthetic Principles in Instructional Design </li></ul><ul><li>Patrick Parrish Website - </li></ul><ul><li>Clark, R.C. & Mayer, R.E. Using Rich Media Wisely – Reiser & Dempsey Textbook. Chapter 30 </li></ul>Parrish, 2006