Causes Of Ww2

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Causes Of Ww2

  1. 1. Between the Wars Photo from: wwIIremembered.com Photo from: jsharf.com/view/archives/2004
  2. 2. POSTWAR ISSUES <ul><li>UNEMPLOYMENT – RETURNING VETS </li></ul><ul><li>DEBT – NATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>FEAR OF COMMUNISM </li></ul><ul><li>GRUMBLINGS - VERSAILLES TREATY </li></ul><ul><li>AMERICANS DIVIDED (LEAGUE OF NATIONS) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Effects of Treaty of Versailles <ul><li>Disarmament </li></ul><ul><li>Reparations </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of land, colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Accept blame </li></ul><ul><li>Many blamed government for signing </li></ul><ul><li>“Lost generation” of WWI vets </li></ul>
  4. 4. Weimar Republic <ul><li>1919 – German leaders sign V. T. under protest </li></ul><ul><li>Set up democratic gov’t </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women vote and bill of rights </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blamed gov’t -“war-guilt clause” and reparations </li></ul><ul><li>Bitterness = scapegoats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many blamed German-Jews </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1923 – Inflation = economic turmoil </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>France occupies Ruhr region of Germany </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reparation payments were late </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workers refused to work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gov’t supports = prints more money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Mark = virtually worthless </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Inflation) 100 marks = ~950,000 marks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>American loans helped Germany recover </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Great Depression sends them back to misery </li></ul>
  6. 6. 1920’S <ul><li>AMERICAN ECONOMY BASED ON 3 C’S </li></ul><ul><li>CARS </li></ul><ul><li>CONSTRUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>CREDIT </li></ul>
  7. 7. PROBLEMS <ul><li>1920’S </li></ul><ul><li>FEW BECAME WEALTHY </li></ul><ul><li>MANY COULD NOT EARN A LIVING </li></ul><ul><li>STRUGGLING INDUSTRIES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FARMERS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RAILROAD INDUSTRY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MINING </li></ul></ul><ul><li>UNEVEN DISTRIBUTION OF WEALTH </li></ul>
  8. 8. PROBLEMS <ul><li>1929 – HOOVER PRESIDENT </li></ul><ul><li>DURING 1920’S – STOCK PRICES ROSE </li></ul><ul><li>BUYING ON SPECULATION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BOUGHT STOCKS & BONDS ON A CHANCE OF GETTING RICH QUICK </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BUYING ON MARGIN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SMALL DOWN PAYMENT – BORROWING REST </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>TUESDAY, OCTOBER 29, 1929- STOCK MARKET CRASH </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BLACK TUESDAY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SIGNALED GREAT DEPRESSION </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PANIC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WITHDREW MONEY FROM BANKS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MANY BANKS INVESTED IN STOCKS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OVER ½ U.S. BANKS CLOSED </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FELT WORLD-WIDE </li></ul>Photo from: http://www.authentichistory.com/1930s/fdr/images/1929_panic_on_wall_street.html
  10. 10. POLITICS OF 1920’S <ul><li>1921 – WARREN G. HARDING PRESIDENT </li></ul><ul><li>1923-1929 CALVIN COOLIDGE </li></ul><ul><li>SHOULD THE U.S. GET INVOLVED IN WORLD AFFAIRS? </li></ul>
  11. 11. ISOLATIONISM <ul><li>AVOID INVOLVEMENT WITH OTHER NATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>1920’S – GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS BELIEVED IN THIS </li></ul><ul><li>FEAR OF INVOLVEMENT – KEPT U.S. OUT OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS </li></ul>
  12. 12. INTERNATIONALISM <ul><li>U.S. – SHOULD NOT “DIVORCE” ITSELF FROM WORLD AFFAIRS </li></ul><ul><li>“GREAT POWER” – ASSUME RESPONSIBILITIES FOR EVENTS ABROAD </li></ul><ul><li>“WE MUST DEAL WITH THE WORLD AND THE WORLD MUST DEAL WITH US” </li></ul><ul><li>PROMOTE PEACE </li></ul>
  13. 13. TOTALITARIAN STATES <ul><li>GOVERNMENT CONTROLS ALL ASPECTS OF A PERSON’S LIFE </li></ul>
  14. 14. JOSEPH STALIN <ul><li>RUSSIA </li></ul><ul><li>MAN OF STEEL (TOUGH) </li></ul><ul><li>1924-1953 </li></ul><ul><li>CIVIL WAR IN RUSSIA – ESTABLISHED A COMMUNIST STATE – SOVIET UNION </li></ul><ul><li>PRIVATE BUSINESS / AGRICULTURE – GOVERNMENT OWNED </li></ul><ul><li>FIVE YEAR PLANS </li></ul><ul><li>1937 – SOVIET UNION 2 ND LARGEST INDUSTRIAL POWER </li></ul><ul><li>GREAT PURGE : 8-13 MILLION DEAD </li></ul>
  15. 15. STALIN Photo from: http://www.knowledgerush.com/kr/encyclopedia/Joseph_Stalin /
  16. 16. BENITO MUSSOLINI <ul><li>ITALY </li></ul><ul><li>PROBLEM CHILD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>KICKED OUT OF CHURCH (PINCHING – STONE THROWING) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EXPELLED SCHOOL – STABBING STUDENT </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SOLDIER IN WWI </li></ul><ul><li>FASCIST PARTY – 1921 (1 ST EVER TOT. STATE) </li></ul><ul><li>INTERESTS OF THE COUNTRY BEFORE INDIVIDUAL </li></ul><ul><li>1922 – MARCH ON ROME </li></ul><ul><li>KING OF ITALY APPOINTED HIM HEAD OF GOVERNMENT (TO AVOID CIVIL WAR) </li></ul>
  17. 17. MUSSOLINI Photo from: http://www.rhul.ac.uk/messages/press/message.asp?ref_no=393
  18. 18. FASCISM <ul><li>AUTHORITARIAN GOV. THAT IS NOT COMMUNIST </li></ul><ul><li>EXTREME NATIONALISM </li></ul><ul><li>NATION COMES FIRST </li></ul><ul><li>GLORIFY ACTION, VIOLENCE, DISCIPLINE </li></ul><ul><li>PURSUE AGGRESSIVE EXPANSION </li></ul><ul><li>BASIC FEATURES (PAGE 760) </li></ul>
  19. 19. ADOLF HITLER <ul><li>BORN IN AUSTRIA 1889 </li></ul><ul><li>JEWISH GRANDFATHER? </li></ul><ul><li>ARTIST IN VIENNA (20’S) </li></ul><ul><li>HOMELESS SHELTER </li></ul><ul><li>MOVED TO MUNICH </li></ul><ul><li>SOLDIER IN WWI </li></ul>
  20. 20. HITLER <ul><li>NATIONAL SOCIALIST GERMAN WORKERS PARTY (NAZI PARTY) </li></ul><ul><li>POWERFUL PUBLIC SPEAKER </li></ul><ul><li>1923 – BEER HALL PUTSCH </li></ul><ul><li>MEIN KAMPF – IDEAS AND BELIEFS FOR GERMANY’S FUTURE </li></ul><ul><li>BLAMED JEWS </li></ul><ul><li>GREAT DEPRESSION </li></ul><ul><li>LEADER OF THE “3RD REICH” </li></ul>
  21. 21. Hitler established a common enemy/outside threat <ul><li>Jewish population </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blamed for Germany’s economic crisis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blamed for spread of communism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hitler played on existing anti-Semitism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Threat of communism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1917 Russian Rev. established communism in Russia </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Hitler’s personality & charisma <ul><li>Brought Germany out of its depression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gave people hope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many joined Nazi party for employment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nationalistic (Aryans vs sub-humans) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encouraged German superiority, pride </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Propaganda <ul><li>“Aim it at the stupidity of the masses, rather than the intellectuals.” – Adolf Hitler </li></ul><ul><li>Common themes and forms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti Semitism/Communism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loyalty to state and Hitler </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accomplishments of German state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass rallies, literature, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>education, films </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Depression played into Hitler’s hands </li></ul><ul><li>Division in gov’t – Communist vs. Conservative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conservatives turn to Hitler </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thought they could control him (oops!) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1933 – elected chancellor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gestapo- Secret police – rooted out opposition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large public works programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Re-arm Germany – (violated Versailles) </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Social Policies <ul><li>Women’s roles limited </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler Youth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lost upper level jobs, college opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rewarded “Aryan” mothers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for having children </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Culture Purge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Education – molded minds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Book burning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modern art and jazz – denounced (Wagner) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replace religion with his racial creed </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Nuremberg Laws </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jews can’t marry non-Jews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can’t attend or teach at German schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No publishing books </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No law or medicine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kristallnacht (“Night of Broken Glass”) </li></ul>
  27. 27. FRANCISCO FRANCO <ul><li>SPAIN </li></ul><ul><li>1936 – SPANISH CIVIL WAR </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. SENT 3000 TROOPS </li></ul><ul><li>HITLER / MUSSOLINI – SUPPORTED FRANCO’S REBELLION </li></ul><ul><li>SOVIETS – SENT EQUIPMENT TO SUPPORT U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. WITHDREW </li></ul>
  28. 28. JAPAN <ul><li>MILITARISTS – OVERTHREW IMPERIAL GOVERNMENT </li></ul><ul><li>1926-1945: HIROHITO (EMPEROR) </li></ul><ul><li>HIDEKI TOJO – GENERAL </li></ul><ul><li>(PRIME MINISTER 1941-1945) </li></ul><ul><li>ATTACKED MANCHURIA – 1931 (LEAGUE OF NATIONS) </li></ul>
  29. 29. Sources <ul><li>The History Channel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.history.com/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cayton, Andrew; Perry, Elisabeth; Reed, Linda; Winkler, Allan. Prentice Hall. America: Pathways to the Present- Modern American History . c. 2000. </li></ul>

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