Total Quality Management in Secondary Education

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Total Quality Management in Secondary Education is a research study focusing on the organisation and performance of Academies under the new educational policy introduced by David Cameron and Nick Clegg's Coalition government, in the light of TQM. This is a case study of Kunskapsskolan's approach to school management which takes into account strategic planning, organisational considerations, leadership styles and approach to teamwork.

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Total Quality Management in Secondary Education

  1. 1. tqmineducationtqmineducationtqmineducationtqmineducationtqmineducatqmineducationtqmineducationtqmineducationtqmineducationtqmineduca tiontqmineducationtqmineducationt Total Quality Management qmineducationtqmineducationtqmin in Secondary Educationeducationtqmineducationtqmineduca Kunskapsskolan’s approach to school management tiontqmineducationtqmineducationeducationtqmineducationtqmineducat MA MANAGEMENTionwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwert Carina Balbo Student ID No.10029671yuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopas May 2012dfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnm qwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasd fghjklzxcvbnmrtyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwe
  2. 2. To my family who have supported me during the journey of these studies, andTo my father who has inspired me to undertake them.
  3. 3. iTotal Quality Management in Secondary EducationContentsFigures ................................................................................................................................... iiiTables .................................................................................................................................... ivAcknowledgements ................................................................................................................ vAbstract ................................................................................................................................. vi1. Introduction ................................................................................................................... 1 1.1 Background of the study ........................................................................................ 1 1.2 Purpose and organisation of the study .................................................................. 32. Literature Review ........................................................................................................... 5 2.1 What is Total Quality Management? ..................................................................... 5 2.2 Quality, product and service in education.............................................................. 6 2.2.1 Quality in education ....................................................................................... 6 2.2.2 Product and service in education ................................................................... 7 2.3 Strategic planning for quality................................................................................. 8 2.3.1 Mission, vision, values and goals ................................................................... 9 2.3.2 Stakeholder analysis and CSR....................................................................... 11 2.3.3 SWOT, CSFs and Benchmarking ................................................................... 18 2.3.4 Corporate and Strategic Plan ....................................................................... 22 2.3.5 Quality policy, Quality plan and Quality costs ............................................. 26 2.3.6 Feedback and evaluation ............................................................................. 29 2.4 Organisational considerations ............................................................................. 30 2.4.1 Organisational structure and design ............................................................ 31 2.4.2 Centralisation vs. decentralisation ............................................................... 34 2.4.3 An effective TQM structure.......................................................................... 36 2.5 Educational leadership and TQM ......................................................................... 39 2.5.1 Communicating the vision............................................................................ 40 2.5.2 Developing a quality culture ........................................................................ 40 2.5.3 Empowering teachers .................................................................................. 41 2.6 Teamwork for quality ........................................................................................... 423. The Research Study ...................................................................................................... 46 3.1 The research philosophy....................................................................................... 46 3.2 The method of research and data collection........................................................ 47 3.3 Sample selection................................................................................................... 50
  4. 4. iiTotal Quality Management in Secondary Education 3.4 Ethical issues ........................................................................................................ 514. Findings and Analysis ................................................................................................... 54 4.1 Kunskapsskolan’s strategic planning ................................................................... 54 4.1.1 Mission, vision, values and goals ................................................................. 55 4.1.2 Stakeholder analysis and CSR....................................................................... 57 4.1.3 Kunskapsskolan’s CSF’s and Benchmarking ................................................. 62 4.1.4 Kunskapsskolan’s Business and Corporate plan .......................................... 64 4.1.5 Quality policy, Quality plan and Quality costs ............................................. 69 4.1.6 Feedback and evaluation ............................................................................. 73 4.2 Kunskapsskolan’s organisational structure .......................................................... 74 4.3 Educational leadership at Kunskapsskolan .......................................................... 82 4.4 Teamwork for quality at Kunskapsskolan ............................................................ 835. Conclusion .................................................................................................................... 86References............................................................................................................................ 90Appendix 1: Quantitative research ...................................................................................... 95 Questionnaire 1: Customers: students and parents ........................................................ 95 Questionnaire 2: Organisation and Staff ......................................................................... 96Appendix 2: Qualitative research ....................................................................................... 100 Set 1: Customers: students and parents ........................................................................ 100 Set 2: Senior management, teaching and non-teaching staff........................................ 100Appendix 3: The KED Programme ...................................................................................... 101 3.1. Personalised Goals and Strategies .......................................................................... 102 3.2. Coaching .................................................................................................................. 103 3.3. The Learning PortalTM .............................................................................................. 105 3.4. Room for learning ................................................................................................... 106 3.5. Curriculum ............................................................................................................... 107 3.6. The Teacher ............................................................................................................. 108 3.7. Time......................................................................................................................... 108Dissertation Module – MA ManagementLondon Metropolitan University Carina Balbo – ID No.10029671
  5. 5. iiiTotal Quality Management in Secondary EducationFiguresFigure 1 The strategic planning process ................................................................................ 9Figure 2 A possible strategy planning sequence ................................................................. 10Figure 3 Customers in Education ......................................................................................... 13Figure 4 Stakeholder mapping in education ........................................................................ 14Figure 5 CSR stances ............................................................................................................ 16Figure 6 SWOT Analysis of an educational institution ........................................................ 19Figure 7 Example of external and internal CSFs................................................................... 20Figure 8 Ansoff Matrix ......................................................................................................... 23Figure 9 External Standards in Education ............................................................................ 28Figure 10 Examples of prevention and failure costs in education ...................................... 29Figure 11 Phases of institutional development .................................................................. 31Figure 12 Example of a tall structure: staff relationship ...................................................... 33Figure 13 Flat organisational structure in a small school district ........................................ 34Figure 14 Matrix structure of a school ................................................................................. 34Figure 15 The differences between a quality institution and an ordinary institution ......... 37Figure 16 Institutional alignment ........................................................................................ 38Figure 17 The attributes of an educational leader............................................................... 40Figure 18 The five stages of team formation ....................................................................... 44Figure 19 Tips for an effective team .................................................................................... 45Figure 20 Kunskapsskolan’s corporate mission .................................................................. 56Figure 21 Kunskapsskolan’s internal and external customers ............................................. 57Figure 22 Stakeholder mapping of Kunskapsskolan/ LST..................................................... 61Figure 23 Overview of Kunskapsskolan’s performance management system in Sweden .. 63Figure 24 KEDs Building blocks............................................................................................ 65Figure 25 Supportive systems and concepts of the KED programme .................................. 66Dissertation Module – MA ManagementLondon Metropolitan University Carina Balbo – ID No.10029671
  6. 6. ivTotal Quality Management in Secondary EducationFigure 26 Ansoff Matrix summarising Kunskapsskolan’s strategic plan ............................. 67Figure 27 Result of a survey carried out in 23 Kunskapsskolan schools in Sweden ............ 74Figure 28 Board of Directors of KED .................................................................................... 75Figure 29 Board of Kunskapsskolan i Sverige AB ................................................................. 76Figure 30 Partial organisational structure of Kunskapsskolan i Sverige AB ......................... 77Figure 31 The LST Trust Board ............................................................................................. 78Figure 32 International expansion of Kunskapsskolan ........................................................ 79Figure 33 Specialisms of the Academies in the UK .............................................................. 80Figure 34 Partial overview of management line at Ipswich Academy ................................. 81TablesTable 1 Advantages of centralised and decentralised structures ........................................ 35Table 2 Disadvantages of centralised and decentralised structures ................................... 36Table 3 Features of a quality institution .............................................................................. 38Dissertation Module – MA ManagementLondon Metropolitan University Carina Balbo – ID No.10029671
  7. 7. vTotal Quality Management in Secondary EducationAcknowledgementsFirst of all, I must thank all my family for their support during the course of these studies.I also want to express my gratitude to Kunskapsskolan and the Learning Schools Trust forhaving initially accepted to support me on this project, although full access to theorganisation was later denied.Last, but not least, I must also thank my supervisor, who supported and advised me thebest way possible during this project.Dissertation Module – MA ManagementLondon Metropolitan University Carina Balbo – ID No.10029671
  8. 8. viTotal Quality Management in Secondary EducationAbstractThis objective-approach research study aimed to look into the organisation andperformance of schools run by Kunskapsskolan under this new educational policy, in thelight of Total Quality Management (TQM), taking into account strategic planning,organisational considerations, leadership styles and approach to teamwork. Thestudywould have involved a quantitative method, using a standard audit checklist(Sallis,2002:156), which has been divided into two questionnaires, one for students and parents,and other for staff including senior staff, high and middle-management, teaching andsupport staff. A qualitative method would have also been followed by interviewing someof my respondents to the questionnaires, from students and parents to school staff.Similarly, for this two sets of questions were created. However, due to the fact that fullaccess to the organisation was not granted at the moment of data collection using thosemethods, data was collected from other sources such as websites, and books and analysedin the light of the TQM theory discussed in the literature review. The study concludes thatKunskapsskolan meets all the characteristics of a TQM organisation and that it would beinteresting to conduct a comparative study with the organisational approach adopted inmainstream and independent schools.Dissertation Module – MA ManagementLondon Metropolitan University Carina Balbo – ID No.10029671
  9. 9. 1Total Quality Management in Secondary Education 1. Introduction 1.1 Background of the studyIn today’s economy, quality has become a high priority and is at the top of most agendas.Improving quality is probably one of the most important tasks any organisation may befacing, whether private or public. Educational institutions are not foreign to this reality; onthe contrary, they have also recognised the need to pursue this quest for quality and todeliver it to pupils and students alike. When talking about sources of quality of educationwe can list outstanding teachers, strong leadership, appropriate resources and the latesttechnology applied, an appropriate curriculum, excellent exam results and the support ofparents, just to mention a few(Sallis, 2002).For the last 20 years, different economic circumstances have pushed education systems inmany countries towards a system of privatisation, transforming education into a newmarket and adapting education to the current demands of labour markets (Hirtt, 2008).Compulsory education in industrialised countries, especially in the EU, seems tohavemoved towards decentralisation and deregulation, progressively reducing the centralpower of the state (Eurydice, 1997). In this context, the former state-run educationsystems become flexible and competitive school networks, managed by Local EducationalAuthorities (LEAs) or non-governmental groups, with more local power for developingtheir own programmes and teaching methods. This is accompanied by a dramatic cut ineducation expenditure (Eurydice, 2005).This movement seems to have been crystallised in the UK under the new Con-Demgovernment, which promotes a two-fold way of marketisation and privatisation of theschool system. First, all schools will be able to become Academies, gaining more freedom
  10. 10. 2Total Quality Management in Secondary Educationover the curriculum and admissions and more control over staff because, being underprivate school legislation, they would not have to comply with national or local unionagreements on pay and conditions. Secondly, alternative providers – private organisationsand groups of parents and teachers – will be allowed to open up so-called ‘free schools’,again outside local authorities and funded by government. This new policy has arisenmuch controversy and debate, which, leaving politics aside, poses a question on thequality of education these groups of parents and teachers as well as private organisationswill provide at the expense of tax payers.Examples of this recently introducedpolicy are Hampton Academy, Twickenham Academyand Ipswich Academy which are operated by Kunskapsskolan through an independentCharity called the Learning Schools Trust (LST). Kunskapsskolan is one of the largest chainsof ‘free schools’ in Sweden, currently running 33 schools with a network of schools withmore than 12,000 students and 1,000 employees. Kunskapsskolan is the owner anddeveloper of the KED (Kunskapsskolan Education) programme — a coherent and provenconcept for personalised education. In Swedish, “Kunskapsskolan” means knowledgeorlearning school. This name is an expression of their passion for providing excellence inlearning and knowledge for the next global generation (www.kunskapsskolan.com).Kunskapsskolan Education Sweden AB is a private company owned by PejeEmilsson, hisfamily and companies (67%), Investor AB (29%) and Kunskapsskolan management (4%).Kunskapsskolan Education Sweden AB (KED) is the result of new Swedish educationalreforms introduced in 1992, which opened the doors for school choice, competition, andinnovation within primary and secondary education. KED was founded in 1999 andopened its first schools in 2000. The idea was to collect the very best practices frompedagogy, technology, school design and process management and integrate themDissertation Module – MA ManagementLondon Metropolitan University Carina Balbo – ID No.10029671
  11. 11. 3Total Quality Management in Secondary Educationtogether into a coherent model of personalised education for the new century(www.kunskapsskolan.com).In the United Kingdom,it is against the Law for a private company, like Kunskapsskolan, tomake profit out of tax-payers’ money, unless they link up with some other non-profitorganisations, such as charities. That is why Kunskapsskolan operates these threeAcademies in England through the Learning Schools Trust (LST), a charity whichplanstosponsor otherfive AcademiesintheUKfrom2012. 1.2 Purpose and organisation of the studyThis research study aims, at a general level, to look into the organisation and performanceof schoolsset up under thisnew educational policy, in the light of Total QualityManagement (TQM). In particular, it aims to answer the following questions: 1. Whatdo the schools take into account in order to guarantee good quality educational provision to their customers? 2. Within what quality standards does the organisation operate? 3. What management and leadership styles do these schools follow in order to ensureorganisational effectiveness and performance? 4. What measures are taken into consideration so that the staff members build an effective TQM culture throughout the institution? 5. What strategies, tools and techniques are considered when planning for quality?In order to accomplish this aim, the study will focus on schools run by Kunskapsskolan andthe LST, and it will beconducted through questionnaires sent to the Managing Director atLST –my primary contact, high, middle and low managers of the schools and someteaching staff. It is worth point out that I have no connection whatsoever with theDissertation Module – MA ManagementLondon Metropolitan University Carina Balbo – ID No.10029671
  12. 12. 4Total Quality Management in Secondary Educationorganisation. My interest in this topic is not only professional, having worked in theeducational sector for 15 years, but I am also interested in this area as a parent, having ason with Special Educational Needs who, I believe, has not entirely benefited from the UKmainstream educational.To begin with, after defining what TQM is, a discussion on the notion of quality, productand service in education will follow. The study will also examine what steps a school canfollow to strategically plan for quality, the best type of organisation, leadership style andwork approach a school can follow in order to guarantee quality in education. Beforelooking into the findings and analysing them against the literature review, a briefexplanation of the research methods will be provided. Finally, some conclusions will bedrawn and suggestions for further research will be made.Dissertation Module – MA ManagementLondon Metropolitan University Carina Balbo – ID No.10029671
  13. 13. 5Total Quality Management in Secondary Education 2. Literature ReviewIn the realm of Education, quality has become synonymous with the latest governmentstructure on standards, exam success, school performance and league tables. In responseto the need for quality improvement in education, ruthless regimes of school inspectionshave been introduced. However, from a Total Quality Management (TQM) perspective,inspections serve as a means of quality control, rather than quality improvement, which isthe responsibility of the institution and cannot be handed over to an external inspector(Sallis, 2002). The purpose of this chapter is to establish the theoretical framework for this study.Here, we will look first at the implications of the term Total Quality Management (TQM).Then, after trying to define the term Quality, we will examine the many aspects integratedin TQM, such as organisation, leadership, teamwork, just to name a few. 2.1 What is Total Quality Management?Sallis (2002), describes Total Quality Management (TQM)as a management model thatemphasises leadership, teamwork, strategy, rigorous analysis and self-assessment. Itshould be understood as a long-term philosophy, rather than a short-term fix, and in ourcontinuously changing world, it seems more necessary than ever. In order to stay ahead ofthe competition, organisations should try to find out what their customers want and thefocus themselves on meeting and exceeding these requirements.The rapid advances in technology result from a knowledge revolution which has changedthe way people work, think and even the way they learn, and in order to deal with thisinformation age, high standardsin education are required.All children, and adults, have theDissertation Module – MA ManagementLondon Metropolitan University Carina Balbo – ID No.10029671
  14. 14. 6Total Quality Management in Secondary Educationright to accomplish high educational attainments levels, which is why a high qualityeducation is a must. The message of TQM in education is that every child has worth anddemands the best possible change in life.TQM is both a philosophy and a methodology which can help institutions manage changesand organise themselves to deal with the plethora of new external pressures. However,TQM does not bring results overnight; neither is it a universal remedy for all the problemsthat beset education. It is rather an important set of tools that can be employed in themanagement of educational institutions. 2.2 Quality, product andservice in educationIn order to fully understand the whole philosophy of TQM, it is necessary to examine whatit is meant by quality, what the product and the serviceis and who the customersare in theeducational context. 2.2.1 Quality in educationThe termquality,from the Latin quails, meaning “of what kind, of such a kind”, can be usedas an absolute and as a relative concept (Sallis, 2002). Used as an absolute, quality thingsare probably of the highest standards and seem unattainable. This concept used in theeducational context is elitist in essence, and according to this definition, just a fewinstitutions are able to offer such top quality education to their students. In contrast, in itsrelative sense, quality is a means by which the end product is judged as being up tostandard- or not, rather than being the end in itself, and what makes a product or serviceof quality is the fact that it meets the standards set for it.The notion of quality as anabsolute is more elitist, whereas its relative sense is more egalitarian.Dissertation Module – MA ManagementLondon Metropolitan University Carina Balbo – ID No.10029671
  15. 15. 7Total Quality Management in Secondary EducationIn turn, there are two aspects to this relative notion of quality. On the one hand, there is aprocedural concept, emphasising that a product or service complies with certainpredetermined standards and criteria. In the educational context, hard quality indicatorscomprise public examinations and league tables for schools and colleges. On the otherhand, transformational qualityfocuses on softer and more concrete aspects of quality,including care, customer service and social responsibility. Rather than through adhering tosystems and procedures, transformational quality is achieved through the exercise ofleadership, which establishes the vision that later translates into customer service andbuilds the structures and organisational culture that make it possible for all staff to delivera quality service. In a nutshell, the ultimate aim of transformation quality is excellence. 2.2.2 Product and service in educationIn education, learners are often referred to as the output, mainly when discussinginstitutions’ performance, and in so doing, education sounds as if it were a productionline. Instead, it is probably more helpful to talk about education as a service, for a numberof reasons (Sallis, 2002). First, services entail direct contact between the provider and theend-user, and it cannot be separated from who delivers it (the institution) or from whoreceives it (the students). Second, the time aspect is important as services are derived ontime, and consumed at the moment of delivery, which means that the control of its qualitybuy inspection is often late. Third, a service cannot be serviced of mended, and thereforeit is imperative that its standard is right first time. Next, services are largely about process,rather than product, making them intangible. Another characteristic of services is thatthey are sometimes rendered by junior employees, as opposed to senior staff, who tendto be remote from customers, and this is why it is so important to train staff and keepthem motivated. Finally, the intangible nature of services makes it difficult to measuresuccessful output and productivity, being customer satisfaction the only meaningfulDissertation Module – MA ManagementLondon Metropolitan University Carina Balbo – ID No.10029671
  16. 16. 8Total Quality Management in Secondary Educationperformance indicator. Such soft indicators as care, courtesy, concern, friendliness andhelpfulness are often the ones that remain in customers’ minds.In conclusion, education can be defined as a provider of services, including tuition,assessment, and guidance, not only to students but also to parents, sponsors, and othermembers of the community.Now it is important to discuss what steps institutions could follow in order to plan for andensure quality in education. 2.3 Strategic planning for qualityQuality must be the ultimate goal any institution must accomplish, and for this institutionis to be a long-term culture-change programme, it must be planned for following astrategically rigorous systematic approach.To achieve long-term direction, the institution must first create constancy purpose(Deming, 1986), which can only be achieved within the context of a corporate strategy. Astrong customer focus must underlie the strategy, but at the heart must be a strongstrategic vision, which is one of the most important critical success factors for anyinstitution.A strategic planning process for an educational institution is not different from that ofanother industry, and without a strategy an institution cannot be certain it is best placedto exploit new opportunities as they develop. Figure 1below shows the key questions andissues the institution should address in the strategic planning process.When undertaking strategic planning, it seems more sensible to go from the philosophicalto the practical, even though there is no special sequence of activities. Strategy must beDissertation Module – MA ManagementLondon Metropolitan University Carina Balbo – ID No.10029671
  17. 17. 9Total Quality Management in Secondary Educationbased around various customer groups and their expectation, from which policies andplans develop, which, in turn, deliver the mission and develop the vision. This is why it isimportant to take a systematic approach to planning the organisation’s corporate future.Figure 2 suggests a possible strategy planning sequence any educational institution couldadopt. Mission, vision, values and goals •What is our purpose? •What are our mission, vision and values? Customer/Learner requirements •Who are our customers? •What do our customers expect of us? •What do we need to be good at to meet customer expectations? •What do our learners require from the institution? •What methods do we use to identify learner/customer needs? Investing in People •How should we make the most of our staff? •Are we investing sufficiently in staff and staff development? Routes to success •What are our strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats? •What factors are critical to our success? Quality performance •What standards are we going to set? •How are we going to deliver quality? •What will quality cost us? Evaluating the process •Do we have processes in place to deal with things that go wrong? •How will we know if we have been successful?Figure 1The strategic planning process (adapted from Sallis, 1994: 108) 2.3.1 Mission, vision, values and goalsUsually organisations make a distinction between their mission, vision, values and goals(also called aims or objectives) in order to define what sort of business they are in, whatsort of institution they wish to be and the direction they want to move towards.The mission is the organisational and itexpresses la raison d’être(i.e. the reason for itsexistence) of the organisation. It makes it clear why an institution is different from theDissertation Module – MA ManagementLondon Metropolitan University Carina Balbo – ID No.10029671
  18. 18. 10Total Quality Management in Secondary Educationothers, it describes what it does and for whom and answers the question, Why do we dowhat we do? (de Wit and Mayer, 2010). The organisational beliefs are expressed in itsvision, which communicates what it stands for, and what it does in order to accomplish itstasks. It differs from the mission in that while the latter focuses on the present, the latterlooks at the future; however, they are closely linked since it is the desire for a betterfuture (vision) that motivates the organisation and individuals to perform their missiontoday.Figure 2 A possible strategy planning sequence (adapted from Sallis, 2002: 125) Mission, Vision, Values & Goals Stakeholder Analysis & CSR SWOT , CSFs & Benchmarking Corporate & Strategic Plan Quality Policy & Quality Plan Quality Costs Evaluation & FeedbackThe values are the set of fundamental principles which guidethe organisation’s strategicdecision-makingthrough which the organisation operates and seeks to achieve its missionand vision(Sallis, 2002; Johnson et.al, 2008). The values must be aligned to theenvironment in which the institution operates.Dissertation Module – MA ManagementLondon Metropolitan University Carina Balbo – ID No.10029671
  19. 19. 11Total Quality Management in Secondary EducationAfter the mission, vision and values have been set up, they need to be translated intoobjectives, or goals. These are statements of specific outcomes that are to be achieved.Although they are often expressed in financial terms – e.g. profit levels, rates of growth,dividend levels or share valuations, organisations may also have market-based objectives,many of which are quantified as targets – such as market share, customer service, amongothers (Johnson et.al, 2008). Itis important that goals are realistic and achievable and thatthey are expressed in a measurable way so that the final outcomes can be measuredagainst them. Institutional goals must take place at three levels:immediate, short-termand long-term, which must be reflected when monitoring and assessing quality (discussedin 2.3.6 below). 2.3.2 Stakeholder analysis and CSRIn order to implement TQM effectively, it is essential to conduct good market research bylistening to the organisation’s customers, both actual and potential. Therefore it is vital toidentify who the customers in education are, analyse them and what the CSR stance of theinstitution is in relation to its stakeholders’ expectations. 2.3.2.1 Customers in educationThe customers are the stakeholders of the service, and a distinction can be made betweeninternal and external customers (Figure 3); i.e., employees and those who have a directresponsibility for the institution’s success, on the one hand, and those who influence andare influenced by the institution but are not a member of it, on the other (Johnson, et. al.,2008). The latter can, in turn, be divided into three subgroups according to the nature oftheir relationship with the institution (Sallis, 2002):  primary customers: those who directly receive the service, i.e. the learners;Dissertation Module – MA ManagementLondon Metropolitan University Carina Balbo – ID No.10029671
  20. 20. 12Total Quality Management in Secondary Education  secondary customers: those who have a direct interest in the education of a particular individual, or in a particular institution; e.g., parents, governors, sponsoring employees of vocational students, or sponsoring universities of student teachers;  tertiary customers: those who have less direct contact with the institution, but are nevertheless highly interested in education; e.g., government, unions, future employers, the community in general.Not always do the needs and views of these various customer groups coincide, and, infact, there will always be conflicts of customer interest. Of paramount importance is toensure the primary customers’ views, which is not always easy, especially when thelearners’ needs collide with funding mechanisms emphasising efficiency at the cost ofquality, making it difficult for an institution to put the learners first. Perhaps one way ofresolving these conflicts of interests is to acknowledge their existence and try to find thecore issues that unite all the parties involved.Another way of understanding where to problem lies and the best way to solve it is tomap the stakeholders on a power/ interest matrix, which helps identify stakeholders’expectations and power,and helps understand political priorities, very importantwhendealing with changes in educational policies and government funding issues. This matrixdoes not differentiate between external and internal stakeholders and arrange them on atwo-by-two grid where the dimensions are the stakeholders interest in the institution andthe stakeholders power to affect the institution’s future.Dissertation Module – MA ManagementLondon Metropolitan University Carina Balbo – ID No.10029671
  21. 21. 13Total Quality Management in Secondary Education Learners General Parents Community Headteacher Senior Staff SCHOOL Future employers Governors Teachers Support Staff Other employees Sponsoring employees of vocational Unions students/ Sponsoring universities of student teachers GovernmentFigure 3 Customers in EducationThe stakeholders’ position in Figure 4 shows the actions the institution should take withthem. Quadrant D identifies the key players, the ones with a lot of power and, therefore,of paramount importance such as the government – the direct source of funding, learnersand pupils – the primary customers, and senior staff and teaching staff, without whom theinstitution could not be run. This is why it seems vital that the institution invests in staffdevelopment at an early stage, almost at the same time as analysing the learners’requirements. If there are some SEN pupils, for example, it seems only logical that theschool makes provision to develop its staff to be able to cater for these pupils’ needs.Dissertation Module – MA ManagementLondon Metropolitan University Carina Balbo – ID No.10029671
  22. 22. 14Total Quality Management in Secondary Education A B Minimal effort Keep informed - Community in - Parents general - Governors - Sponsors - Universities C D Keep satisfied Key players - Unions - Headteacher and - Pension funds senior staff - Media - Teaching staff - Learners - GovernmentFigure 4 Stakeholder mapping in educationAlthough those in quadrant C may seem relatively passive, their needs and interestsshould be metto prevent their moving to quadrant D. These are context setters(Bryson,2004) who have power but very direct interest. With new educational policies, such as theone introducing free schools and academies in the UK, the media should be kept satisfiedso that they help create a positive attitude among the general public – and potentialcustomers –towardsthe implementation of this new type of institutions. Similarly, Unionsmay eventually have a say in this new policy asteacher pay scheme reforms orderegulations may be introduced as a result.Institutions must not forget to address the expectations of stakeholders in quadrant B bykeeping them informed, as these can be crucially important allies for the institution andmay influence the attitudes of other powerful stakeholders. For example, often parentsorganise a Parent’s Association to provide a structure through which the parents orguardians of children attending the school can work together for the best possibleeducation for their children. The PA works with the headteacher, staff and board ofDissertation Module – MA ManagementLondon Metropolitan University Carina Balbo – ID No.10029671
  23. 23. 15Total Quality Management in Secondary Educationmanagement to build effective partnership of home and school and to create a forum foreducational discussion and communication. Lastly, quadrant A consists of the crowd, i.e.stakeholders with little interest or power (Bryson, 2004). 2.3.2.2 Corporate social responsibility (CSR)Traditionally, CSR has been reserved to analyse corporate for-profit businessorganisations, which schools and the educational sector never seemed to be part of, sinceeducation provision – at least primary and secondary – has always been regarded as beingthe government’s responsibility, from which no profit was made. However, nowadays, thenew educational policies allowing private organisations to set up schools seem to beleading education towards a marketised sector, which therefore calls for an analysis oftheir corporate social responsibility stance with respect to their stakeholders.Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is defined as ‘the way in which an organisationexceeds its minimum obligations to stakeholders through regulation (Johnson et.al, 2008:146). An institution’s CSR reflects its role in the society; nevertheless, it is not possible foran organisation to put equal interest to all its stakeholders, due to the nature of the lawsand regulations under which a company works. CSR policies are particularly important toboth contractualand community stakeholders; whereas the former are legally related tothe company, the latter are not (Johnson et.al, 2008).The contractual stakeholders of aneducational institution are headteachers and senior managers, administrators, teachingand non-teaching staff, students, partners, and distributors, just to mention some.Organisations also take very different standpoint on social responsibility, and, accordingly,they are classified into four types, summarised in Figure 4 below. The further away theymove, the more inclusive they are of stakeholders’ interests and the wider their vision forstrategy implementation.Dissertation Module – MA ManagementLondon Metropolitan University Carina Balbo – ID No.10029671
  24. 24. 16Total Quality Management in Secondary Education Forum for Enlightened Shaper of Laissez-faire stakeholder self-interest society interaction Legal compliance: make profit, pay Sound business Social and market Rationale taxes and provide sense Sustainable change jobs Leadership Peripheral Supportive Champion Visionary Middle Systems to Board-level issue; Individual responsibility Management management ensure good organisation- through the responsibility practice wide monitoring organisation Defensive to Reactive to Mode ouitside outside pressures Proactive Defining pressures Multi- Stakerholder Unilateral / Interactive Partnership organisation relationship one-way alliancesFigure 5 CSR stances (adapted from Johnson, et.al. (2008: 146))At one end of the spectrum, a laissez-faire organisation considers the sole responsibility ofbusiness is the short-term interests of shareholders and to make a profit, pay taxes andprovide jobs (Murdoch, 1997). The government prescribes, through legislation andregulation, the constraints society imposes on businesses in their pursuit of economicefficiency; but the organisation will meet only these minimum obligations, no more.Enlightened self-interest recognises ‘the long-term financial benefit to the shareholderofwell-managed relationships with other stakeholders’ (Johnson et.al, 2008: 155). Theorganisation’s reputation is important to its long-term financial success, and in order toensure compliance with best practice, systems and policies are usually set up. Similarly,top management they support the firm by taking a more proactive social role. Sponsors ofmajor sports or art events are an example of such companies.Dissertation Module – MA ManagementLondon Metropolitan University Carina Balbo – ID No.10029671
  25. 25. 17Total Quality Management in Secondary EducationA forum for stakeholder interaction‘explicitly incorporates multiple stakeholderinterestsand expectations rather than just shareholders as influences onorganisational purposesand strategies’ (Johnson et.al, 2008: 155). In this view, theorganisation’sperformance ismore pluralistic andtheymight retainuneconomic units in order to preserve jobs, avoidmanufacturing or selling ‘anti-social’products, and be prepared to bear reductions inprofitability for the social good. Here the difficulty lies in balancingthe differentstakeholders’ interests. For example, many public sector organisations fall into thiscategory as their performance measurement depends on a wide diversity of expectations.Through the way that they operate, many family-owned small firms may also be includedin this group.Last but not least, at the other end of the spectrum,shapers of society consider financialissues to be of secondary importance, or even a constriction. The social role is the raisond’être of the organisation, who seek to change society and social norms, thus beingconsidered activists. Some would argue that public services have succeeded intransforming the quality of life for millions of people mainly because they are ‘missiondriven’ in this way and operate in a politically supported framework. These type oforganisations take a socially responsible position, as they believe that being sociallyresponsible reduces the risk of negative stakeholder reactions and can help retain loyal,motivated employees. In the light of this description, educational institutions seem to bean example of this type of organisations: by educating the younger generation, they havethe power to shape society, they always operate in a changing political framework, andthey are not financially-driven. However, with the emergence of Charities and Trustsrunning academies funded directly by the government (hence taxpayers’ money), thelegitimacy of their mission-driven stance is beginning to be challenged, but at the sametime, they are expected to demonstrate good results.Dissertation Module – MA ManagementLondon Metropolitan University Carina Balbo – ID No.10029671
  26. 26. 18Total Quality Management in Secondary Education 2.3.3 SWOT, CSFs and BenchmarkingAll organisations should have a clear idea of what they need to be good at in order todevise their routes to success. They can do this by analysing their strengths, weakness,opportunities and threats (SWOT), their critical success factors (CSFs) and benchmarkingthe institution in relation to both the school and other similar organisations, and theschool itself. 2.3.3.1 SWOT analysisSWOT analysis is probably one of the most common but most effective instruments ofstrategic planning used in education to locate the institution’s potential. It is divided intotwo elements: an internal audit concentrating on analysing the strengths and weaknessesof the performance of the institution itself, and an externalaudit focusing on the threatsand opportunities of theenvironmentalcontext in which the institution operates (Figure 6).This activity aims at maximising strengths and minimising weaknesses, while reducingthreats and building on opportunities.The SWOT exercise can be reinforced by ensuring the analysis concentrates on the twokey variables in developing a long-term corporate strategy: the customer requirementsand the competitive context the institution operates in. The institution’s strategy shouldbe developed in such a way as to enable the institution to defend itself against thecompetition and maximise its attractiveness to its customers. Combined with anexamination of the mission and values, this analysis can help seek a distinctive nicheDissertation Module – MA ManagementLondon Metropolitan University Carina Balbo – ID No.10029671
  27. 27. 19Total Quality Management in Secondary EducationFigure 6 SWOT Analysis of an educational institution (adapted from Sallis, 2002: 126)which may differentiate the institution from its rivals. Once this distinctive characteristic isdeveloped, the quality characteristics for an institution can be identified more easily(Sallis, 2002). 2.3.3.2 Critical Success Factors (CSFs)In order to develop the strategic capability in an organisation, from the potentialproviders’viewpoint,it is crucial to understand not just the needs of customers, but whichproduct/service features are particularly important to a group of customersand, therefore,where theorganisation must excel to outperform competition (Jonsonet.al., 2008) This isknown as thecritical success factors(CSFs), which must be achieved if an institution is tosatisfy its customers and its mission statement. They are similar to performance indicators(PIs), the difference being that the latter are often generated by others and do not alwaysDissertation Module – MA ManagementLondon Metropolitan University Carina Balbo – ID No.10029671
  28. 28. 20Total Quality Management in Secondary Educationrelate to the mission statement of the institution or its customers’ requirements (Sallis,2002).On its list of CSFs, an institution could include not only external measures but also internalindicators, some of which are illustrated in Figure 7. External CSFs Internal CSFs •improved access to the institution •an accessible admissions system •greater customer satisfaction evidenced •learning modes which meet learner needs through surveys •properly functioning teams •increased market share •improved examination pass rates •increased take up of provision by minority •learner development of and disadvantaged groups social, personal, cultural and ethical values •greater responsiveness to community needs •improvements in teaching/learning strategies •stronger relationship with industry and •improvement of the majority of staff in commerce improvement teams •improved progression rates, e.g. into employment and further and higher educationFigure 7 Example of external and internal CSFs 2.3.3.3 BenchmarkingAll organisations providing public services face additional demands of increased scrutinyand accountability. Benchmarking helps educational institutions develop tools that can beintegrated into their own organisation so that they can learn from the best practices ofothers as well as their own success and failures, and it can be approached in various ways.Functional benchmarking gives insights about performance standards by comparing theperformance of one’s own institution with other educational organisations against a set ofperformance indicators; such is the case of league tables of school examination resultspublished in the UK. This approach can be competitive in nature, where institutions wantto find out how the rival does it; however, the key information is often difficult orimpossible to obtain, and this may turn into a spying exercise. This is why manyDissertation Module – MA ManagementLondon Metropolitan University Carina Balbo – ID No.10029671
  29. 29. 21Total Quality Management in Secondary Educationinstitutions prefer a more collaborative type of functional benchmarking, where theinstitution being benchmarked works in partnership in the exercise, resulting in a mutualbenefit as any institution has lessons to gain from another.Another approach to benchmarking compares an institution’s performance against best-in-class performance, no matter where that is found, which may help senior staff atschools understand that incremental changes in resources or competences may ultimatelylead to satisfactory improvements in performance. These two approaches go hand in handand they seldom take place in isolation. After all, the ultimate goal of benchmarking is tolearn the lessons of others and to use them to improve areas in one particular institution.A very simple example of benchmarking would be that a headteacher together with othersenior members of staff visited an outstanding school (according to Ofsted) in the area inorder to discover best practice and ensure that theirs matches it, and then aspire to doeven better.An institution can also examineits internal processes to determine its own best-practicesby comparing and learning from the performance of other departments orsubjects within the institution itself (Weller, 1996; Sallis, 2002), which can be donethrough systematic lesson observations, information-sharing forums and knowledge-sharing communities. This is known as internal benchmarking. This practice ofbenchmarking one’s own institution before searching outside for exemplars is probablymore valuable than doing it otherwise since it does not pose a threat to any confidentialityissues or problems with accessing sensitive data and saves time on external ventures.Internal benchmarking is closely related with knowledge management(KM) and the notionof becoming a learning organisation. The former involves a range of strategies andpractices used in an organisation to identify, create, represent, distribute, and enableDissertation Module – MA ManagementLondon Metropolitan University Carina Balbo – ID No.10029671
  30. 30. 22Total Quality Management in Secondary Educationadoption of both insights and experiences comprising knowledge, either embodied inindividuals or embedded in organisations as processes or practices.KM focuses primarilyon organisational objectives such as improved performance, competitive advantage(Porter, 1985), innovation, the sharing of lessons learned, integration and continuousimprovement of the organisation. When an organisation develops and encourages anopen knowledge-sharing culture, and facilitates the learning of all its members,consciously transforming itself and its context is said to be a learning organisation(Pedleret.al., 1997).This is typically exemplified when the story or history of a particular institution is writtenup and filmed in such a way that the most noticeable features of success come to the fore.This learning story can be used as part of a staff development or quality improvementsession.Benchmarking is important as a means of establishing competitive advantage, learningfrom and doing better than the market leader. It is a systematic approach toorganisational improvement which may considerably speed the development of a newcurriculum and assure that quality standards are built in at the planning stage. 2.3.4 Corporate and Strategic PlanIn order to give the institution direction into how it is going to achieve success in thiscompetitive educational market, the production of a strategic plan, or corporate plan,becomes vital.Probably the best way of illustrating this is to use theAnsoff matrix (Ansoff, 1988), aproduct/market growth matrix which provides a simple way of generatingfour basicalternative directions for strategic development (see Figure 8):Dissertation Module – MA ManagementLondon Metropolitan University Carina Balbo – ID No.10029671
  31. 31. 23Total Quality Management in Secondary Education A B Market Product penetration/ development Consolidation C D Market Diversification developmentFigure 8Ansoff Matrix (Ansoff, 1988)Anorganisation normally starts in box A,withtwo choices:  marketpenetration: the organisation takes increased share of its existing markets with its existing product range; it builds on existing strategic capabilities and without having to venture into unknown territory. However, organisations seeking greater market penetration may face two constraints: o retaliation from competitors:increasing market penetration is likely to aggravate industry rivalry as other competitors in the market defend their share; therefore, when in danger of retaliation, organisations seeking market penetration need strategic capabilities that give a clear competitive advantage; o legalconstraints:greater market penetration can encounter legal obstacles pertaining to a specific country as most countries have regulators with the powers to restrain powerful companies or prevent mergers and acquisitions that would create such excessive power.  consolidation:focuses defensively on the organisation’s current markets with current products, but is not orientated to growth. It can take two forms:Dissertation Module – MA ManagementLondon Metropolitan University Carina Balbo – ID No.10029671
  32. 32. 24Total Quality Management in Secondary Education o defending market share: when facing aggressive competitors, organisations have to work hard and often creativelyto protect what they already have; o downsizing or divestment: when the size of the market as a whole isdeclining, reducing the size of the business seemsunavoidable; anotheroption is divesting (selling) some activities to other businesses.Buyingup rivalsin a fragmented industrycan also be described as consolidation. Byacquiringweaker competitors, the consolidating company can gainmarket power andincrease overall efficiency. Although this form of consolidationcould be seen as a kind ofmarket penetration because it increases market share, the motivation hereis essentiallydefensive.Moving rightwards(box B), organisations can develop new products for its existingmarkets.Market penetration normally implies some product development, but here it requires agreater degree of innovation. This can, however, result an expensive and high-risk activitybecause of two main reasons: o new strategic capabilities: product developmententails mastering of new technologies that may be unfamiliar to the organisation, therefore involving heavy investments and high risk of project failures; o project management risk: some projects usually attract some delays or cost increase due to their complex nature.Since product development may be expensive and risky, the organisation may resort to analternative strategy: market development (box C), i.e. bring its existing products into newmarkets. This can take three forms:Dissertation Module – MA ManagementLondon Metropolitan University Carina Balbo – ID No.10029671
  33. 33. 25Total Quality Management in Secondary Education o new segments: e.g. in public services, an educational institution may start offering educational services to mature students through the opening of evening courses; o new users: e.g. a software that was originally developed for virtual communications in international companies is now used by schools so that students can communicates with their peers in other countries; o new geographies: the best example is internationalisation, e.g. when an organisation expands his services to other countries.Probably the most radical step is diversification(box D), which takes the organisation to allnew markets and new products, involving building on new relationships with existingmarkets or products. Diversification can also result from market penetration and productdevelopment, and should be seen as question of degree, rather than a strategy on its own.There are three main value-creating reasons why this strategy is followed: o efficiency gains:also described as economies of scope, i.e. when an organisation applies its existing resources or capabilities to new markets and products or services o stretching corporate parenting capabilities:new markets and products or services can be another source of gain; this extends the point above about applying existing competences in new areas. o increasing market power: resulting from having a diverse range of businesses, which may enable an organisation to cross-subsidise one business from the surpluses earned by another, thus giving an organisation a competitive advantage; and in the long run driving out other competitors.Dissertation Module – MA ManagementLondon Metropolitan University Carina Balbo – ID No.10029671
  34. 34. 26Total Quality Management in Secondary EducationSome other reasons may serve managerial interests rather than stakeholders’ interests: o responding to market decline: the best example is Microsoft when venturing with the Xbox, which involved a very high cost in launching and marketing; the shareholders would have probably left Sony and Nintendo to create games, and keep the Xbox money; o spreading risk across a range of businesses; o the expectations of powerful stakeholders, including top managers, can sometimes drive inappropriate diversification. 2.3.5 Quality policy, Quality plan and Quality costsEducational institutions are involved in quality assurance activities on the basis ofprofessional responsibility,as well as other reasons linked with the competition inherent ineducational marketplaces or from the need to demonstrate accountability. According toSallis (2002), there are four quality imperatives that reflect the complex environment inwhich educational establishments operate:  the moral imperative: it is the duty of educational professionals and administrators to provide the very best possible educational opportunities for students, parents and the community.  the professional imperative: professionalism entails a commitment to the students’ needs and an obligation to meet those needs by putting the most appropriate methodology into practice.  the competitive imperative: competition has become a reality in the educational sector, this requires strategies that makes institutions different from their competitors, and most often quality is the only differentiating factor for anDissertation Module – MA ManagementLondon Metropolitan University Carina Balbo – ID No.10029671
  35. 35. 27Total Quality Management in Secondary Education institution; focusing on students’ needs is one of the most effective ways of tackling competition and surviving.  the accountability imperative: as part of their communities, schools have the duty to publicly demonstrate their high standards, thus meeting the political demands for education.Should the institution fail to meet any of the above imperatives, its well-being and survivalcan be in jeopardy. These are moments in which both politicians and parents’ demandsare high, and for the industry of education quality improvement is no longer an option,but a must.The quality of education an institution provides can be assessed using external qualitystandards, which are not compulsory and many institutions chose not to be burdened withmeeting someone else’s standards; however, they are worth considering when developinga quality programme, for the following reasons:  they help the institution develop a TQM culture,  they can be used as a framework for auditing quality processes, and  they serve as a self-assessment tool.From the general to the specific, from the international to the national, Figure 9identifiessome of the school award schemes an educational institution may choose to follow.Even though it is not compulsory for schools to apply for these awards, it is, to someextent, important since customers – students, parents and the community - need theassurance and confidence that the supplier – the school – has the ability to provide theproduct or service consistently to the defined quality.Dissertation Module – MA ManagementLondon Metropolitan University Carina Balbo – ID No.10029671
  36. 36. 28Total Quality Management in Secondary EducationIn contrast, Ofsted inspections are compulsory and schools cannot opt out. Ofsted is anindependent and impartial body reporting directly to Parliament, who inspect andregulate services which care for children and young people, and those providing educationand skills for learners of all ages; therefore, hundreds of inspections and regulatory visitsthroughout England are carried out every week (www.ofsted.gov.uk). ISO 9000:2000 ARTSMARK INVESTORS IN PEOPLE HEALTHY SCHOOLS EXTERNAL STANDARDS OFSTED IN AWARD EDUCATION ECO- SCHOOLS QUALITY MARK IQM (INCLUSION QUALITY MARK)Figure 9 External Standards in EducationThese inspections serve, for educational institutions, as means ofverifying self-assessmentand quality control, rather than quality improvement, which is a much greater task andcannot be externally imposed. Institutions cannot hand over the process of improvingquality to an external inspector.Quality costing implies to measure the benefits of quality improvement. TQM aims atapproaching things the right way first time and every time, with zero defects. Most oftenDissertation Module – MA ManagementLondon Metropolitan University Carina Balbo – ID No.10029671
  37. 37. 29Total Quality Management in Secondary Educationthe costs involved in prevention, are essential to stop things going wrong and to ensurethings are done properly. While these costs can be directly quantified, the costs of failure,which usually involve opportunity costs – lostopportunities or businesses, are moredifficult to measure. Figure10 below provides some examples of how costs can beprevented and what may cause cost failure, both at an internal and external level.Figure 10 Examples of prevention and failure costs in education (Sallis, 2002:131) 2.3.6 Feedback and evaluationIf the institution is a learning organisation, in order to prevent failure and to ensure qualitysystems are in place, monitoring, feedback and evaluation are key elements in strategicplanning. This should customer-focused and should explore two issues:  the degree to which the institution is meeting the requirements of its customers, or stakeholders, both internal and external;  how well it is achieving its mission and goals, at the three levels discussed above:Dissertation Module – MA ManagementLondon Metropolitan University Carina Balbo – ID No.10029671
  38. 38. 30Total Quality Management in Secondary Education o intermediate – by checking students’ progress on a daily basis; this is quite an informal evaluation, carried out termly by teachers, for instance; o short-term – involving more structured assessment to verify the students are on track, and can be used as a quality control method to highlight mistakes and problems; the focus here is on corrective action to prevent student failure or under-achievement; o long-term – implying an overview of the progress towards achieving strategic goals; as an institutional-led evaluation, it requires large-scale sampling of customer views as well as monitoring of institutional PIs. This type of evaluation can result in the institution’s updating the strategic plan. 2.4 Organisational considerationsEducational institutions and their environments are in a state of constant change, and likeall organisations, they have a life cycle, i.e., formation, growth, maturity, and eitherdecline and decay, or renewal and revitalisation (Figure 11). Therefore, at each stage, aninstitution must change, adapt and develop. With its powerful components of long-termstrategic planning and the engagement of staff in continuous improvement, TQM providesthe necessary means of confronting challenges at each stage.The question that should be discussed now concerns what type of organisational structureand design is most effective in light of the TQM model.Dissertation Module – MA ManagementLondon Metropolitan University Carina Balbo – ID No.10029671
  39. 39. 31Total Quality Management in Secondary EducationFigure 11 Phases of institutional development (Sallis, 2002:61) 2.4.1 Organisational structure and designOrganisations have existed forover two millennia, where human beings, forming socialentities have worked together towards a common goal arranged in a structure designedaccording to the influence the environment exerts on it, and traditionally directed by amanager assigning tasks and responsibilities to other individuals or groups. The system inwhich a company’s important tasks are subdivided and grouped to create the processes,decision centres, and behavioural network that carries out the strategies is known asorganisational structure (Bloisi et.al., 2003), which are usually represented by a symbolicstructure with boxes and lines showing the positions and reporting relations, i.e.anorganisational chart. Another important concept is that of organisational design, definedas ‘the process managers go through to create meaningful structures, decision andinformation networks, and governance systems’ (Bloisi et.al., 2003: 624). The design is theframework on which a more organic, emergent socialstructure develops as peopleinteract, argue, fall out, cometogether and otherwise manage their daily situation (Bateat.al., 2000), whereas organisational structure includes both ‘theprescribed frameworksDissertation Module – MA ManagementLondon Metropolitan University Carina Balbo – ID No.10029671
  40. 40. 32Total Quality Management in Secondary Educationandrealised configurations of interaction, and the degrees to which they are mutuallyconstituted and constituting’ (Ranson, 1980: 3).The organisational design is important because it provides for 1. the allocation and grouping of tasks; 2. communication networks; 3. a structure locating the authorities; 4. processes for coordination, control and conflict resolution; and 5. the way to link key activities with the relevant external stakeholders.Traditionally, four basic structures have been identified as a method of organisationaldesign (Bloisi et.al., 2003):  organisational design by functiongroups people into departments according to expertise, functions performed, and similar skills;  organisational design by geographyapplies when organisations grow, they usually expand to other regions, or even countries;  organisational design by product linegroups different departments according to the product or service they provide;  organisational design by customer/channel market allows the staff to concentrate on specific services based on the type of customer or channel market.Even though organisations may be structured in different ways, probably the mostcommon ones are tall, flat and matrix structures.  Tall structures show a both hierarchical and psychological distance between the top and the bottom. They can result in complex reporting relationships, operatingDissertation Module – MA ManagementLondon Metropolitan University Carina Balbo – ID No.10029671
  41. 41. 33Total Quality Management in Secondary Education and support systems, promotion and career paths, and differentiated job titles; however, spans of control tend to be small and the proportion of staff with some form of supervisory responsibility tends to be high with respect to the whole organisation (Pettinger, 2007). For instance, in Figure 12 below, the Human Resource Manager (reporting directly to Director C) and the IT controller (reporting directly to Director B) are in staff relationship to the organisation as a whole. CEO D irector A D irector B D irector C IT controller H um an R esource Manager M anager 1 M a n ag e r 2 M anager 3 M a n ag e r 4 S upervisor S upervisor C hief clerk 1 C h ie f cle rk 2 C le rk 1 C le rk 2Figure 12 Example of a tall structure: staff relationship  Flat structures, in contrast, show a short hierarchical distance between top and bottom as there few levels or ranks, and jobs tend to be concentrated at lower levels, often carrying responsibilities of quality control or deadline targets. Spans of control is usually large and career paths may be limited, but these may be replaced by opportunities for functional and expertise development as well as participation in various projects.Dissertation Module – MA ManagementLondon Metropolitan University Carina Balbo – ID No.10029671
  42. 42. 34Total Quality Management in Secondary EducationFigure 13 Flat organisational structure in a small school district  Matrix structures incorporate dual responsibilities and reporting relationships linking certain functions with specific products or projects. This type of structure is generally used in organisations where people with functional expertise are assigned to a project only temporarily, and then are reassigned to another project once the previous one has been accomplished (Bloisi et.al., 2003).Figure 14 Matrix structure of a school 2.4.2 Centralisation vs. decentralisationThe structure of an organisation usually tells where decisions are made, and managersusually have to decide whether to adopt a centralised or decentralised approach.Dissertation Module – MA ManagementLondon Metropolitan University Carina Balbo – ID No.10029671
  43. 43. 35Total Quality Management in Secondary EducationCentralisation ‘is the concentration of authority and decision-making towards the top ofan organisation’, whereas decentralisation ‘is the dispersion of authority and decision-making to operating units throughout an organisation’ (Bloisi et.al., 2003: 631)Many medium-to-large companies tend to have a degree of both centralisation anddecentralisation in their structure, whereas large organisations, with highly qualifiedemployees are less centralised, diffusing decision-making and allowing greaterparticipation.Naturally, both approaches have their advantages and disadvantages. Table 1 summarisesthe advantages of these two approaches:Table 1 Advantages of centralised and decentralised structures Advantages of Centralised Structures Advantages of Decentralised StructuresSenior managers enjoy greater control over the Senior managers have time to concentrate onorganisation. the most important decisions (as the other decisions can be undertaken by other people down the organisation structure.The use of standardised procedures can results Decision making is a form of empowerment.in cost savings. Empowerment can increase motivation and therefore mean that staff output increases.Decisions can be made to benefit the People lower down the chain have a greaterorganisations as a whole, whereas a decision understanding of the environment they work inmade by a department manager may benefit and the people (customers and colleagues) thattheir department, but disadvantage other they interact with. This knowledge skills anddepartments. experience may enable them to make more effective decisions than senior managers.The organisation can benefit from the decision Empowerment will enable departments andmaking of experienced senior managers. their employees to respond faster to changes and new challenges. Whereas it may take senior managers longer to appreciate that business needs have changed.In uncertain times the organisation will need Empowerment makes it easier for people tostrong leadership and pull in the same direction. accept and make a success of moreIt is believed that strong leadership is often best responsibility.given from above.Contrastingly, the drawbacks of both styles are summarised below (Campbell and Craig,2007):Dissertation Module – MA ManagementLondon Metropolitan University Carina Balbo – ID No.10029671
  44. 44. 36Total Quality Management in Secondary EducationTable 2 Disadvantages of centralised and decentralised structures Disadvantages of Centralised Structures Disadvantages of Decentralised StructuresIt restricts the ability of certain area managers It may lead to the problem of co-ordination atto use their knowledge of specific circumstances the level of an enterprise as the decision-to adapt their area of activity for the optimum making authority is not concentrated.benefit of the organisationIt has a detrimental effect on management It may lead to inconsistencies (i.e. absence ofdevelopment by stifling initiative uniformity) at the organisation level.It is generally incompatible with effective It is costly as it raises administrative expensesmanagement in highly competitive environment on account of requirement of trained personnel to accept authority at lower levelsBureaucracy controls of efficiency inhibit overall Its introduction may be difficult ororganisations effectiveness impracticable in small concerns where product lines are not broad enough for the creation of autonomous units for administrative purposes. It creates special problems particularly when the enterprise is facing number of uncertainties or emergency situationsBurns and Stalker (1966) grouped organisations according to how they respond to theirenvironment into two categories: mechanistic and organic organisation. Mechanisticorganisations show a rigid hierarchical structure, where control and authority is at the top,tasks are divided into specific functional duties, also related to individual roles. Here adirect link with the centralised approach can be established. On the other hand, organicorganisations tend to value knowledge and experience for its contribution to the commontask, and individual tasks are seen in relation to the organisation as a whole, which areconstantly redefined through the interaction with others. Authority and control has alateral direction, rather than vertical, and power is based around knowledge, which can belocated anywhere in the organisation, and therefore, prestige is more associated withexperience than position (Morgan, 2006).These two types of organisations are found at opposite ends of a continuum and most areexpected to have a mix of both types. 2.4.3 An effective TQM structureDissertation Module – MA ManagementLondon Metropolitan University Carina Balbo – ID No.10029671
  45. 45. 37 Total Quality Management in Secondary Education An effective TQM institution is usually diametrically opposed to the traditional centralised model. Quality is integrated into its structure, involving everyone at all levels to make their own contribution; thus the institution acting like one in a more organic fashion. An institution embracing TQM tends to eliminate hierarchies, which are replaced by a flatter structure with strong cross-institutional links built around a strong teamwork. Tall hierarchies, such as the one in Figure 12, with excessive layers of management usually hold back the job of those in the classroom. Whereas such traditional organisations are structured around functions, a TQM institution is organised around processes which are under a single and simple chain of command. Excellent organisations have simple and non-bureaucratic structures based on active and enthusiastic teams. Some of the main differences between a quality and an ordinary organisation are summarised below:Figure 15The differences between a quality institution and an ordinary institution (Sallis, 2002: 64) Dissertation Module – MA Management London Metropolitan University Carina Balbo – ID No.10029671
  46. 46. 38Total Quality Management in Secondary EducationTaking into account that structure follows process under TQM, the features needed forany quality institution are the following (Sallis, 2002):Table 3 Features of a quality institutionUnit optimisation every department needs to function efficiently and effectively operating within clear quality standardsVertical alignment it may not be necessary for all members of staff to have a detailed breakdown of objectives but all of them need to understand the strategy, the direction and mission of the institutionHorizontal alignment there should be mechanisms in place in order to bar out any problems arising from competition between departments and gear everyone towards an understanding of the aims and requirements of other parts of the institutionA single command for each process key processes such as curriculum, pastoral and administrative should be charted and organised so as to bring each process under a single chain of command. The charting process usually results from analysing who the customer is what their needs are and the standards they should expect.Figure 16 Institutional alignment (Sallis, 2002: 65)Dissertation Module – MA ManagementLondon Metropolitan University Carina Balbo – ID No.10029671

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