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Sea Water Air Conditioning Technical Overview


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A presentation delivered by Remi Booker and Diego Acevedo of Bluerise on March 6, 2017 at the Sea Water Air Conditioning in the Caribbean Workshop at the Caribbean Development Bank.

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Sea Water Air Conditioning Technical Overview

  1. 1. © Bluerise BV SWAC TECHNICAL OVERVIEW Technical Principles of SWAC | Energy Saving Potential | Market Potential Remi Blokker, CEO Bluerise, Delft, Netherlands Diego Acevedo, VP BusDev Bluerise, Aruba
  2. 2. © Bluerise BV Agenda Introduction – Diego Acevedo Technical Principles of SWAC – Remi Blokker Energy Saving Potential – Diego Acevedo Market Potential – Remi Blokker Q & A
  3. 3. © Bluerise BV Oceans: largest solar collector and energy storage Ocean Thermal Energy: highest potential when comparing all ocean energy technologies
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  13. 13. © Bluerise BV© Bluerise BV Technical principles of SWAC Water is pumped up through a large diameter pipe from the deep ocean to a cooling station Heat (cold actually) is transferred in the cooling station to a distribution network consisting of insulated pipes Each customer is connected to the network A customer substation is used to transfer the cold to the customer’s site
  14. 14. © Bluerise BV© Bluerise BV Cold water pipe Pipeline is made of high density poly- ethylene (HDPE) Pipe will be towed to holding area from manufacturing location Pipe will be assembled at holding area and towed to site Pipeline will be lowered to seafloor, typically using a so-called S-lay Pipeline will be subsurface along the shoreline (trenched or tunneled) Pipeline has a lifetime of +30 years
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  26. 26. © Bluerise BV© Bluerise BV Pump station Shore landing can be dredged, drilled or tunneled. Either a dry or wet pit/reservoir can be used, requiring either submerged pumps or a subsurface pump station inside a compact concrete pit Seawater pumps are used in a redundant manner and require little energy. Optionally, this energy could be supplied by an OTEC generator in tandem with the SWAC
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  32. 32. © Bluerise BV© Bluerise BV Cooling station The cooling station is equipped with a series of heat exchangers, which are used to chill a fresh water loop. Salt water is never in contact with customer installations. Cooling station should be situated at a height close to sealevel, to minimize pumping power Cooling station will house backup chillers to ensure peak capacity and high uptime and provide redundancy
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  37. 37. © Bluerise BV© Bluerise BV Distribution network The distribution network consists of a series of feed and return lines, consisting of insulated pipes, in various diameters It is important to correctly balance the system in terms of efficiency and cost. Using too small diameters will result in higher pumping costs, too large diameter will result in a higher investment
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  40. 40. © Bluerise BV Curaçao Airport projected SWAC Network
  41. 41. © Bluerise BV© Bluerise BV Customer substation The customer substation, also known as energy transfer station, is where the cooling is supplied to the customer through a heat exchanger The substation contains all the required control and sensors to ensure correct pressure, temperature and flow speeds of the supply and return system Metering of the customer’s energy usage is also performed in the substation The substation saves space and frees the customer of maintenance
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  44. 44. © Bluerise BV Automation The cooling plant, pump station and distribution system are typically controlled by a SCADA system Plant can be operated remotely. Most functions of e.g. the Amsterdam district cooling networks can be accessed by operator using smartphone Integrated metering and billing Sub-metering of individual users possible
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  46. 46. © Bluerise BV Energy usage of air-conditioning The energy usage of a chiller/cooling system is expressed as COP, Coefficient of Performance. COP indicates the amount of units of cooling one unit of electricity can provide. Typical compressor based chillers in the Caribbean obtain COPs of between 3 and 4 The warm, humid air limits these chillers to obtain higher efficiency, e.g. evaporative cooling does not add much to the efficiency because of the high dew point temperature Cooling to relatively warm water, e.g. surface seawater or a well, can increase COP to a little over 4
  47. 47. © Bluerise BV Energy usage of SWAC The energy usage of SWAC is primarily going to at one side the seawater pumps to transport the deep seawater and on the other side to the distribution pumps to distribute the cold fresh water to the customers Depending on the temperature of the deep seawater and also on the capacity of the deep seawater pipe, some additional cooling might be required using confentional chillers, also requiring energy The COP of a well performing SWAC system can easily achieve above 30, meaning that 10 times more cooling is provided per energy unit than for a chiller with a COP of 3. This is why SWAC can save up to 90% of the energy required.
  48. 48. © Bluerise BV Cost reduction potential - 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 Jan-08 Apr-08 Jul-08 Oct-08 Jan-09 Apr-09 Jul-09 Oct-09 Jan-10 Apr-10 Jul-10 Oct-10 Jan-11 Apr-11 Jul-11 Oct-11 Jan-12 Apr-12 Jul-12 Oct-12 Jan-13 Apr-13 Jul-13 Oct-13 Jan-14 Apr-14 Jul-14 Oct-14 Jan-15 Apr-15 Jul-15 Oct-15 Jan-16 Apr-16 Jul-16 Oct-16 Jan-17 Electricity Rate - Jamaica (USD/kwh)
  49. 49. © Bluerise BV LCOC = CAPEX + OPEXt (1+WACC)tt=1 n å Cooling_deliveredt (1+WACC)tt=1 n å Cost of cooling is based on the balance between system dimension (driving CAPEX) and current and future demand Design for expansion -> potential for decrease in cooling cost in time Simplified levelized cost of cooling formula: Cost of Cooling
  50. 50. © Bluerise BV Cost of Cooling comparison Medium-sized project
  51. 51. © Bluerise BV CO2 Savings Potential Source Estimated GHG Emissions Diesel - HFO ~0.6 kg-CO2 /kwh Coal ~0.8 kg-CO2 /kwh Example a district cooling system of approximately 12,000 peak tons of A/C capacity on an island with Diesel or HFO based power grid would save over 100,000 tons of CO2 emissions per year
  52. 52. © Bluerise BV Key benefits Customer Benefits Energy reduction – 80-90% savings on cooling power Reduced cooling costs Elimination of price volatility – long term contracts Environmentally benign Less maintenance Plug-and-play Lower costs District Benefits Enabler for growth and overall economic development Lower costs of cooling can attract other industries/activities Reduce A/C peaks for utility
  53. 53. © Bluerise BV Market Potential Energy for Heating – stabilizing • Energy savings – insulation • Climate Change Energy for Cooling – growing • Increasing prosperity • Climate Change M. Isaac and D. P. van Vuuren, 2009
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  55. 55. © Bluerise BV Context - Caribbean “This region has some of the highest energy costs in the world. Caribbean countries are particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change and we have to act now.”, US President Obama, CARICOM summit, April 2015
  56. 56. © Bluerise BV Almost all Caribbean countries have good access for SWAC & OTEC *NB, eastern side shown, western side also has good access Context - Caribbean
  57. 57. © Bluerise BV© Bluerise BV Techno-economic Potential Online OTEC resource assessment tool: Global datasets provide great insights in the potentially available resource for any given location
  58. 58. © Bluerise BV Fossil fuels • Most Caribbean countries do not have fossil resources and need to import • Serious energy security risks • LNG & CNG do not change this • Fossil fuels emit large amounts of greenhouse gas • Low-carbon fossil a false hope? Nuclear – not sustainable, and requires scale that is probably prohibitive for Caribbean Renewables – only real option for sustainable, energy-secure, future • Hydro – mature, very dependent on local conditions • Wind – mature, intermittent • Solar – mature, intermittent • SWAC, mature, baseload • OTEC, near-commercial, baseload • Geothermal – semi-mature, baseload, very dependent on local conditions, considerable risk with drilling • Biomass – mature, but arguably non-sustainable, large land usage, competing with food Renewable Energy Options in Caribbean
  59. 59. © Bluerise BV© Bluerise BV Island renewable energy mix example Aruba case
  60. 60. © Bluerise BV one week Power(MW) © Bluerise BV Island renewable energy mix example Energy mix with intermittent renewables
  61. 61. © Bluerise BV one week Power(MW) © Bluerise BV Island renewable energy mix example Energy mix with intermittent and baseload renewables
  62. 62. © Bluerise BV Learning Curve Wind and solar price decrease in time
  63. 63. © Bluerise BV© Bluerise BV Techno-economic Feasibility Rough Indicators: Deep sea within ~10km from coastline The closer the better Concentrated cooling loads within 10km from coast > 3000 tons of A/C The larger the better Ideally large buildings with centralized A/C units (e.g. Chillers) Potential customers: Hotels + Resorts, Airports, Data Centers, Commercial centers, Big Box stores, Housing complexes, Industry
  64. 64. © Bluerise BV Project Enablers Parallels to Solar/Wind energy financing, with the difference of having a multitude of customers, instead of one PPA contract Infrastructure utility type of investment = Need for long term contracts Take or pay contracts possible, need for credit worthy local entity BOOT concessionary contracting, shift development and construction risk to private sector while optimizing long term energy pricing Systems can be dimensioned to current need but more cost efficient to size for future demand. Demand growth risk Innovation can benefit from grants for EIA, capacity development, de-risking in terms of site, permitting, regulatory framework, lower cost of capital translating into lower cost of cooling to the end-users.
  65. 65. © Bluerise BV Other Market Opportunities Virtually free of pathogen deep seawater is ideal for keeping brood-stock and the growing of high value fish. Seawater cooled greenhouses allow to grow crops that normally only grow in more temperate climates
  66. 66. © Bluerise BV Other Market Opportunities The cold water found in the deep ocean is a key enabler for a broad range of sustainable applications.
  67. 67. © Bluerise BV Thank you Q&A