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Sea Water Air Conditioning in the Caribbean

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A presentation delivered by the Development Bank of Latin America on March 6, 2017 at the Sea Water Air Conditioning in the Caribbean Workshop at the Caribbean Development Bank.

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Sea Water Air Conditioning in the Caribbean

  1. 1. 1 SEA WATER AIR CONDITIONING IN THE CARIBBEAN Workshop March 6, 2017 Caribbean Development Bank Conference Centre Wildey, St. Michael, Barbados
  2. 2. Membership Evolution 1990 2000 2011 • Bolivia • Colombia • Ecuador • Perú • Venezuela • Argentina • Barbados • Bolivia • Brasil • Colombia • Ecuador • Panamá • Paraguay • Perú • Trinidad y Tobago • Uruguay • Venezuela • Chile • Costa Rica • Jamaica • México • Rep. Dominicana • España • Portugal 5 countries 16 countries 19 Counries 20151970- 1990
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  4. 4. 6 Background and Justification for Establishing a Regional District Cooling Program (including SWAC)
  5. 5.  Over the last two decades, Caribbean Island States and multilateral development agencies have been evaluating alternatives to lower the costs of energy and CO2 emissions in the Caribbean;  One characteristic of such an effort has been energy integration projects pursuing economies of scale;  The main projects considered have been electric power interconnection and gas pipeline projects among islands and geothermal projects;  However, due to many challenges, these energy integration projects have been difficult to implement. 7 Some background Why Are We Here Today?
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  8. 8.  The energy demand for air conditioning in Caribbean countries is quite extensive due to the hot climate. Among the reasons for the large electricity consumption in Caribbean countries, especially in coastal cities, are the presence of many resorts and tertiary buildings with air conditioned installations using electricity.  Air conditioning (cooling) in the Caribbean countries is provided by conventional cooling systems (CCSs) that use electric power to chill water which is distributed throughout buildings to pick up heat and transfer it to the outside air. The conventional A/C system consumes around 35-60% of the total electrical power used in such buildings.  Considering that the average price of electricity in many of the Caribbean Island States is over US $0.30 per kWh, the energy bills are quite high, especially for the hotel sector.  The Caribbean island economies are very dependent on fossil energy sources. In some islands energy needs are covered above 90% by imported fossil fuels. Sudden surges in the oil price result in significant economic damages. 10 Why Are We Here Today?
  9. 9. 11 Why Are We Here Today? Source: IMF Country Report No. 16/279
  10. 10. In order to contribute to revert the situation, in 2013 CAF developed a strategy based on energy and energy efficiency projects that would not depend on an integration of physical infrastructures among islands and identified, as one of the alternatives, sea water air cooling (SWAC) 12 CAF Strategy
  11. 11.  Deep seawater resources are a valuable natural resource in the Caribbean that can be used for energy generation, cooling, desalination, aquaculture and agriculture.  The most economically viable use of this deep water is to provide air-conditioning in buildings through Sea Water Air Conditioning (SWAC) systems. A SWAC system consists of a cold seawater supply pipe (intake), a pumping unit and heat exchanger (at the shoreline), and a closed loop with fresh water distribution to cover cooling needs of each building connected through a secondary heat exchanger. 13 Sea Water Air Conditioning
  12. 12. 14 Sea Water Air Conditioning
  13. 13.  Between 2014 CAF invested US$ 200,000 to perform, among other activities, a preliminary assessment of the technical and economic aspects related to the introduction of SWAC in four Caribbean islands  The results showed that the potential use of technology in the Caribbean SWAC was technically and economically feasible in several locations. 15 CAF Strategy
  14. 14. 16www.caf.com A PRE-FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR DEEP SEAWATER AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS IN THE CARIBBEAN
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  25. 25. 27 CAF Launched a Regional District Cooling Program  Given the success of the first study on SWAC in the Caribbean, and the identification of additional locations in Latin America potentially eligible for projects for district cooling, CAF proceeded with the launching of a Regional District Cooling Program that includes: a) sea water air conditioning (SWAC) for Caribbean coastal locations; and b) centralized urban cooling (District Cooling) systems for non-coastal Latin American cities.
  26. 26. 5 CAF Regional District Cooling Program Prioritized Island Locations in the Caribbean (SWAC)
  27. 27. 5 1 2 3 4 5-7 10 8 6 11 12 9 CAF Regional District Cooling Program Prioritized Mainland Locations in Latin America
  28. 28. 5 Implementation phases CAF Regional District Cooling Program US$ 693,000
  29. 29. 31 CAF Regional District Cooling Program (Phase I) The program with a budget of US$ 693,000 includes the following activities:  The realization of two major regional SWAC conferences (one already carried out in Panama);  Regional SWAC studies in the Caribbean (one to be contracted out this month);  A district cooling study in Medellin, Colombia; and  The preparation of a full size GEF grant proposal for a Caribbean SWAC regional project 
  30. 30. 32 Regional SWAC studies in the Caribbean (to be contracted out this month) will include the realization of the following specific studies: • A preliminary evaluation of the environmental impacts and mitigating measures related to the installation of SWAC projects in the Caribbean for the proposed localities. • Detailed evaluation of the cooling loads of potential clients of a SWAC project in Puerto Plata that might be commercially interested to be connected to the distribution system. Estimation of carbon emission reductions should also be addressed • Feasibility studies for introducing SWAC projects in the locations of Punta Cana (DR), Santa Marta (CO), and pre-feasibility studies Playa Coronado near Panama City (PA), Colon (PA) and Puerto Armuelles (PA), including the estimation of carbon emission reductions for each project CAF Regional District Cooling Program (Phase I)
  31. 31. 33 All the activities of the CAF Regional District Cooling Program (Phase I) will be carried out during 2017 and the results will be presented in the Third Regional District Cooling Conference at the end of the year CAF Regional District Cooling Program (Phase I)
  32. 32. 34 Frank Vanoy Principal Executive fvanoy@caf.com Alvaro Atilano Principal Executive aatilano@caf.com Thank You!

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