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The wonderful world of dna

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The wonderful world of dna

  1. 1. The Wonderful World of DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)
  2. 2. Review <ul><li>Everything is made of matter </li></ul><ul><li>Matter is made of molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Molecules are made from elements </li></ul><ul><li>DNA is a molecule that is made from other molecules </li></ul>
  3. 3. What does it look like
  4. 4. DNA Fun Facts <ul><li>DNA was first isolated in 1869 by Friedrich Miescher. </li></ul><ul><li>James Watson and Francis Crick figured out the structure of DNA in 1953. Although they did “borrow” much of the research to figure it out. </li></ul><ul><li>DNA is a double helix. </li></ul><ul><li>One chromosome can have as little as 50 million base pairs or as much as 250 million base pairs. </li></ul><ul><li>If unwound and tied together, the strands of DNA in one cell would stretch almost six feet but would be only 50 trillionths of an inch wide. </li></ul><ul><li>Over 99% of our DNA sequence is the same as other humans’ </li></ul>
  5. 5. DNA is important because <ul><li>It has a really long, scientific name </li></ul><ul><li>It is the instructions that code for the creation and maintenance of living things </li></ul><ul><li>It is what mitosis uses for its phases </li></ul><ul><li>All of the above makes DNA important </li></ul>29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
  6. 6. A double helix is like a <ul><li>Spiral Staircase </li></ul><ul><li>A twisted ladder </li></ul><ul><li>A piece of licorice </li></ul><ul><li>More than one of the above are correct </li></ul>29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
  7. 7. The DNA model <ul><li>It all starts with the “backbone” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Phosphate is connected to the deoxyribose sugar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The bonds holding them together are STRONG. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We don’t want the DNA to separate along backbone </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The DNA model <ul><li>The building block is a nucleotide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA is built from small similar parts called nucleotides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It consists of three parts: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A phosphate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Connected to the Sugar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A nitrogen base connected to the sugar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are 4 nitrogen bases: A denine, T hymine, G uanine and C ytosine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They pair up on opposite sides of the DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adenine with Thymine & Cytosine with Guanine </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. DNA has two backbones. <ul><li>True </li></ul><ul><li>False </li></ul>29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
  10. 10. Nitrogen bases in DNA pair up like this: <ul><li>A – C, G - T </li></ul><ul><li>G – A, T - G </li></ul><ul><li>A – T, G - C </li></ul><ul><li>They don’t pair up at all </li></ul>29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
  11. 11. A nucleotide is like <ul><li>A lego </li></ul><ul><li>A brick </li></ul><ul><li>A puzzle piece </li></ul><ul><li>All of the above </li></ul>29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
  12. 12. A little video clip showing this DNA Stuff
  13. 13. The Code <ul><li>The A, T, G & C’s are set in an order for a specific trait </li></ul><ul><li>The code can only be read when the DNA is open </li></ul><ul><li>It is coded in 3 letter sequences. </li></ul><ul><li>Each 3 letter sequence is called a CODON. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Which would be an example of a codon? <ul><li>CBA </li></ul><ul><li>GATTACA </li></ul><ul><li>KFAN </li></ul><ul><li>None of the above </li></ul>29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
  15. 15. Reading the Code <ul><li>When DNA is read, it is read one gene at a time </li></ul><ul><li>Each gene codes for a specific trait </li></ul><ul><li>When a gene is ready to be read, DNA unzips </li></ul><ul><li>A molecule called mRNA is formed as a copy of the code </li></ul>
  16. 16. mRNA <ul><li>mRNA (messenger RNA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made with Ribose sugar instead of Deoxyribose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only a single strand, but still twisted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses Uracil as a nitrogen base instead of Thymine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Built as a match to DNA </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Reading the code <ul><li>Each codon is represented by one AMINO ACID. </li></ul><ul><li>Amino Acids are assembled in the order of the code. </li></ul><ul><li>When assembled they are called PROTEINS. </li></ul>
  18. 18. We still haven’t said how the code is read!? <ul><li>The actual reading is done by the RIBOSOMES outside of the nucleus. </li></ul><ul><li>They call for molecules call tRNA that carry specific amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>The tRNA’s bring in the aminos and attach them to the ones that are there, creating a long line of amino acids call a PROTEIN. </li></ul>
  19. 19. tRNA <ul><li>tRNA (transfer RNA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is a short strand of RNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 3 nucleotides long (1 codon) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carry one specific amino acid that is specific to the code that it has </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. The Process is in Two Stages <ul><li>Stage 1 (Transcription) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA unzips </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mRNA is made </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mRNA is released into nucleus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA zips back up </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. What is created in the end of transcription? <ul><li>2 nd half of DNA </li></ul><ul><li>tRNA </li></ul><ul><li>Unzipped DNA </li></ul><ul><li>mRNA </li></ul><ul><li>None of the above </li></ul>
  22. 22. Transcription Video
  23. 23. <ul><li>Stage 2 (Translation) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mRNA goes out of the nucleus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attaches to a ribosome at one codon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ribosomes read the code and call for one of the tRNAs with the opposite code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tRNA matches up with the mRNA at the ribosome, attaches its amino acid to the others that are there (peptide bond between aminos), then leaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continues to do this until the mRNA runs out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mRNA returns to the nucleus and breaks up into its nucleotides. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The amino acid chain is the PROTEIN (or a polypeptide) and is released to control the trait </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. What is created in the end of translation? <ul><li>Protein </li></ul><ul><li>tRNA </li></ul><ul><li>Unzipped DNA </li></ul><ul><li>mRNA </li></ul><ul><li>None of the above </li></ul>
  25. 25. Translation Video
  26. 26. Amino Acid Table

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