Air Quality and Tree Programs

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Speaker: Aaron Katzenstein

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  • Costs associated with not meeting the federal standards $22 billion per year
  • LA is 2.5 degrees warmer than in the 1930s Estimated that 3-8% of electricity demand is used to offset urban heat island effect
  • LA is 2.5 degrees warmer than in the 1930s Estimated that 3-8% of electricity demand is used to offset urban heat island effect
  • LA is 2.5 degrees warmer than in the 1930s Estimated that 3-8% of electricity demand is used to offset urban heat island effect
  • Southern planted trees can provide summer shade and winter solar heat gain (canopy height and/or if tree is deciduous) Some utilities have rebate programs for tree planting programs
  • LA is 2.5 degrees warmer than in the 1930s Estimated that 3-8% of electricity demand is used to offset urban heat island effect
  • LA is 2.5 degrees warmer than in the 1930s Estimated that 3-8% of electricity demand is used to offset urban heat island effect
  • LA is 2.5 degrees warmer than in the 1930s Estimated that 3-8% of electricity demand is used to offset urban heat island effect
  • 200 tons per day are biogenic from roughly 800 ton voc inventory
  • 100teragrams a year (12 zeros)Isoprene emissions occur during photosynthesis
  • 135 MT CO2 34% of states emissionMATES 80+ %$54 billion spent on energyOver 7 billion gallons of gasoline
  • Electricity production good control of criteria pollutants emissions-transportation sources specifically goods movement largest problem
  • City of Riverside rebate program
  • Benefits of trees – help reduce air pollutants, provide walkable neighborhoods/communities, reduce heat island effects, -Determined tree low biogenic VOC from study conducted by AurthurWiner at UCLA on ozone forming potential for SoCal Trees. Cut off list at California Fan Palm, only popular oak tree that did not make list was the coastal live oak. Palm oil tree tops list with highest biogenic emissions. Equivalent to 5 to 10 cars.-Also required tree maintenance-heritage trees were acceptable-trees had to be 15 gallon to 24” bucket size
  • Air Quality and Tree Programs

    1. 1. Air Quality and Tree Programs Aaron Katzenstein, Ph.D Climate and Energy Supervisor Planning and Rules – South Coast AQMD
    2. 2. Outline • Background on AQMD and Air Quality • Trees and Air Pollutants • SCAQMD Tree Programs
    3. 3. 5
    4. 4. Air Quality Management: Who Does What • Adopts Health- Based National Air Quality Standards • Regulates Interstate Sources (Trucks, Trains, etc.) • Oversees State Clean Air Plans U.S. Environmental Protection Agency • Monitor Air Quality; Issue Health Alerts • Prepare Clean Air Plans • Permit and Regulate Businesses • Respond to Nuisance Complaints Local Air Districts California Air Resources Board •Adopts Health-Based State Air Quality Standards •Regulates Cars, Trucks, Fuels, Consumer Products •Approves Local Air District Clean Air Plans
    5. 5. SCAQMD Jurisdiction South Coast Basin: • 4-county region • 10,000 sq. miles • Almost 17 million residents • 11,000 Million gasoline vehicles • Hundreds of thousands of diesel vehicles • Combined Ports of Long Beach and Los Angeles = nation's largest cargo gateway 5 Los Angeles C ounty Orange C ounty R iverside C ounty S an Bernardino C ounty
    6. 6. What are Air Pollutants? PM Ozone CO NO2 SO2 Lead Air Toxics Greenhouse Gases
    7. 7. Composition of the Atmosphere Gas % of atmosphere ppm ppb Nitrogen 78 780,000 Oxygen 21 210,000 Argon 1 10,000 CO2 Carbon Dioxide 0.04 400 400,000 CH4 Methane 0.000170 1.70 1,700 O3 Ozone 0.000010 0.05-0.1 50-100 NOx (NO2 + NO) 0.000010 0.01-0.1 10-100 Hydrocarbons 0.000005 0.0005-0.05 0.1-50
    8. 8. PM2.5 and Ozone Health Impacts Exposures above State Standards in South Coast Health Outcome Cases per Year Premature Death 6,200 Hospital Admissions 4,600 Asthma and other Respiratory Symptoms 140,000 School Absence Days 2,400,000 Work Loss Days 980,000 Minor Restricted Activity Days 6,700,000 Source: CARB
    9. 9. Particulate Matter
    10. 10. PM2.5 Air Quality – Inland Empire 10 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 AnnualAverageConcentrations,µg/m3 Rubidoux Mira Loma San Bernardino Fontana Ontario FEDERAL STANDARD
    11. 11. Ozone (Secondary Pollutant) Sources of NOx and Hydrocarbons (VOCs) Ozone+ Sunlight
    12. 12. Ozone Air Quality – Inland Empire 13 0 50 100 150 200 250 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 NumberofDaysExceedingtheFederalStandard Rubidoux Upland Crestline San Bernardino Basin
    13. 13. Los Angeles Anaheim Riverside SCAQMD Air Monitoring Network M ILES 0 2 5 SOUTH COAST AIR BASIN (SCAB) COUNTY LINES AIR MONITORING STATION Long Beach Crestline Fontana Redlands Upland OntarioFS Rubidoux Norco Perrs Lake Elsinore MSVJ Costa Mesa La Habra Big Bear LAXH Pico Rivera Pomona Glendora Azusa Burbank Reseda Santa Clarita WSLA Banning Indio Pasadena Palm Spr . February 1996 Version SLB MLOM MRLM Lynwood Compton San Bernardino AQMD Monitoring Stations
    14. 14. AQMD Monitoring Station (Los Angeles N. Main St.)
    15. 15. AQMD Laboratory
    16. 16. Air Quality Benefits from Trees • Reduce Heat Island Impacts • Provide Efficiency Benefits • Create Walkable Communities • Large Surface Area • Greenhouse Gas
    17. 17. Air Quality Benefits from Trees • Reduce Heat Island Impacts • Provide Efficiency Benefits • Create Walkable Communities • Large Surface Area • Greenhouse Gas
    18. 18. Ozone Levels Vs. Temperature Years 2004-2009 AQMD San Bernardino Monitoring Station 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 Ozone(ppb) Temp (F) State 1hr Standard
    19. 19. Air Quality Benefits from Trees • Reduce Heat Island Impacts • Provide Efficiency Benefits • Create Walkable Communities • Large Surface Area • Greenhouse Gas
    20. 20. Sand, 1991
    21. 21. Air Quality Benefits from Trees • Reduce Heat Island Impacts • Provide Efficiency Benefits • Create Walkable Communities • Large Surface Area • Greenhouse Gas
    22. 22. Air Quality Benefits from Trees • Reduce Heat Island Impacts • Provide Efficiency Benefits • Create Walkable Communities • Large Surface Area • Greenhouse Gas
    23. 23. Air Quality Benefits from Trees • Reduce Heat Island Impacts • Provide Efficiency Benefits • Create Walkable Communities • Large Surface Area • Greenhouse Gas
    24. 24. California Cap and Trade Regulation • GHG Emissions Cap on Large Emitters – Must meet emissions obligation with allowances – Can meet up to 8% of the obligation from offset credits • Offset Project Protocols – Forestry – Urban Forestry – Ozone Depleting Substances – Livestock
    25. 25. NOx and Hydrocarbons (VOCs) Ozone+ Sunlight Biogenic VOCs Ozone (Secondary Pollutant)
    26. 26. Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds Isoprene Limonene Pinene • Various types emitted by different plant species – Scents, plant hormones, metabolic processes, etc.. • One quarter of VOC emissions in Basin
    27. 27. Biogenic VOCs Continued • Isoprene – Released from Trees during daylight hours – Largest emitted VOC worldwide – Shortest atmospheric lifetime – Helps form Ozone and particulate matter 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 5 8 11 14 17 20 23 Time of Day Isoprene
    28. 28. PM2.5 Speciation - 2009 average 33
    29. 29. Emissions Reductions to Meet the Ozone Standards Nitrogen Oxides Emissions in 2023 with Adopted Standards 34
    30. 30. Emissions by Fuel Type in South Coast (2008) 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Other Fuel Oil Jet Fuel Diesel Electricity Natural Gas Gasoline NOx * diesel equivalent w/o DPFs; fuel oil toxicity risk included in diesel Weighted Toxicity* Energy Consumed CO2 Emitted in Basin
    31. 31. South Coast NOx Emissions by Fuel Type; Emissions from In-Basin Electricity Generation (2008) Electricity Production 0.3% Gasoline 26% Diesel 54% Natural Gas 9% Jet Fuel 2% Fuel Oil 9% Other 0.4%
    32. 32. Commercial Landscaping Equipment • Long lifetime • Daily usage • Heavy fuel consumers
    33. 33. South Coast Basin Mower Population* Commercial Residential * 2010 estimates from Offroad Model Front Mowers 173,262 Lawn & Garden Tractors 108,870 Lawn Mowers 2,049,934 Rear Engine Riding Mowers 57,754 Front Mowers 5,358 Lawn & Garden Tractors 34,313 Lawn Mowers 139,952 Rear Engine Riding Mowers 65,857 Commercial Turf Equipment 12,796
    34. 34. Emissions per unit tons/year 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 Front Mowers Lawn & Garden Tractors Lawn Mowers Rear Engine Riding Mowers CO PM NOX VOC Evap VOG Exhaust 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 Front Mowers Lawn & Garden Tractors Lawn Mowers Rear Enging Riding Mowers Commercial Turf Equipment CO PM NOX VOC Evap VOC Exhau 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 Front Mowers Lawn & Garden Tractors Lawn Mowers Rear Enging Riding Mowers Commercial Turf Equipment PM NOX VOC Evap VOC Exhaust 0 0.0005 0.001 0.0015 0.002 0.0025 0.003 Front Mowers Lawn & Garden Tractors Lawn Mowers Rear Engine Riding Mowers PM NOX VOC Evap VOG Exhaust Commercial Residential
    35. 35. Commercial Electric Equipment
    36. 36. • A “Helping Hand Initiative for 2009” • Program Components – Assist Local Governments with Urban Tree Planting – Provide Employment Opportunities for Students – California Native Trees with Low Biogenic VOCs – Projects are Additional Tree Partnership
    37. 37. Tree Partnership Cont. • 2-year contracts • 33 cities and 2 counties participated – Over 9,000 urban trees planted – More than 500 students employed • 25,000 student hours
    38. 38. • 161,189 acres burned(154,431 in Angeles National Forest) – 37,000 acres were forested – 11,500 forested acres will need replanting – Remaining acreage mostly chaparral Station Fire Overview 43
    39. 39. 44
    40. 40. • 6 year contract- National Forest Foundation • Planting Plan – Survey of Areas to be Reforested – 2,000 acres anticipated – 470,000 seedlings – Modeling Conducted • Anticipating 370,000 MT CO2 over 100 years • Angeles Forest letter • Third Party Review of Planting Plan Project Summary 45
    41. 41. Aaron Katzenstein (909) 396-2219 akatzenstein@aqmd.gov Contact Info:

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