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Ball pens from ancient times to now

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Ball Pens from Ancient Scroll writing to the Modern Paper ball Pen

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Ball pens from ancient times to now

  1. 1. BALL PENSBALL PENS FROM THEN TO NOW From writing on stone to the Modern Eco friendly Paper Ball Pen. . http://www.paperpens.in  info@paperpens.in
  2. 2. Ancient writing instruments –Ancient writing instruments From left to right: quills, bamboo, pen sharpeners, fountain pens, pencils, brushes. http://www.paperpens.in  info@paperpens.in
  3. 3. Writing Surface and Technology The kind of writing implements used at various periods in history have a lot to do with the surfaces that people used to write on. We're accustomed to paper, and even though a lot of our communicating is done on computers now, paper is everywhere. But even though paper was invented as early as the year A.D. 105 in China, it didn't reach Europe until the 11th century, which leaves a very long history of writing on other surfaces before that.which leaves a very long history of writing on other surfaces before that. The development of technology also had an effect on what writing implements could be made of. This is especially clear when we look at the evolution of pens that contain their own ink supply, but even early writing implements changed as other technologies, such as metallurgy, advanced. Tools for Writing on Clay The very earliest writing known to history is found in the area now known as Mesopotamia, and it was impressed into clay tablets around 3000 B.C. Before that, of course, people decorated their tools, their homes, and (probably) themselves, but writing — a system of expressing meaning through specific marks on a surface — didn't appear until then. http://www.paperpens.in  info@paperpens.in
  4. 4. Around 4000 BCAround 4000 BC 4000 BC– 2000 BC— M t h th f f i t l t bl t ith b b t lMan scratches the surface of moist clay tablet with a bronze or bone tool. Cave paintings are paintings found on cave walls and ceilings, and especially refer to those of prehistoricorigin. The earliest such figurative paintings in Europe date back to the Aurignacian period, approximately 30,000 to 32,000 years ago, and are found in the Chauvet Cave in France. The exact purpose of the paleolithiccave paintings is not known. Evidence suggestsx p p f p p g k gg that they were not merely decorations of living areas since the caves in which they have been found do not have signs of ongoing habitation. They are also often located in areas of caves that are not easily accessible. Some theories hold that cave paintings may have been a way of communicating with others, while other theories ascribe a religious or ceremonial purpose to them. The earliest non-figurative rock art in Europe dates back to approximately 40 000 years ago and is found in the El Castilloart in Europe dates back to approximately 40,000 years ago, and is found in the El Castillo cave in Cantabria, Spain People and animals, a detail of rock-shelter painting in Cogul, Lleida, Spain, are painted. It is now at Museo Arqueológico, Barcelona Around 3000 BC Egyptian hieroglyphics and the thousands of ancient Chinese government records. The history of literature begins with the history of writing. The Egyptians developed a form of writing with pictures. For writing on papyrus scrolls scribes used thin reed brushes or reed pens. http://www.paperpens.in  info@paperpens.in
  5. 5. 2600-1900 BC2600 1900 BC 2600-1900 BC Writings from Indus Valley civilisation The earliest script in India so far known is the Indus Valley pictographic script. Over 4000 symbol bearing seals have been discovered in the Indus Valley. 2600-1900 BC Writings from Indus Valley civilisation Another seal from the Indus Valley - the Harappan signs are associated with flat, rectangular stone tablets ll d l W i i f I d V ll i ili icalled seals…….Writings from Indus Valley civilisation http://www.paperpens.in  info@paperpens.in
  6. 6. 1900 BC to 1300 BC Writing emerged in many different cultures in the Bronze Age. Examples are the cuneiform writing 1900 BC to 1300 BC of the Sumerians, Egyptian hieroglyphs, Cretan hieroglyphs, Chinese logographs, and the Olmec script of Mesoamerica. The Chinese script likely developed independently of the Middle Eastern scripts, around 1600 BC. The pre Columbian Mesoamerican writing systems(including Olmec and Maya scripts) are alsoThe pre-Columbian Mesoamerican writing systems(including Olmec and Maya scripts) are also generally believed to have had independent origins. It is thought that the first true alphabetic writing was developed around 2000 BC for Semitic workers in the Sinai by giving mostly Egyptian hieraticglyphs Semitic values (see History of the alphabet and Proto-Sinaitic alphabet). The Ge'ez writing system of Ethiopia is considered Semitic. It is likely to be of semi-independent origin, having roots in the Meroitic Sudanese ideogram system http://www.paperpens.in  info@paperpens.in
  7. 7. 1300 BC 1300 BC The Romans have been developing form of writing, that they ib d i t thi h t f ( d t bl t ) R d t l 1300 BC scribed into thin sheets of wax (on wooden tablets). Romans used a metal stylus. When they no longer needed the writing, they rubbed it out with the flat end of stylus. In Asia scribes used a bronze stylus. Bamboo pens - also known as Reed pens used for writing devanagiri script. The 45 degree cut is the reason for the thick and thin features of the letterings. 3rd Century BC Brahmi Inscription Asoka Edict on the Rummindei pillar B h i th i t f th b h i itt f l ft t i ht It i thBrahmi, the script of the brahmans is written from left to right. It is the mother of all Indian scripts including the Devanagari script. -Ashoka used this script for his inscriptions, carved into the face of rocks or on stone pillars http://www.paperpens.in  info@paperpens.in
  8. 8. COPPER NIB OF POMPEI A copper nib was found in the ruins of Pompeii showing that COPPER NIB OF POMPEI metal nibs were used in the year 79. There is also a reference to 'a silver pen to carry ink in', in Samuel Pepys' diary for August 1663. 'New invented' metal pens are advertised in The Times in 1792advertised in The Times in 1792. A metal pen point was patented in 1803 but the patent was not commercially exploited. A patent for the manufacture of metalcommercially exploited. A patent for the manufacture of metal pens was advertised for sale by Bryan Donkin in 1811. John Mitchell of Birmingham started to mass-produce pens with metal nibs in 1822, and thereafter the quality of steel nibs had i d h h di i h l ib iimproved enough that dip pens with metal nibs came into generalized use. http://www.paperpens.in  info@paperpens.in
  9. 9. REED PEN A reed pen is cut from a reed or bamboo, with a slit in a REED PEN narrow tip. Its mechanism is essentially similar to that of a quill. The reed pen has almost disappeared but it is still used by young school students in some parts of India and Pakistan, who learn to write with them onIndia and Pakistan, who learn to write with them on small timber boards known as "Takhti". The main modern types of pens can be categorized by the kind of writing tip or point: http://www.paperpens.in  info@paperpens.in
  10. 10. EARLY DAYS Dark Ages EARLY DAYS As well as writing on parchment, the Anglo-Saxons also used tablets filled with wax for notes and for planning the layout of large books. They wrote on the tables with a metal or bone stylus, that had a pointed end and rubbed out the words with flat endhad a pointed end and rubbed out the words with flat end. 600-1800 AD The Europeans found that writing on parchment with a quill pen altered the style of their writing.The Europeans found that writing on parchment with a quill pen altered the style of their writing. At first they used capital letters all the time, but later they developed faster styles with small letters. Quill Pens (firstly appeared in Seville, Spain) were the writing instrument from 600 to 1800 AD. 1790s Pencil lead was invented independently in France and Australia. http://www.paperpens.in  info@paperpens.in
  11. 11. QUILL PENS Ancient Egyptians had developed writing on papyrus scrolls when scribes used thin reed brushes or reed f h h h b k H f W h QUILL PENS pens from theJuncus maritimus or sea rush In his book A History of Writing, Steven Roger Fischer suggests that on the basis of finds at Saqqara, the reed pen might well have been used for writing on parchment as long ago as the First Dynasty or about 3000 BC. Reed pens continued to be used until the Middle Ages although they were slowly replaced by quills from about the 7th century. The reed pen, generally made from bamboo, is still used in some parts of Pakistan by young students and is used to write on small boards made of timber. The quill pen was used in Qumran, Judea to write some of the Dead Sea Scrolls, which date back to around 100 BC. The scrolls were written in Hebrew dialects with bird feathers or quills. After the fall of the Roman Empire, Europeans had difficulty in obtaining reeds] and began toq Af f f R p , p ff y g g use quills. There is a specific reference to quills in the writings of St. Isidore of Seville in the 7th century. Quill pens were still widely used in the 18th century, and were used to write and sign theConstitution of the United States in 1787. Quill pens were replaced some 2000 years later by the Greeks with the reed pen made by cutting the end of the reed at an angle and making a slit opposite theGreeks with the reed pen, made by cutting the end of the reed at an angle and making a slit opposite the cut. This proved to be nib-like and more suitable for writing the newly developed Greek alphabet. The reed pen survived until papyrus was replaced by animal skins, vellum and parchment, as a writing surface. The smoother surface of skin allowed finer, smaller writing by the quill pen, derived from the flight feather. http://www.paperpens.in  info@paperpens.in
  12. 12. QUILL PEN A quill is a pen made from a flight feather of a large b Q ll QUILL PEN bird, most often a goose. Quills were used as instruments for writing with ink before the metal dip pen, the fountain pen, and eventually the ballpoint pen came into use. Quill pens were usedp p Q p in medieval times to write on parchment or paper. The quill eventually replaced the reed pen. http://www.paperpens.in  info@paperpens.in
  13. 13. HISTORICAL FACT Imam Al-Mu’izz commissioned the invention of the first Fountain Pen HISTORICAL FACT Ma’ad al-Mu’izz li Dīn Allah (932–975) (Arabic: ‫اﷲ‬ ‫ﻟﺪﻳﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺰ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎذ‬(, also known as al’Moezz, was the fourth Fatimid Caliph and reigned from 953 to 975. Al M ˤi d f hi t l f th li i d l hi J i h dAl-Muˤizz was renowned for his tolerance of other religions, and was popular among his Jewish and Christian subjects. He is credited for having commissioned the invention of the first fountain pen. In 953, al-Muizz demanded a pen which would not stain his hands or clothes, and was provided with a pen which held ink in a reservoir and delivered it to the nib via gravity and capillary action. As recorded by Qadi al-Nu’man al-Tamimi (d. 974) in his Kitdb al-Majalis wa ‘l-musayardt, al-Mu’izz commissioned theQ ( ) j y construction of the pen instructing:[2][3] ‘We wish to construct a pen which can be used for writing without having recourse to an ink-holder and whose ink will be contained inside it. A person can fill it with ink and write whatever he likes. The writer can put it in his sleeve or anywhere he wishes and it will not stain nor will any drop of ink leak out of it. The ink will flow only when there is an intention to write We are unaware of anyone previously everThe ink will flow only when there is an intention to write. We are unaware of anyone previously ever constructing (a pen such as this) and an indication of ‘penetrating wisdom’ to whoever contemplates it and realises its exact significance and purpose’. I exclaimed, ‘Is this possible?’ He replied, ‘It is possible if God so wills’ http://www.paperpens.in  info@paperpens.in
  14. 14. DIP PENDIP PEN These historic types of pens are no longer in common use as writing instruments, but may be used by calligraphers andi i g i s u s, bu y b us by ig ph s other artists: A dip pen (or nib pen) consists of a metal nib with capillary channels, like that of a fountain pen, mounted on a handle or holder, often made of wood. A dip pen usually has no, f f p p y ink reservoir and must be repeatedly recharged with ink while drawing or writing. The dip pen has certain advantages over a fountain pen. It can use waterproof pigmented (particle−and−binder−based) inks, such as so−p g (p ) , called India ink, drawing ink, or acrylic inks, which would destroy a fountain pen by clogging, as well as the traditional iron gall ink, which can cause corrosion in a fountain pen. Dip pens are now mainly usedf p p p y in illustration, calligraphy, and comics. A particularly fine− pointed type of dip pen known as a crowquill is a favorite instrument of artists, such as David Stone Martin and Jay Lynch, because its flexible metal point can create a variety http://www.paperpens.in  info@paperpens.in y , f p y of delicate lines, textures and tones with slight pressures while drawing.
  15. 15. THE INK BRUSH The ink brush is the traditional writing implement in East Asian calligraphy. The body of the brush can be d f ith b b t i l h THE INK BRUSH made from either bamboo, or rarer materials such as red sandalwood, glass, ivory, silver, and gold. The head of the brush can be made from the hair (or feathers) of a wide variety of animals, including thef f y f , g weasel, rabbit, deer, chicken, duck, goat, pig, tiger, etc. There is also a tradition in both China and Japan of making a brush using the hair of a ewb a a e i a lifeti e uve i f thenewborn, as a once−in−a−lifetime souvenir for the child. This practice is associated with the legend of an ancient Chinese scholar who scored first in the Imperial examinations by using such a personalized brush.y g z Calligraphy brushes are widely considered an extension of the calligrapher's arm. Today, calligraphy may also be done using a pen, but pen calligraphy does not enjoy the same prestige as traditional brush http://www.paperpens.in  info@paperpens.in enjoy the same prestige as traditional brush calligraphy.
  16. 16. 1800-18501800 1850 A metal pen point has been patented in 1803 but patent was not commercially exploited. Steel nibs came into common use in the 1830s. By the 19th century metal nibs had replaced quill pens. By 1850 quill pen usage was fading and the quality of the steel nibs1850 quill pen usage was fading and the quality of the steel nibs had been improved by tipping them with hard alloys of Iridium, Rhodium and Osmium. http://www.paperpens.in  info@paperpens.in
  17. 17. FIRST PATENTFIRST PATENT M. Klein and Henry W. Wynne received US patent#68445 in 1867 for an ink chamber and delivery system in the handle of the fountain pendelivery system in the handle of the fountain pen. http://www.paperpens.in  info@paperpens.in
  18. 18. WATERMAN 1884 L i Ed W i b k i d h fi WATERMAN Lewis Edson Waterman, insurance broker invented the first proper fountain pen and patented the first practical fountain pen in 1884. Writing instruments designed to carry their own supply of ink had existed in principle for over one hundred years b f W l h ld kbefore Waterman's patent. For example, the oldest known fountain pen that has survived today was designed by a Frenchmen named M. Bion and dated 1702. Peregrin Williamson, a Baltimore shoemaker, received the first American patent for a pen in 1809. John Scheffer received a British patent in 1819 for his half quill, half metal pen that he attempted to mass manufacture. John Jacob Parker patented the Blue Edson attempted to mass manufacture. John Jacob Parker patented the first self-filling fountain pen in 1831. However, early fountain pen models were plagued by ink spills and other failures that left them impractical and hard to sell. N 55 P d ti 1917 1934 C t $5 00 i 1919 t l $5 25 i 1925 L fill http://www.paperpens.in  info@paperpens.in No. 55 Production run: 1917 – c. 1934. Cost $5.00 in 1919 catalogue, $5.25 in 1925. Lever filler
  19. 19. PETRACHE POENARUPETRACHE POENARU While a student in Paris, Romanian Petrache Poenaru invented the fountain pen, hi h th F h G t t t dwhich the French Government patented in May 1827. Fountain pen patents and production then increased in the 1850s, especially steel pens produced by Johnp y p p y Mitchell. Petrache Poenaru http://www.paperpens.in  info@paperpens.in
  20. 20. JOHN MITCHELL Fountain pen patents and JOHN MITCHELL production then increased in the 1850s, especially steel pens produced by John Mitchell. http://www.paperpens.in  info@paperpens.in
  21. 21. John J Loud Trained as a lawyer at Harvard College, John J Loud Loud worked at the Union National Bank in Weymouth, Massachusetts as a cashier. He was also active in his community as a member of his church, acommunity as a member of his church, a trustee of many local organizations, and as a member of local historical societies. Loud invented and obtained a patent for h i id d b h fi b ll iwhat is considered to be the first ballpoint pen in 1888; however his invention was not commercialized and the patent would eventually lapse. The modern ballpointy p p pen would be patented later in 1938, 22 years following Loud's death. http://www.paperpens.in  info@paperpens.in
  22. 22. 1888-1916 The principle of the ball point pen actually dates from the late 19th Century when patents were taken out by John Loud in19th Century when patents were taken out by John Loud in 1888 for a product to mark leather and in 1916 by Van Vechten Riesberg. However neither of these Patents were exploited commercially. http://www.paperpens.in  info@paperpens.in
  23. 23. Zagreb Pencil Factory Slavoljub Eduard Penkala, a naturalized Croatian engineer and inventor of Polish Zagreb Pencil Factory naturalized Croatian engineer and inventor of Polish- Dutch origin from the Kingdom of Croatia- Slavonia in Austria-Hungary, became renowned for further development of the mechanical pencil (1906) – then called an "automatic pencil" – and the first solid- ink fountain pen (1907). Collaborating with an entrepreneur by the name of Zhe started the Penkala- Moster Company and built a pen-and-pencil factory Edmund Moster Moster Company and built a pen-and-pencil factory that was one of the biggest in the world at the time. This company, now called TOZ-Penkala, still exists today. "TOZ" stands for "Tvornica olovaka Zagreb", meaning "Zagreb Pencil Factory". Slavoljub Eduard Penkala http://www.paperpens.in  info@paperpens.in j
  24. 24. László Bíró, In 1938, László Bíró, a Hungarian newspaper László Bíró, editor, with the help of his brother George, a chemist, began to work on designing new types of pens including one with a tiny ball in its tip that was free to turn in a socket. As the penthat was free to turn in a socket. As the pen moved along the paper, the ball rotated, picking up ink from the ink cartridge and leaving it on the paper. Bíró filed a British J 15 1938 I 1940 h Bí ópatent on June 15, 1938. In 1940 the Bíró brothers and a friend, Juan Jorge Meyne, moved to Argentina fleeing Nazi Germany and on June 10, filed another patent, and, f p , formed Bíró Pens of Argentina. http://www.paperpens.in  info@paperpens.in
  25. 25. 1940 - 1953. 1940s 1940 1953. The modern version of ball point pen was invented by Josef (Lazlo) and Georg Biro. On Summer 1943 the first commercial models were made. The rights to Lazlo's patent were bought by the British Government. The ball point pen is more rugged than the fountain pen which may be why sales rocketed during World War II when the Military needed robust writing implements towhy sales rocketed during World War II when the Military needed robust writing implements to survive the battlefield environment October 1945 The ball point pen was introduced to the U.S. market. The pen was sold as "The first pen to writep p k p f p underwater" this must have been an unsatisfied demand as some 10,000 were sold at the launch at Gimbel's department store in New York on October 29th 1945. 1953 Fi i i b ll i il bl h h F h B Bi h d l d hFirst inexpensive ball point pens were available when the French Baron, Bich, developed the industrial process for manufacturing ball point pens that lowered the unit cost dramatically (BIC, Co.) http://www.paperpens.in  info@paperpens.in
  26. 26. 1960s1960s It was invented fibre, or felt-tipped pen (Tokyo Stationery Company, Japan). Papermate's Flair was among the first felt-tip pens to hit the U.S. market in the 1960s, and it has been the leader ever since Following their initial success with felt tips manufacturers branched outbeen the leader ever since. Following their initial success with felt-tips, manufacturers branched out with a variety of fiber-tipped instruments, including newly popular highlighters. http://www.paperpens.in  info@paperpens.in
  27. 27. 1980s-1990s1980s 1990s Roller Ball Pens. The introduction of the roller ball pen have been made in the early 1980s. Unlike the thick ink used in a conventional ball point, roller ball pens employ a mobile ball and liquid ink to produce a smoother line. Technological advances achieved during the late 1980s and early 1990sproduce a smoother line. Technological advances achieved during the late 1980s and early 1990s have greatly improved the roller ball's overall performance. Rubberized writing instruments are commonly used by the companies to reduce the grip.g y y p g p From 1997 - ... Ring Pens' mass production (GRANDEE Corporation) This pens designed to write withoutg p (G p ) p g gripping the pens with 3 fingers http://www.paperpens.in  info@paperpens.in
  28. 28. FOUNTAIN PEN A fountain pen uses water-based liquid ink delivered FOUNTAIN PEN through a nib. The ink flows from a reservoir through a "feed" to the nib, then through the nib, due to capillary action and gravity. The nib has no moving parts and delivers ink through a thin slit to the writing surface. Adelivers ink through a thin slit to the writing surface. A fountain pen reservoir can be refillable or disposable, this disposable type being an ink cartridge. A pen with a refillable reservoir may have a mechanism, such as a piston, d i k f b l h h h ib i ito draw ink from a bottle through the nib, or it may require refilling with an eyedropper. Refill reservoirs, also known as cartridge converters, are available for some pens which use disposable cartridges.p g http://www.paperpens.in  info@paperpens.in
  29. 29. BALL POINT PEN A ballpoint pen dispenses ink by rolling a small hard BALL POINT PEN sphere, usually 0.7–1.2 mm and made of brass, steel or tungsten carbide. The ink dries almost immediately on contact with paper. The ballpoint pen is usually reliable and inexpensive It has replaced theusually reliable and inexpensive It has replaced the fountain pen as the most common tool for everyday writing. http://www.paperpens.in  info@paperpens.in
  30. 30. FELT TIPPED PEN A marker, or felt-tip pen, has a porous tip of fibrous FELT TIPPED PEN material. The smallest, finest-tipped markers are used for writing on paper. Medium-tip markers are often used by children for coloring and drawing. Larger markers are used for writing on other surfaces such as corrugatedused for writing on other surfaces such as corrugated boxes, whiteboards and for chalkboards, often called "liquid chalk" or "chalkboard markers." Markers with wide tips and bright but transparent ink, called highlighters, d k i i M k d i d fare used to mark existing text. Markers designed for children or for temporary writing (as with a whiteboard or overhead projector) typically use non-permanent inks. Large markers used to label shipping cases or otherg k pp g packages are usually permanent markers http://www.paperpens.in  info@paperpens.in
  31. 31. ROLLER BALL PENROLLER BALL PEN Rollerball pens were introduced in the early 1970s. They make use of a mobile ball and liquid ink to produce a smoother line Technologicala mobile ball and liquid ink to produce a smoother line. Technological advances achieved during the late 1980s and early 1990s have improved the roller ball's overall performance. A porous point pen contains a point that is made of some porous material such as felt or ceramic A high quality drafting pen will usually have a ceramicor ceramic. A high quality drafting pen will usually have a ceramic tip, since this wears well and does not broaden when pressure is applied while writing. A rollerball pen dispenses a water-based liquid or gel ink through a ball tip similar to that of a ballpoint pen The less-viscous ink is moreball tip similar to that of a ballpoint pen. The less-viscous ink is more easily absorbed by paper than oil-based ink, and the pen moves more easily across a writing surface. The rollerball pen was initially designed to combine the convenience of a ballpoint pen with the smooth "wet ink" effect of a fountain pen. Gel inks are available in asmooth wet ink effect of a fountain pen. Gel inks are available in a range of colors, including metallic paint colors, glitter effects, neon, blurred effects, saturated colors, pas tel tones,vibrant shades, shady colors, invisible ink,see-through effect, shiny colors, and glow-in-the-dark effects. http://www.paperpens.in  info@paperpens.in y g ff
  32. 32. Erasable Ballpoint Pens Erasable ballpoint pens were introduced Erasable Ballpoint Pens byPapermate in 1979 when the Erasermate was put on the market. F 1997From 1997 - ... Ring Pens' mass production (GRANDEE Corporation) This pens designed to write without gripping the pens with 3 fingerswithout gripping the pens with 3 fingers http://www.paperpens.in  info@paperpens.in
  33. 33. KRAFT PAPER PENS CARE Paper Pens KRAFT PAPER PENS Finding affordable & eco-friendly pens can be a challenge if you also have a colorful logo. ecopens "CARE" recycled paper pens are a great solution. They'repaper pens are a great solution. They re made with 100% recycled material Newspapers, Old Note books, Diaries. Printed paper. AND offer you h i f f ll l di i lthe option of a full-color digital imprint. No Metal, No plastics, No Environment Damaging elementsEnvironment Damaging elements Thank you ….. a like and share will be appreciated http://www.paperpens.in  info@paperpens.in pp
  34. 34. NEWSPAPER PENS CARE Newspaper Pens NEWSPAPER PENS Finding affordable & eco-friendly pens can be a challenge if you also have a colorful logo. ecopens "CARE" recycled paper pens are a great solution.paper pens are a great solution. They're made with 100% recycled material Newspapers, Old Note books, Diaries. Printed paper. AND offer you the option of a full-color digital imprint. No Metal, No plastics, No Environment Damaging elementsEnvironment Damaging elements Thank you ….. a like and share will be appreciated http://www.paperpens.in  info@paperpens.in will be appreciated
  35. 35. THANK YOU Thank you … a like and share.. a like and share will be appreciated http://www.paperpens.in  info@paperpens.in

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