Chapter 7  Knee and Thigh
Knee Anatomy <ul><li>Largest Joint of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Structurally weak </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weakness due to u...
Knee Anatomy <ul><li>Consider the femur the longest & strongest bone of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Sits on the much small...
Knee  Femur / Tibia  <ul><li>Condyles – 2 slightly convex surfaces on the  </li></ul><ul><li>distal end of the femur </li>...
Knee  Femur / Tibia 05/27/10 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com
Knee  Femur / Tibia  <ul><li>These two bones slide back & forth on each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Even in non-athletic acti...
Knee Fibula <ul><li>Non-Weight bearing bone </li></ul><ul><li>Serves as the attachment for the Lateral collateral ligament...
Knee Patella “knee cap” <ul><li>Incased in the powerful patellar tendon </li></ul><ul><li>Moves up & down  in front of the...
Ligaments & Muscles <ul><li>Instability of boney structures is compensated by strong ligaments and even stronger muscles <...
Ligaments & Muscles <ul><li>4 Ligaments that stabilize the knee. </li></ul><ul><li>Medial Collateral Ligament </li></ul><u...
Ligaments & Muscles <ul><li>MCL </li></ul><ul><li>Remember ligaments hold bones to bones. </li></ul><ul><li>MCL – Helps se...
Ligaments & Muscles <ul><li>LCL </li></ul><ul><li>Cordlike and does not attach to the meniscus </li></ul><ul><li>Assists i...
Ligaments & Muscles <ul><li>ACL / PCL </li></ul><ul><li>Form an X in the middle of the knee </li></ul><ul><li>Controls mov...
Ligaments & Muscles <ul><li>More than any other joint, the depends on good muscle support. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 12 ...
Ligaments & Muscles <ul><li>Quadriceps: </li></ul><ul><li>Anterior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rectus Femoris </li></ul></ul><ul...
Ligaments & Muscles <ul><li>Other “less” popular muscles: </li></ul><ul><li>Sartorius </li></ul><ul><li>Gracilis </li></ul...
Menisci <ul><li>Medial & Lateral Meniscus: </li></ul><ul><li>2 Tough, fibrous cartilages </li></ul><ul><li>Rest on top of ...
Menisci <ul><li>Function: </li></ul><ul><li>Form a cushion for Femoral Condyles </li></ul><ul><li>Shock absorption </li></...
Other Structures <ul><li>Bursae  – closed, fluid filled sacs that serve as cushions against friction over a prominent bone...
Nerves <ul><li>Dermatome  – the sensory distribution of a nerve root; produces feeling in a certain anatomical area. </li>...
Range Of Motion <ul><li>Flexion – Decreasing angle between the Femur  </li></ul><ul><li>and the Tibia </li></ul><ul><li>Ex...
Range Of Motion <ul><li>Anterior / Posterior Translation – movement of  </li></ul><ul><li>the femur on  </li></ul><ul><li>...
Evaluation <ul><li>Proper evaluation is used to determine seriousness of the injury </li></ul><ul><li>History </li></ul><u...
Evaluation <ul><li>Palpation </li></ul><ul><li>Again; compare right to left </li></ul><ul><li>Check for: </li></ul><ul><li...
Evaluation <ul><li>Special Test </li></ul><ul><li>Start with strength evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Valgus  / Varus Test – ...
Refer When…. <ul><li>Gross deformity </li></ul><ul><li>Significant Pain </li></ul><ul><li>Increase Swelling </li></ul><ul>...
Common Injuries <ul><li>Due to the complexity of the knee it is frequently injured </li></ul><ul><li>It is possible to sev...
Common Injuries <ul><li>Knee Ligaments are usually injured by one of the following methods: </li></ul><ul><li>Compression ...
Common Injuries <ul><li>All Ligamentous Sprains are classified the same. </li></ul><ul><li>1 st  Degree Sprain – one or mo...
Common Injuries <ul><li>Patellar Tendinitis </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive stress placed on the patellar tendon cause inflamm...
Common Injuries <ul><li>Chondromalacia Patellae </li></ul><ul><li>A degenerative condition that results in the irritation ...
Common Injuries <ul><li>Female Athletes Knee </li></ul><ul><li>(Anterior Superior Iliac Spine – ASIS) </li></ul><ul><li>Pa...
Common Injuries <ul><li>Female: Q Angle – an imaginary line from the ASIS to the medial edge of patella. </li></ul>copyrig...
Common Injuries <ul><li>A sharper Q Angle changes the line of pull of the quads and may cause the patella to be pulled lat...
Common Injuries <ul><li>Osgood-Slatters </li></ul><ul><li>Common to adolescents due to rapid growth during “growth spurts”...
Common Injuries Whatever the cause it is aggravated by activity, relieved by rest In cases of long duration the front of t...
Common Injuries <ul><li>Other Musculoskeletal Disorders / Conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle strains </li></ul><ul><li>Bu...
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C & p chapter 7

  1. 1. Chapter 7 Knee and Thigh
  2. 2. Knee Anatomy <ul><li>Largest Joint of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Structurally weak </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weakness due to unstable boney structure. </li></ul></ul>05/27/10 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com
  3. 3. Knee Anatomy <ul><li>Consider the femur the longest & strongest bone of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Sits on the much smaller tibia; which is the main weight bearing bone! </li></ul>05/27/10 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com
  4. 4. Knee Femur / Tibia <ul><li>Condyles – 2 slightly convex surfaces on the </li></ul><ul><li>distal end of the femur </li></ul><ul><li>Condyles articulate with the slightly concave surfaces of the tibia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is stable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However once the knee bends (like in walking & running) stability of these surfaces decrease. </li></ul></ul>05/27/10 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com
  5. 5. Knee Femur / Tibia 05/27/10 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com
  6. 6. Knee Femur / Tibia <ul><li>These two bones slide back & forth on each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Even in non-athletic activities </li></ul><ul><li>Add to the issue the lack of rotation of the joint </li></ul>05/27/10 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com
  7. 7. Knee Fibula <ul><li>Non-Weight bearing bone </li></ul><ul><li>Serves as the attachment for the Lateral collateral ligament (LCL) & the Bicep Femoris Muscle </li></ul>05/27/10 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com
  8. 8. Knee Patella “knee cap” <ul><li>Incased in the powerful patellar tendon </li></ul><ul><li>Moves up & down in front of the knee in the space between the 2 condyles of the femur </li></ul>05/27/10 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com
  9. 9. Ligaments & Muscles <ul><li>Instability of boney structures is compensated by strong ligaments and even stronger muscles </li></ul>05/27/10 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com
  10. 10. Ligaments & Muscles <ul><li>4 Ligaments that stabilize the knee. </li></ul><ul><li>Medial Collateral Ligament </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral Collateral Ligament </li></ul><ul><li>Anterior Cruciate Ligament </li></ul><ul><li>Posterior Cruciate Ligament </li></ul>05/27/10 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com
  11. 11. Ligaments & Muscles <ul><li>MCL </li></ul><ul><li>Remember ligaments hold bones to bones. </li></ul><ul><li>MCL – Helps secure the femur to the tibia </li></ul><ul><li>Also connects to medial meniscus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates issue with evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not as strong as the MCL </li></ul></ul>05/27/10 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com
  12. 12. Ligaments & Muscles <ul><li>LCL </li></ul><ul><li>Cordlike and does not attach to the meniscus </li></ul><ul><li>Assists in valgus / varus movement of the knee. </li></ul>05/27/10 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com
  13. 13. Ligaments & Muscles <ul><li>ACL / PCL </li></ul><ul><li>Form an X in the middle of the knee </li></ul><ul><li>Controls movement Posterior & Anterior movement of femur on the tibia. </li></ul>05/27/10 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com
  14. 14. Ligaments & Muscles <ul><li>More than any other joint, the depends on good muscle support. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 12 muscles that support the anatomical structures of the knee </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of this support comes from the large muscles of the quad and lower leg. </li></ul></ul>05/27/10 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com
  15. 15. Ligaments & Muscles <ul><li>Quadriceps: </li></ul><ul><li>Anterior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rectus Femoris </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vastis medialism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vastus intermedials </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quads extends when straightened </li></ul><ul><li>Hamstrings </li></ul><ul><li>Posterior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Semitendinosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semimembranosus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biceps femoris </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Controls rotary movements and flexes the knee. </li></ul>05/27/10 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com
  16. 16. Ligaments & Muscles <ul><li>Other “less” popular muscles: </li></ul><ul><li>Sartorius </li></ul><ul><li>Gracilis </li></ul><ul><li>Popliteus </li></ul><ul><li>Gastronemius </li></ul><ul><li>Plantaris </li></ul><ul><li>Tensor Fascia Latae / Iliotibial Band (IT Band) </li></ul>05/27/10 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com
  17. 17. Menisci <ul><li>Medial & Lateral Meniscus: </li></ul><ul><li>2 Tough, fibrous cartilages </li></ul><ul><li>Rest on top of the Tibia </li></ul>05/27/10 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com
  18. 18. Menisci <ul><li>Function: </li></ul><ul><li>Form a cushion for Femoral Condyles </li></ul><ul><li>Shock absorption </li></ul><ul><li>Adds to Joint Stability </li></ul><ul><li>Helps to smooth the gliding & rotating movements of femur and tibia </li></ul>05/27/10 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com
  19. 19. Other Structures <ul><li>Bursae – closed, fluid filled sacs that serve as cushions against friction over a prominent bone, or whatever moves over a bone. </li></ul><ul><li>Synovial Membrane – a large closed sac that lines the inside of the knee joint, helping to lubricate the tendons, ligaments, and bones. </li></ul><ul><li>Fat Pads – specialized soft tissue structure for weight bearing and absorbing impact </li></ul>05/27/10 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com
  20. 20. Nerves <ul><li>Dermatome – the sensory distribution of a nerve root; produces feeling in a certain anatomical area. </li></ul><ul><li>Myotome – the motor distribution of a group of muscles innervated by a single nerve root; it produces movement of the anatomical structures. </li></ul>05/27/10 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com
  21. 21. Range Of Motion <ul><li>Flexion – Decreasing angle between the Femur </li></ul><ul><li>and the Tibia </li></ul><ul><li>Extension – Increasing the angle between the </li></ul><ul><li>Femur and the Tibia </li></ul><ul><li>Tibial Internal Rotation – Rotation of the Tibia </li></ul><ul><li>toward the midline of </li></ul><ul><li>the body </li></ul><ul><li>Tibial External Rotation - Rotation of the Tibia </li></ul><ul><li>away from the midline of </li></ul><ul><li>the body </li></ul>
  22. 22. Range Of Motion <ul><li>Anterior / Posterior Translation – movement of </li></ul><ul><li>the femur on </li></ul><ul><li>the Tibia in a </li></ul><ul><li>forward or </li></ul><ul><li>backward </li></ul><ul><li>movement </li></ul><ul><li>pattern </li></ul>
  23. 23. Evaluation <ul><li>Proper evaluation is used to determine seriousness of the injury </li></ul><ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanism of injury, location of pain, sensations experienced, and previous history </li></ul><ul><li>This will guide you through the rest of the evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Observation </li></ul><ul><li>Compare the uninjured to the injured, look for: deformation, swelling, discoloration, scars, other signs of trauma or abnormality. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Evaluation <ul><li>Palpation </li></ul><ul><li>Again; compare right to left </li></ul><ul><li>Check for: </li></ul><ul><li>Neurological Trauma </li></ul><ul><li>Circulation (nail bed return / pulse) </li></ul><ul><li>Anatomical structures </li></ul><ul><li>Potential Fractures </li></ul>
  25. 25. Evaluation <ul><li>Special Test </li></ul><ul><li>Start with strength evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Valgus / Varus Test – used to evaluate medial and lateral </li></ul><ul><li>ligament stability </li></ul><ul><li>Anterior / Posterior Drawer – Assesses stability of the ACL & PCL </li></ul><ul><li>Lachman – Used to evaluate ACL </li></ul><ul><li>Apley’s Compression – Evaluates the integrity of the menisci </li></ul>
  26. 26. Refer When…. <ul><li>Gross deformity </li></ul><ul><li>Significant Pain </li></ul><ul><li>Increase Swelling </li></ul><ul><li>Circulation or neurological impairment </li></ul><ul><li>Joint instability </li></ul><ul><li>Suspect a fx or dislocation </li></ul><ul><li>Dislocated patella </li></ul><ul><li>Abnormal sensations such as clicking, popping, grating, or weakness </li></ul><ul><li>Locked knee or excessive / limited motion </li></ul><ul><li>Any doubt </li></ul>
  27. 27. Common Injuries <ul><li>Due to the complexity of the knee it is frequently injured </li></ul><ul><li>It is possible to severely injure the knee & not get a lot of swelling. </li></ul><ul><li>And get very little pain </li></ul><ul><li>Ligament Sprains: can be cased by multidirectional forces and </li></ul><ul><li>are compounded when the athlete's foot is </li></ul><ul><li>stationary (planted) </li></ul><ul><li>Most common is a direct blow to the lateral aspect of the knee injuring medial structures </li></ul>
  28. 28. Common Injuries <ul><li>Knee Ligaments are usually injured by one of the following methods: </li></ul><ul><li>Compression (Direct Blow) </li></ul><ul><li>Torsion (Fixed foot, twist body part or body) </li></ul><ul><li>Shearing (Forced applied to the opposite side of the joint) </li></ul><ul><li>Sports that use cleats have an increase chance of injury. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Common Injuries <ul><li>All Ligamentous Sprains are classified the same. </li></ul><ul><li>1 st Degree Sprain – one or more supporting </li></ul><ul><li>ligaments & surrounding </li></ul><ul><li>tissue stretched. </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd Degree Sprain – A portion of 1 or more </li></ul><ul><li>ligaments is torn. </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd Degree Sprain – 1 or more ligaments is torn. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Common Injuries <ul><li>Patellar Tendinitis </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive stress placed on the patellar tendon cause inflammation above or below the patella </li></ul><ul><li>Athlete complains of pain “when they first get up” and/or after activity. May have swelling. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Treat with Cold/Heat/Ultrasound/Rest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rehab Strengthen Quads / Hamstrings </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Common Injuries <ul><li>Chondromalacia Patellae </li></ul><ul><li>A degenerative condition that results in the irritation and softening of the cartilage on the posterior aspect of the patella. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Running, jumping, kneeling, and climbing stairs will elicit pain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes muscle weakness or imbalance, body structure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment: Ice before & after activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surgery? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rehab: Again work on Strengthening </li></ul>
  32. 32. Common Injuries <ul><li>Female Athletes Knee </li></ul><ul><li>(Anterior Superior Iliac Spine – ASIS) </li></ul><ul><li>Patellar problem may be more prevalent in female athletes b/c of structural differences in the pelvic girdle. </li></ul><ul><li>Wider pelvis creates a sharper angle where the femur attaches to the pelvis. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Common Injuries <ul><li>Female: Q Angle – an imaginary line from the ASIS to the medial edge of patella. </li></ul>copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com
  34. 34. Common Injuries <ul><li>A sharper Q Angle changes the line of pull of the quads and may cause the patella to be pulled laterally, with muscle contraction. </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in mechanics can increase conditions like: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chondromalacia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patellar dislocation/subluxation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ACL? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Key to treatment is pevention! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strengthen medial aspects of quads (VMO) </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Common Injuries <ul><li>Osgood-Slatters </li></ul><ul><li>Common to adolescents due to rapid growth during “growth spurts” </li></ul><ul><li>Characterized by swelling & point tenderness below 1 or both knees. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be caused by partial separation of the patellar tendon from tibial tubercle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflammation of the tibial tubercle </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Common Injuries Whatever the cause it is aggravated by activity, relieved by rest In cases of long duration the front of the knee appears enlarged and a bony prominence can be felt. Although the condition is usually disappears after adolescence the boney prominence remains.
  37. 37. Common Injuries <ul><li>Other Musculoskeletal Disorders / Conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle strains </li></ul><ul><li>Bursitis </li></ul><ul><li>Dislocation (knee, patella) </li></ul><ul><li>Iliotibial Band Friction Syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Meniscal Tear </li></ul><ul><li>Myositis Ossificans </li></ul><ul><li>Osteochondritis Dissecans (OCD) </li></ul><ul><li>Popliteal Cyst </li></ul>

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