C & P Chapter 4 B


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C & P Chapter 4 B

  1. 1. Blood-Borne Pathogens As Athletic Trainers, our primary concern is the health of our athletes We also must be concerned for our own safety!
  2. 2. Blood-Borne Pathogens <ul><li>In 1992 OSHA issued new regulations regarding health care workers and the handling of bloodborne pathogens. </li></ul><ul><li>Of most concern: </li></ul><ul><li>Hepatitis B & C – which are much easier to transfer to one another than the HIV virus. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Especially in the athletic setting </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Blood-Borne Pathogens <ul><li>Hepatitis B & C are of special concern to the ATC since they come in contact with blood on a daily basis. </li></ul><ul><li>Contamination – the process of infection </li></ul><ul><li>It is possible that the athlete we are trying to help may infect us & this contamination is potentially lethal! </li></ul>
  4. 4. Blood-Borne Pathogens <ul><li>Transmission of Disease – methods where disease can be transferred from one individual to another </li></ul><ul><li>Bloodborne Pathogens – those micro-organisms that are carried in the blood throughout the body. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Blood-Borne Pathogens <ul><li>OSHA provides basic guidelines for the health care professional . </li></ul><ul><li>ATC should always know & practice proper preventative measures – Universal Precautions </li></ul><ul><li>Latex Gloves provide a suitable barrier for ATC’s </li></ul>
  6. 6. Blood-Borne Pathogens <ul><li>Allergic Reaction to Latex: </li></ul><ul><li>Mild itching sensation </li></ul><ul><li>Redness & swelling of affected parts </li></ul><ul><li>Impaired breathing & need for advanced medical care. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Types of Exposure / Protection <ul><li>Treating a bloody wound </li></ul><ul><li>Serum fluid in blisters / vomit </li></ul><ul><li>Bloody saliva </li></ul>
  8. 8. Types of Exposure / Protection <ul><li>Precautions: </li></ul><ul><li>Wear latex gloves when working with exposed fluids. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For your protection & the protection of the athlete </li></ul></ul><ul><li>After use, the gloves & all contaminated materials should be disposed of properly in a biohazard infectious container. </li></ul><ul><li>Cleaning of the contaminated areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use bleach (1 oz to 10 oz of water) / commercial product </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. National High School Federation Rules <ul><li>9 Points: </li></ul><ul><li>Stop bleeding & remove blood from uniforms </li></ul><ul><li>Use precautions when handling bodily fluids </li></ul><ul><li>Wash body surfaces exposed to bodily fluids </li></ul>
  10. 10. National High School Federation Rules <ul><li>4. Clean all surfaces & equipment before resuming play </li></ul><ul><li>5. Rinse area thoroughly </li></ul><ul><li>6. Use artificial ventilation devices when performing CPR </li></ul><ul><li>7. All soiled materials, including gloves, should be placed in a biohazard bag / container </li></ul>
  11. 11. National High School Federation Rules <ul><li>8. Proper cleaning and/or disposal of blood soaked towels </li></ul><ul><li>9. Follow accepted guidelines for controlling bleeding. </li></ul><ul><li>Standard Precaution – guidelines established for the prevention of the spread of infectious materials. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Classification & Management of Wounds <ul><li>Wound Management Kit: </li></ul><ul><li>Disposable Gloves </li></ul><ul><li>Sterile Water </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-bacterial soap </li></ul><ul><li>Sterile Gauze </li></ul><ul><li>Sterile Dressing/Bandages </li></ul><ul><li>Antibiotic ointment </li></ul><ul><li>Bio-hazard bag (s) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Classification & Management of Wounds <ul><li>Look for signs of infection: </li></ul><ul><li>Pain </li></ul><ul><li>Swelling Redness </li></ul><ul><li>Heat </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of function </li></ul><ul><li>Fever </li></ul><ul><li>Puss Formation </li></ul>
  14. 14. Management of Wounds <ul><li>Abrasions </li></ul><ul><li>Outer layers of skin are damaged from being scraped on a hard surface. </li></ul><ul><li>Using sterile gauze, cleanse affected area with soap & water to scrub particles out of wound. </li></ul><ul><li>Apply anti-bacterial ointment. </li></ul><ul><li>Cover with dressing </li></ul>
  15. 15. Management of Wounds <ul><li>Avulsions </li></ul><ul><li>A forcible separation or tearing of tissue from the body in which bleeding occurs immediately. </li></ul><ul><li>Apply direct pressure with sterile gauze </li></ul><ul><li>Elevate affected area, watch for severe bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>Transport to a physician/ER </li></ul><ul><li>Wrap avulsed body part in a sterile gauze pad/place in a plastic container with sterile water & ice. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Management of Wounds <ul><li>Incision </li></ul><ul><li>A wound with smooth sides/edges caused by a sharp object, such as glass or metal. Potential damage to anatomical structures, severe bleeding can exist. </li></ul><ul><li>Cleans area with soap & water to scrub particles out of the wound. </li></ul><ul><li>Apply sterile gauze & direct pressure, elevate, watch for severe bleeding, and transport to a physician/ER. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Management of Wounds <ul><li>Laceration </li></ul><ul><li>A jagged, irregular tear in the soft tissues. </li></ul><ul><li>Care Same as Laceration. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Management of Wounds <ul><li>Puncture </li></ul><ul><li>A small hole in the tissues produced by an object (like a nail) piercing the skin layers. External bleeding is limited, however internal damage to organs may cause bleeding. </li></ul><ul><li>Cleaning Ditto – Refer Tetanus Booster? </li></ul>
  19. 19. Management of Wounds <ul><li>Blisters </li></ul><ul><li>Develops with friction to an area of the body, typically the foot or hand. Fluid accumulates under the skin and this is the body’s attempt to reduce friction to the area. </li></ul><ul><li>Can also accumulate blood, if blood vessels are broken. Called Blood Blisters </li></ul>
  20. 20. Management of Wounds <ul><li>Blister Management </li></ul><ul><li>Depends on whether the blister is intact. </li></ul><ul><li>2 ways to manage: </li></ul><ul><li>Protect the area with a pad & allow the fluid to re-absorb into the body. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces the chance of infection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“open the blister”, draining the fluid & then protecting it from infection & getting bigger. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Management of Wounds <ul><li>Blister Management </li></ul><ul><li>If the blister has ripped open the standard treatment is to remove as much of the dead skin as possible, apply anti-bacteria ointment to the area, & protect with a pad. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Management of Wounds <ul><li>Calluses </li></ul><ul><li>Formed over a period of time, typically on the foot or hand, where bone is right under the skin. </li></ul><ul><li>Happens as a defense mechanism of the body to toughen the skin. </li></ul><ul><li>Calluses can be beneficial but excessive formation is counter productive. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Management of Wounds <ul><li>Callus Management </li></ul><ul><li>Standard treatment is to remove daily “some” skin with a callus remover/sandpaper. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Follow by applying skin softener </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do Not Remove Too Much on 1 Day </li></ul><ul><li>Never Use a Knife. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Management of Wounds <ul><li>Steri-Strip Application </li></ul><ul><li>This product is applied over the wound to close the wound, it will reduce the amount of scarring and speed up the healing process. </li></ul><ul><li>Can also be used as temporary wound care management until athlete is transported to a medical facility. </li></ul>