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  1. 1. Macro Scale Surgical Robotics CS223A: Advanced Robotics Estevan Mendoza May 28, 2010
  2. 2. The da Vinci & Zeus Surgical Systems <ul><li>7 Degree of Freedom robotic arms </li></ul><ul><li>Dual cameras on a robotic arm provide a 3-Dimensional view of the patient </li></ul><ul><li>Master-slave control from a console </li></ul><ul><li>Small, cable driven end effectors. </li></ul><ul><li>Price: $1,500,000+ </li></ul>
  3. 3. Robot/Human Comparison Robot Human <ul><li>Poor judgment </li></ul><ul><li>Does not adapt to new situations </li></ul><ul><li>Limited haptic sensing </li></ul><ul><li>Limited ability to process complex data in real time </li></ul><ul><li>Prone to fatigue and lapses in attention </li></ul><ul><li>Large end effectors </li></ul><ul><li>Limited geometric accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Prone to infection </li></ul><ul><li>Unsterile </li></ul>
  4. 4. Robot/Human Comparison Robot Human <ul><li>Excellent geometric precision </li></ul><ul><li>Immune to fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Immune to infection </li></ul><ul><li>Can provide and process numerical data </li></ul><ul><li>Small end effectors </li></ul><ul><li>Sterile </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent judgment </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent hand/eye coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Easily trained to perform new tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Able to improvise </li></ul><ul><li>Able to interpret and act on various forms of visual information. </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent geometric precision </li></ul><ul><li>Immune to fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Immune to infection </li></ul><ul><li>Can provide and process numerical data </li></ul><ul><li>Small end effectors </li></ul><ul><li>Sterile </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent judgment </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent hand/eye coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Easily trained to perform new tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Able to improvise </li></ul><ul><li>Able to interpret and act on various forms of visual information. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Zeus in Coronary Bypass Surgery Open Chest Surgery Closed Chest Surgery
  6. 6. Results of Coronary Bypass Surgery <ul><li>6 patients total </li></ul><ul><li>Males 60 years of age requiring a single bypass </li></ul><ul><li>5 patients were discharged to the ward the next day </li></ul><ul><li>Total operative time: 6 hrs </li></ul><ul><li>Time spent in the hospital: 4 days </li></ul><ul><li>All patients return to work </li></ul><ul><li>Follow-up appointments: 6 months </li></ul>
  7. 7. Limitations Robot Assisted Surgery <ul><li>Absence of touch and sensation during surgery </li></ul><ul><li>Very expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Requires more staff to operate and maintain hardware </li></ul><ul><li>New technology that has still not proven its benefit to surgery </li></ul><ul><li>Requires training for surgeons to learn to operate the system. </li></ul><ul><li>Removal of the surgeon from the patient. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Future Improvements HAPTICS <ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Give surgeons the impression that the end effectors tools are in their hands </li></ul><ul><li>Improves safety during procedure </li></ul><ul><li>Provides surgeon with feedback on the placement and forces applied on patients </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Must add a force/torque sensor </li></ul><ul><li>Must provide feedback to the hands </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in computational payload </li></ul>
  9. 9. Future Improvements Tele Surgery <ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Skilled surgeons can treat patients in distant locations </li></ul><ul><li>No need for the surgeons to undergo sterilization </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Time delay causes instabilities in robot control </li></ul><ul><li>Requires more people to monitor the system hardware and software </li></ul><ul><li>Surgeons do not receive instantaneous feedback </li></ul>
  10. 10. Assessment <ul><li>Many areas of improvement </li></ul><ul><li>While results are still few, they look promising </li></ul><ul><li>The benefits outweigh the consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Surgical systems are very expensive and likely to become even more expensive with the addition of new features </li></ul><ul><li>Surgical robots are a tool used to enhances surgeons better perform complicated tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Video of da Vinci </li></ul>

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