Cardiology

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Cardiology

  1. 1. Cardiology<br />The medical specialty that studies the anatomy and physiology of the cardiovascular system and uses diagnostic tests, medical and surgical procedures, and drugs to treat cardiovascular diseases.<br />
  2. 2. Figure 5-1 Cardiovascular system<br />
  3. 3. The Cardiovascular System<br />A continuous, circular body system that includes the heart and the vascular structures (blood vessels such as arteries, capillaries, and veins)<br />Moves blood throughout the body and transports oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and wastes in the blood <br />
  4. 4. Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System<br /><ul><li>Heart</li></ul>A muscular organ that contracts at least once every second to pump blood through the body <br />Has an extensive electrical system that initiates and coordinates its contractions <br />
  5. 5. Figure 5-2 Surface of the heart<br />
  6. 6. Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System (cont’d)<br /><ul><li>Heart Chambers</li></ul>The heart contains four chambers, two on the top and two on the bottom.<br />Each small upper chamber is an atrium.<br />Each large lower chamber is a ventricle.<br />The septum, a center wall, divides the heart into right and left halves.<br />The inferior tip of the heart is the apex.<br />
  7. 7. Figure 5-3 Chambers and valves of the heart<br />
  8. 8. Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System (cont’d)<br /><ul><li>Four valves control the flow of blood through the heart:</li></ul>Tricuspid <br />Pulmonary <br />Mitral <br />Aortic<br />
  9. 9. Figure 5-4 Aortic valve<br />
  10. 10. Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System (cont’d)<br /><ul><li>Heart Muscle</li></ul>Mycardium — composed of cardiac muscle <br />Responds to electrical impulses generated by a node within the heart itself <br />Contracts in a coordinated way to pump blood <br />Thickest on the left side of the heart<br />
  11. 11. Table 5-1 Layers and Membranes of the Heart<br />
  12. 12. Figure 5-5 Layers and membranes of the heart<br />
  13. 13. Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System (cont’d)<br /><ul><li>Thoracic Cavity </li></ul>Contains the lungs and the mediastinum, an irregularly shaped central area between the lungs <br />
  14. 14. Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System (cont’d)<br /><ul><li>Mediastinum</li></ul>Contains the heart and parts of the great vessels (aorta, superior vena cava, inferior vena cava pulmonary arteries and veins), as well as the thymus, trachea, and the esophagus <br />
  15. 15. Figure 5-6 Mediastinum<br />
  16. 16. Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System (cont’d)<br /><ul><li>Blood Vessels</li></ul>Vascular channels through which blood circulates in the body<br />Have a central opening or lumen through which the blood flows <br />Lined with endothelium, a smooth inner layer that promotes the flow of blood<br />
  17. 17. Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System (cont’d)<br /><ul><li>There are three kinds of blood vessels in the body, each performing a different function:</li></ul>Arteries<br />Capillaries<br />Veins <br />
  18. 18. Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System (cont’d)<br /><ul><li>Arteries </li></ul>Large blood vessels<br />Smaller branches of an artery are arterioles <br />
  19. 19. Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System (cont’d)<br /><ul><li>All arteries share some important characteristics and functions:</li></ul>They carry blood away from the heart to the body.<br />They carry bright red blood that has a high level of oxygen.<br />Most arteries lie deep beneath the skin.<br />All arteries have smooth muscle in their walls.<br />Exception: pulmonary arteries<br />
  20. 20. Figure 5-7 Vasoconstriction and vasodilation<br />
  21. 21. Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System (cont’d)<br /><ul><li>Capillaries</li></ul>Smallest blood vessels in the body<br />The lumen of a capillary is so small that blood cells must pass through in single file.<br />
  22. 22. Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System (cont’d)<br /><ul><li>Veins</li></ul>Capillaries combine to form small veins known as venules, which then combine to form the largest veins.<br />
  23. 23. Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System (cont’d)<br /><ul><li>All veins share some important characteristics and functions:</li></ul>They carry blood from the body back to the heart.<br />They carry dark red-purple blood with a low level of oxygen.<br />Exception: pulmonary arteries<br />
  24. 24. Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System (cont’d)<br /><ul><li>All veins share some important characteristics and functions:</li></ul>The largest veins have valves that keep the blood flowing in one direction―toward the heart.<br />Many veins are near the surface of the body and can be seen just under the skin as bluish, sometimes bulging lines.<br />
  25. 25. Figure 5-8 Valves in a vein<br />
  26. 26. Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System (cont’d)<br /><ul><li>Aorta</li></ul>Largest artery in the body <br />Receives blood from the left ventricle of the heart<br />
  27. 27. Figure 5-9 Arteries and veins around the heart<br />
  28. 28. Figure 5-10 Arteries in the body<br />
  29. 29. Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System (cont’d)<br /><ul><li>Arteries</li></ul>Coronary artery<br />Carotid artery<br />Subclavian artery <br />Axillary artery (armpit)<br />Brachial artery (upper arm)<br />Radial artery (thumb side of the lower arm)<br />Ulnar artery (little finger side of the lower arm)<br />
  30. 30. Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System (cont’d)<br /><ul><li>Thoracic Aorta and Arterial Branches</li></ul>The thoracic aorta travels inferiorly through the thoracic cavity.<br />It branches into arteries that bring blood to the esophagus, muscles between the ribs, diaphragm, upper spinal cord, and the back.<br />
  31. 31. Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System (cont’d)<br /><ul><li>Abdominal Aorta and Arterial Branches</li></ul>Brings oxygenated blood to the stomach, liver, pancreas, spleen, gallbladder, small and large intestines, adrenal glands, kidneys, ovaries, testes, and the lower spinal cord<br />Abdominal aorta ends where right and left iliac arteries begin<br />
  32. 32. Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System (cont’d)<br /><ul><li>Abdominal Aorta and Arterial Branches </li></ul>Iliac artery<br />Femoral artery (upper leg)<br />Popliteal artery (near the knee joint)<br />Tibial artery (front and back of the lower leg)<br />Peroneal artery (little toe side of the lower leg)<br />
  33. 33. Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System (cont’d)<br />Two major veins of the body<br />Superior vena cava<br />Inferior vena cava<br />Other major veins<br />Jugular vein<br />Portal vein<br />Saphenous and femoral veins<br />
  34. 34. Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System (cont’d)<br /><ul><li>The Circulatory System</li></ul>The cardiovascular system or circulatory system circulates blood through the blood vessels.<br />Systemic circulation includes the arteries, capillaries, and veins everywhere in the body, except in the lungs.<br />Pulmonary circulation includes the arteries, capillaries, and veins going to, within, and coming from the lungs. <br />
  35. 35. Figure 5-11 Circulation of the blood<br />
  36. 36. Physiology of a Heartbeat<br /><ul><li>Heart contracts and relaxes in a regular rhythm coordinated by the conduction system
  37. 37. Actually, med terms kids make my heartbeat </li></ul>Sinoatrial node (SA node), or pacemaker of the heart, initiates the electrical impulse that begins each heartbeat<br />
  38. 38. Physiology of a Heartbeat (cont’d)<br /><ul><li>Heart contracts and relaxes in a regular rhythm coordinated by the conduction system </li></ul>Atrioventricular node (AV node) receives the impulse to contract from the SA node<br />Purkinje fibers, a network of nerves, cause both ventricles to contract simultaneously<br />
  39. 39. Figure 5-12 Conduction system of the heart<br />
  40. 40. Physiology of a Heartbeat (cont’d)<br /><ul><li>Two Heartbeat Phases</li></ul>Systole (contraction)<br />Diastole (resting period)<br />
  41. 41. Figure 5-13 Exercise increases the heart rate<br />John Garrett © Dorling Kindersley<br />
  42. 42. Diseases and Conditions<br /><ul><li>Myocardium</li></ul>Acute coronary syndrome<br />Angina pectoris<br />Cardiomegaly<br />Cardiomyopathy<br />Congestive heart failure (CHF)<br />Myocardial infarction (MI)<br />
  43. 43. Figure 5-14 Peripheral edema<br />Antonia Reeve/Photo Researchers, Inc.l<br />
  44. 44. Diseases and Conditions (cont’d)<br /><ul><li>Heart Valves and Layers of the Heart</li></ul>Endocarditis<br />Mitral valve prolapse (MVP)<br />Murmur<br />Pericarditis<br />Rheumatic heart disease<br />
  45. 45. Figure 5-15 Vegetation on the mitral valve<br />Abrahas/Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.<br />
  46. 46. Diseases and Conditions (cont’d)<br /><ul><li>Conduction System</li></ul>Arrhythmia<br />Bradycardia<br />Fibrillation<br />Flutter<br />Heart block<br />
  47. 47. Figure 5-16 Arrhythmias on an EKG tracing<br />
  48. 48. Diseases and Conditions (cont’d)<br /><ul><li>Conduction System</li></ul>Premature contraction<br />Sick sinus syndrome<br />Tachycardia<br />Asystole<br />Palpitation<br />
  49. 49. Diseases and Conditions (cont’d)<br /><ul><li>Blood Vessels</li></ul>Aneurysm<br />Arteriosclerosis<br />Bruit<br />Coronary artery disease (CAD)<br />Hyperlipidemia<br />Hypertension (HTN)<br />Hypotension<br />Peripheral artery disease (PAD)<br />
  50. 50. Figure 5-27 An aneurysm<br />(b) Michael English, M.D./Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.<br />
  51. 51. Figure 5-18 Mild atheromatous plaque<br />SIU BioMed/Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.<br />
  52. 52. Figure 5-19 Severe atherosclerotic plaque in an artery<br />C. Abrahams, M.D./Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.<br />
  53. 53. Diseases and Conditions (cont’d)<br /><ul><li>Blood Vessels </li></ul>Peripheral vascular disease (PVD)<br />Phlebitis<br />Raynaud’s disease<br />Varicose veins<br />
  54. 54. Figure 5-23 Severe varicose veins in the leg<br />SPL/Photo Researchers, Inc.<br />
  55. 55. Laboratory and Diagnostic Procedures<br /><ul><li>Blood Tests</li></ul>Cardiac enzymes<br />C-reactive protein (CRP)<br />Homocysteine <br />Lipid profile <br />Troponin <br />
  56. 56. Laboratory and Diagnostic Procedures (cont’d)<br /><ul><li>Diagnostic Heart Procedures</li></ul>Cardiac catheterization <br />Cardiac exercise stress test<br />Electrocardiography (ECG, EKG) <br />Electrophysiologic study (EPS)<br />
  57. 57. Figure 5-22 Electrocardiography<br />Jupiter Images – PictureArts Corporation/Brand X Pictures-Royalty Free<br />
  58. 58. Figure 5-23 An EKG tracing<br />
  59. 59. Laboratory and Diagnostic Procedures (cont’d)<br /><ul><li>Diagnostic Heart Procedures </li></ul>Holter monitor<br />Pharmacologic stress test<br />Telemetry <br />
  60. 60. Figure 5-21 Treadmill exercise stress test<br />Fotopic/Miles Simons/Phototake NYC<br />
  61. 61. Laboratory and Diagnostic Procedures (cont’d)<br /><ul><li>Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Procedures</li></ul>Angiography <br />Echocardiography<br />
  62. 62. Figure 5-24 Echocardiogram<br />Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.<br />
  63. 63. Figure 5-25 Doppler ultrasonography<br />Matt Meadows/Science Photo Library/Photo Researchers, Inc.<br />
  64. 64. Medical and Surgical Procedures<br /><ul><li>Medical Procedures</li></ul>Auscultation<br />Cardioversion <br />Sclerotherapy<br />Vital signs<br />
  65. 65. Figure 5-26 Defibrillation<br />Pearson Education/PH College<br />
  66. 66. Figure 5-27 Pulse points<br />
  67. 67. Figure 5-28 Carotid pulse<br />Michal Heron/Pearson Education/PH College<br />
  68. 68. Figure 5-29 Measuring the blood pressure<br />
  69. 69. Medical and Surgical Procedures (cont’d)<br /><ul><li>Surgical Procedures</li></ul>Aneurysmectomy <br />Cardiopulmonary bypass <br />Carotid endarterectomy<br />
  70. 70. Medical and Surgical Procedures (cont’d)<br /><ul><li>Surgical Procedures</li></ul>Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)<br />Heart transplantation <br />Pacemaker insertion<br />
  71. 71. Figure 5-30 Open heart surgery<br />F. Schussler/PhotoDisc/Getty Images<br />
  72. 72. Figure 5-31 Pacemaker<br />(left) English/Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc. (right) Alvis Upitis/Jupiter Images-PictureArts Corporation/Brand X Pictures-Royalty Free<br />
  73. 73. Medical and Surgical Procedures (cont’d)<br /><ul><li>Surgical Procedures (cont’d)</li></ul>Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) <br />Pericardiocentesis <br />Valve replacement<br />Valvoplasty<br />Radiofrequency catheter ablation<br />
  74. 74. Figure 5-32 Balloon angioplasty<br />
  75. 75. Figure 5-33 Stent<br />
  76. 76. Figure 5-34 Valve replacement surgery<br />Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.<br />

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