Moving Beyond Armed ActorsThe Challenges for Civil Society in Colombia


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Moving Beyond Armed ActorsThe Challenges for Civil Society in Colombia

  1. 1. Moving Beyond Armed Actors The Challenges for Civil Society in Colombia Jorge Hernán Cárdenas February 20-21, 2004
  2. 2. Some Initial questions…? 1. Can you create or can you manufacture social capital?, 2. What's the role of the philanthropic and more general the third sector in manufacturing social capital?
  3. 3. Corona Foundation Mission Statement Institutional building for equality The Corona Foundation contributes to the construction of a more prosperous Colombia, through promoting institutional building in education, health, entrepreneurial development, and local and community development. It generates, disseminates and applies knowledge to: – Design and implementation of policies – Improvement of organizational effectiveness – Promotion of structured, deliberate and active citizenship participation
  4. 4. Corona Foundation’s Work Strategies • Develop models that can be applied to organizations and social collectives such as schools, hospitals, micro business and community organizations • Develop specialized sartorial knowledge and promote debate in order to ensure improvements in the design and formulation of public policy • Promote citizen’s participation that favors solution to communities problems, allows local government control and bring citizens closer to government
  5. 5. Foundation's Role in the Construction of Social Capital Social capital building requires: • A process of cultural transformation, which implies: • This leads to: – – – – Strong civil organizations Civil engagement and citizenship cohesion Strong Institutions used to regulate relationships Strong & trustworthy relations between citizens and public sector – Built upon community's capacities CORONA FOUNDATION’S PHILANTHROPIC FIELD OF WORK since the 80´s – Modification and sharing of values, perceptions, practices, agreements – Subordinate one’s interests on behalf of the group’s interests
  6. 6. Project Example # 1 1. ¿Bogotá Cómo Vamos? • • • • • • Generation of information and continuous reporting on the quality of life in Colombia’s capital Follow up to local administration’s public action's 240 variables have been measured Seminars and public opinion polls Public advocacy Partners with: – Bogotá's Chamber of Commerce (Entrepreneurs) – El Tiempo (Media) – Corona Foundation (Third sector) • Will be replicated in other cities (Cali, Medellín)
  7. 7. “Bogotá Cómo Vamos? Sectors that are being evaluated Education Health Citizen’s Safety Transport Mobility Economic Development Environment Housing & Services Urban Development Public Policy Citizens Responsibility Youth
  8. 8. ¿Bogotá Cómo Vamos? Key Performance Indicators in Education
  9. 9. Example # 2 2. ¿Concejo Cómo Vamos? • Continuous tracking of Bogotá's City Council • Focus on assessment and accountability of its members: – Attendance and duration of attendance of Council’s Members – Preparation of proposals made by Council’s members • Statistics and data sent to various media (newspapers, radio, TV) • Work on the construction of a democratic culture in Bogotá
  10. 10. Advances in attendance to Bogota’s City Council? Continuity of assistance during sessions Duration of attendance
  11. 11. Example # 3 , 4 3. Premio Cívico por una Bogotá Mejor • Identification and dissemination of community initiatives based upon organizations that enhance citizen’s quality of life 4. Programa Nacional de Alianzas (alliance award): • Identification of successful experiences of alliances among public and private sector with community organizations • Promotion of alliances as key means for social intervention • Project supported by World Bank • Six year project: 50 alliances fully documented and 15 awarded
  12. 12. Awarded Alliances 1999-2003 • Asamblea Municipal Constituyente y Administración Municipal de Tarso “Unidos por el desarrollo y la paz.” (2002) • Comité interinstitucional: alianza para la reconstrucción integral de Granada, Antioquia (2002) • Desarrollo Rural supralocal en San Pedro, Sucre y Córdoba Bolivar (2002) • El Consejo de Conciliación y Desarrollo Social y la Fundación Rioclaro en el municipio de San Luis, Departamento de Antioquia (2000) • Proyecto Nueva Villa Nueva en Santander(2000)
  13. 13. Example # 5 5. CONSORCIO para el Desarrollo Comunitario • Corona Foundation is a member of Consorcio • Strengthening of 4,700 organizations and 47, 000 leaders in Bogotá since 1995 • Co-Financed by Ford Foundation Intervention strategies • Strengthening and promotion of community organizations • Co finance of projects • Application, validation and development of organizational strengthening methodologies • Concerted work with advisory NGO’s • Systematization of experiences and methodologies • Research and documentation of knowledge • Development of alliances and strategic networks
  14. 14. Example # 6, 7 6.FOCUS: • Co-financing fund directed to urban communities • Strengthening of community organizations • 178 organizations, 170 leaders, 16.000 citizens • Co-financed by IAF 7. Evaluation of citizen’s participation in Colombia • Review of what has happened with regards to participation since 1991´s Constitution • Research project aimed at analyzing participation in 5 municipalities • Focus on participative planning
  15. 15. Corona Foundation’s has played a role in helping other Foundations C. Calidad Corpoeducación Entrepreneurial Education Development C. Excelencia en la Justicia Justice Corona Foundation Health CGH Consorcio para el Dllo. Comunitario Community Development Peace Fundación Ideas para la PAZ Corporación Transparencia Participation and Citizenship control
  16. 16. Potential Areas of work : (in the agenda to further explore) 1. Ensure that demobilization programs are successful: • • • • • • • • • Design policies directed to the construction of peace Help to have a better government agenda Generate more incentives for both individual and collective demobilization Develop a special program for the demobilized youth so that they can have Design sustainable intervention schemes Work in ad campaigns and opinion polls to foster process Rights reestablishment Open spaces in public life Promote cultural change
  17. 17. 2. Leave population out of the conflict: • • • • Promote International Humanitarian Rights Prevent children's recruitment Develop education opportunities and coverage to confront recruitment Detect with gretar detail risk factors (age, family background, victims of war, rural areas, etc): • 209 municipalities in potential recruitment risk • 90% recruited in rural areas • 57% of rural teens do not go to school • Desertion average in rural areas (before 3rd grade): 35% • Regions with higher school desertion indices correspond to higher recruitment areas
  18. 18. 3. Work in truth, justice and reparation themes • • • • Concepts of security and penal justice are closely knit Evaluate coverage and quality of justice Ensure coordination and agreements among actors Develop alternative justice systems (peace judges) 4. Generate new knowledge and research on international legislation: • • promote schemes directed to humanization of war (International Humanitarian Rights) Use if needed the International Penal Court 5. Reinforcement of incomes – “Turn off the tap” to war finance: • • Guerrilla’s revenues averages US$486 million Paramilitary ‘s revenues averages US$286 million
  19. 19. Areas of work 6. Generate participative spaces as long as they have clear rules and effects 7. Develop understandings between local governments and the community in vulnerable municipalities • • • Capacity building: 209 vulnerable municipalities with high violence potential and low governability Strengthening social actors and policy makers Fighting against corruption 8. Support and strengthen institutions such as the police, Citizen’s defense office (Defensoría), public prosecutors office (Fiscalía) • • Define clear missions and functions among institutions Focus on population’s problems
  20. 20. Structure of Peace Accords Government Rehabilitation Reconciliation Peace Fund (Barco’s Gov.) Regional Development Institutional Strengthening Political favorability Legal Guarantees Cease fire Cease of hostilities Disarmament Plan Colombia (Pastrana Uribe’s . up to 2005) Society Reinsertion Individual Reinsertion Collective Reinsertion Community Restorative Justice Demobilized Organizations
  21. 21. The proper role of international Community? Provide the needed experience and perspective in emerging and new issues, like: 1. Models for intervening and healing the population to overcome a humanitarian crisis 2. Structure of reparations programs 3. Coming to Terms with the Past: Truth, Justice and Reconciliation models 4. How to deal with organized crime in more effective ways in the years to come 5. Strengthening the Capacity to Prevent, Resolve, and Transform internal Conflicts 6. Disarmament models 7. Respect for Human Rights and the prevalence of International Humanitarian Law 8. International Facilitation Service for Internal Conflict Resolution 9. Ways to find Sustainable peace agreements
  22. 22. Key Strategic Allies • International Partners: – – – – – Inter American Foundation - IAF Inter American Development Fund – IADF World Bank Ford Foundation Other Foundations in Colombia and abroad
  23. 23. Some of our Publications
  24. 24.
  25. 25. Some Challenges I • 4,715 demobilized covered by reinsertion processes • Significant growth of number of demobilized individuals from guerrilla and paramilitary organizations • 44% of demobilized between the ages of 13 and 17 years • 92% of demobilized are men and 84% have not completed primary school • 20% of individuals have been forcedly recruited by illegal organizations Urgent need for work with the demobilized
  26. 26. Traditional role of the third, and public sector in manufacturing social capital? Role of the private sector Profit Maximizing exploiting economic opportunities for sevice Resources Role of the Government The catalyst of the other sectors “Pure Public Goods” Regulation Development strategy politically motivated Role of the Third Sector Quasi public goods Common ground for public and private innitiatives Long term perspective: no major changes with government A good niche player: very focussed, results oriented. A good leverage for the other two Accountability
  27. 27. Manufacturing social capital 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Educate people in many ways Leverage Key players Increase public awareness and accountability Invest in the peace process Pay attention to the quality of key public policies Capacity building of critical institutions
  28. 28. How pervasive is organized crime in Colombia? … much more than the 15% 1. A catalyst of violence: availability of arms, tons of money, resources, military apparatus, and a training camp, and it has also destroyed the prison system 2. The more pervasive effect: it destroys the needed cohesion in the social life: less trust as a norm, new leadership could be destroyed or never formed. 3. Risk aversion in the political life that destroys the country 4. At times intimidation when not erosion of critically important public institutions like police, congress, procuraduria, even the presidency has suffered in contemporary history 5. The rule of law could not be guaranteed, so it is less observed by younger generations 6. More violent experiences at early stages in the repertoire: more perpetrators in the future. 7. Tremendous effect on values and norms 8. Violators of Human Rights at the highest scale 9. To an extent destroys the internationalization of Colombian economy: overvalued exchange rate.
  29. 29. Building social capital 1. Concentrate all your energies in the peace process and hopefully find peaceful solution 2. Effective Institutions in critical areas 3. Sustained condition of trust and learning 4. Ability and commitment to assume challenges and to work collectively 5. What are the common goals and societal needs 6. Experience in the coordination of initiatives 7. Reduce uncertainty and promote the rule of law 8. Reduce transactions costs
  30. 30. Back to Basics: Social Capital “The ability to work collectively in order to achieve common objectives, through the work of groups and organizations” James Coleman “The key to foster social capital resides in the political and institutional capacity to sustain policies.” Daubon
  31. 31. Restorative Justice & Peace Restorative Justice Defined as: “Rehabilitating perpetrators and victims, and (re)establishing relationships on equal concern and respect.” Llewellyn,J. quoted in, R.I., Thompson, D., Eds,: 2000,P103
  32. 32. Restorative Justice & Peace • Setting up mechanisms through which reconciliation process can be initiated: – Identify and take steps towards harm’s reparation – Involve stakeholders – Transform traditional relationships within communities and governments • Conduct a series of workshops, forums and an International Symposium • Alvaralice Foundation, Corona Foundation
  33. 33. Some Challenges II • Participation as a crucial element of public management • It allows citizens to influence public policies • Colombia has evolved as an exclusive and unequalitarian society • Participation efforts allow institutional capacities to respond to social needs • Only a few citizens know and use the participation spaces • There has been clear lack of continuity in the formulation and application of participation policies since the 1991 Constitution