P. HISTORY OF
'AATHEMATICAL
ound As One
4
DOVER BOOKS ON
MATHEMATICS
A CONCISEHISTORYOF MATHEMATICS,Dirk J. Struik. (60255-9)
STATISTICALMETHODFROM THEVIEWPOINTOF Q...
A HISTORY OF
MATHEMATICAL
NOTATIONS
FLORIAN CAJORI
Two klumes Bound As One
VolumeI:
Notations in Elementary Mathematics
Vo...
Bibliographical Note
This Dover edition, first published in 1993, is an unabridged
and unaltered republication in one volu...
PREFACE
The study of the history of mathematical notations was sug-
gested to me by Professor E. H. Moore, of the Universi...
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. INTRODVC~~ON
l!AEAOBAPEB
. . .11. NUMERALSYMBOLBAND COMBINATIONSOF SYMBOLE 1.-
. . . . . . . . . . . ...
...vln TABLE OF CONTENTS
ByzantineMaximus Planudes. Fourteenth Cent
Italian-Leonardo of Pisa. Thirteenth Century
French-Ni...
TABLE OF CONTENTS ix
PARAQRAPAR
. . . .English-John Wallis, 1655, 1657. 1685 195. 196
. . .&tract from Acta eruditorum. Le...
TABLE OF CONTENTS
mx.&amms
Notations for Geometric Ratio . 244
Division in the Algebra of Complex Numbers . . 247
Signs of...
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PASAGBAPHD
. . . . . .Double Significanceof R and 1 291
. . . .Facsimiles of Symbols in Manuscripts 293
...
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PIRAQRAPER
Crossed Numerals Representing Powers of Un-
knowns . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
Descartes' z. ...
ILLUSTRATIONS
FIGURE PAIIAORAPHP
1. BABYLONIANTABLETSOF NIPPUR . . . . . . . . . 4
4. MATHEMATICALCUNEIFORMTABLETCBS 8536 ...
ILLUSTRATIONS
PIQUBE PARAGRAPE8
28. REALESTATESALE,MEXICOCITP, 1718 . . . . . . . 94
29. FANCIFULHYPOTHESES . . . . . . . ...
RQWE
59. FROMCHR.RUDOLFF'SCOSS.EV. . . . . . . . .
60. FROMVANDER HOECKE'In arithmetica . . . . . .
61. PARTOF PAGEFROM ST...
ILLUSTRATIONS
PIOURE PbRAQRAPAB
91. RADICALSIN J.HUME.1635 . . . . . . . . . . . 191
92. R. DESCARTES.Ghomktrie . . . . . ...
NOTATIONS IN
ELEMENTARY MATHEMATICS
I
INTRODUCTION
In this history it has been an aim to give not only the first appear-
a...
NUMERAL SYhlBOLS AND COMBINATIONS 'OF
SYMBOLS
BABYLONIANS
1. In the Babylonian notation of numbers a vertical wedge 7
stoo...
OLD NUMERAL SYMBOLS 3
of the moon's disk for every day from new to full moon, the whole disk
being assumed to consist of 2...
4 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICAL NOTATIONS
and 49 are given as the squares of the first seven integers, respectively.
We have n...
OLD NUMERAL SYMBOLS 5
Line 9. 2,000=33X60+20, 18= 10+8
Line 10. Its denominator, 6,480=[lx60+48] X60+0
Line11.4,000=[1~60+...
6 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICAL NOTATIONS
8. In the reading of numbers expressed in the Babylonian sexa-
gesimal system, uncer...
OLD NUMERAL SYMBOLS 7
11. The symbol used about the second century B.C. to designate
the absenee of a number,,or a blank s...
8 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICAL NOTATIONS
OBVERSE
1
FIG.4.-Mathematical cuneiform tablet, CBS 8536, in the Muse1
Unimmity of P...
OLD NUMERAL SYMBOLS 9
12. J. Oppert, pointed out the Babylonian use of a designation
for the sixths, via., 8, 9, 3, 6, #. ...
10 A HISTORY 6F'MATHEMATICAL NOTATIONS
In the fifth column the multiplicand is 44(26)(40) or 444.
The last two lines seem ...
OLD NUMERAL SYMBOLS 11
40+2X40 X 10% 602, yielding 42(13)(20), and also by the approxi-
mation 40+ 10% 12x401, yielding 41...
12 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICAL NOTATIONS
17. The hieroglyphic symbols were I] for 1, D for 10, C for 100,
r for 1,000, ) for...
OLD NUMERAL SYMBOLS 13
Sethe. They showthemost commonof the great variety of formswhich
are found in the expositions given...
14 A HISTORY OF MATKEMATICAL NOTATIONS
20. In the older hieroglyphs 2,000 or 3,000was represented by two
or three lotus pl...
OLD NUMERAL SYMBOLS 15
4,+, 8, -),each of which had its own symbol. Some of the numeral
symbols in Ahmes deviate somewhat ...
16 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICAL NOTATIONS
24. Explanation:
2 2
The algebraic equation is -+- +z = 10
2 4
lee., (1++++)z= 10
T...
OLD NUMERAL SYMBOLS 17
Proof.-5 +3-,I4- is multiplied by (1 +a) and the partial products
are added. In the first line of t...
18 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICAL KOTATIOYS
the oldest Egyptian writing; the demotic appeared later. The Cop-
tic writing is de...
OLD NUMERAL SYMBOLS 19
als is -y for 5. Beginning with 100the Palmyra numerals contain new
forms. Placing a I to the right...
20 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICAL NOTATIONS
LETTRES
- h
~ ~ A ~ U K S .&nriqvas. n~rmn~qu~r.
A? N b
3 3 3
T 1 J
T 7 7
1 ;1 P
9 ...
OLD NUMERAL SYMBOLS 21
the forms occurred when the letter was a terminal letter of a word.
These end forms were used as fo...
22 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICAL NOTATIONS
sloping line indicative of 100 and the lozenge-shaped figure used for
1,000were rep...
OLD NUMERAL SYMBOLS 23
hva[A&a~os~]air hi T[~s]dpxijs M MM FT T T . . . . ; i.e., "Total
of expenditures during our office...
24 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICAL NOTATIONS
FIG.13.-Account of disbursements of the Athenian state, 418-415 B.c.,
British Museu...
OLD NUMERAL SYMBOLS 35
much as they contained fewer .symbols. The following are the Greek
alphabetic numerals and their re...
26 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICAL NOTATIONS
of remembering such an array of signs was comparatively great. W-e
are reminded of ...
OLD NUMERAL SYMBOLS 27
modern exponent; thus1 Archimedes and Eutocius use the notation
-Ka' K a
LC or LCfor +:, and Diopha...
28 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICAL NOTATIONS
L. C. Karpinskill and supposed to be intermediate between the
Ahmes papyrus and the...
OLD NUMERAL SYMBOLS 29
probably the older form. Sexagesimal fractions were used during the
whole of the Middle Ages in Ind...
30 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICAL NOTATIONS
numerals, with the zero, began to spread among the Arabs in the ninth
and tenth cen...
OLD NUMERAL SYME!OLS 31
the initial of centum; and 0 assimilated to ordinary letters C13.
The half of 0 , viz., Dl was tak...
32 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICAL NOTATIONS
49. Alexander von Humboldtl makes the following observations:
"Summations by juxtap...
OLD NUMERAL SYMBOLS 33
Cappellil "one finds, often in French documents of the Middle Ages,
the multipiication of 20 expres...
34 A HISTORY OF MATmMATICAL NOTATIONS
parentheses. Through Priscian it is established that this notation is
at least aa ol...
OLD NUMERAL SYMBOLS 35
56. In certain sixteenth-century Portuguese manuscripts on navi-
gation one finds the small letter ...
36 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICAL NOTATIONS
numeration for the membranes of their Rolls, the numerals assuming
a degraded form ...
OLD NUMERAL SYMBOLS $7
59. Not all of these names and signs were used to the same ex-
tent. Since &++=$, there was used in...
38 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICAL NOTATIONS
PERUVIAN AND NORTH AMERICAN KNOT RECORDSL
ANCIENT QUZPU
62. "The use of knob in cor...
OLD NUMERbL SYMBOLS 39
bearing beads, etc., t o indicah the days. It ia aimply a &ring record.
This ia known from the Yaki...
40 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICAL NOTATIONS
"The other type I have seen in use among the Havasupai and
Walapai of Arisona. This...
OLD NUMERAL SYMBOLS 41
"Bourkel refers to medicine cords with olivella shells attached
among the Tonto and Chiricahua Apac...
42 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICAL NOTATIONS
FIG.19.-From the Dresden Codex, of the Maya, displaying numbers. The
second column ...
OLD NUMERAL SYMBOLS 43
local value, are of interest as exhibiting not only quinary, decimal, and
vigesimal systems, but al...
44 A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICAL NOTATIONS
the sun) while even numbers are designated by black knots (standing
for the incompl...
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Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
Florian cajori   a history of mathematical notations
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