FREE FLIGHT A SELECTED HISTORY
1200 BC 2009 AD 0 1799 Ancient Greece  circa 1200 BC myth of Icarus’ escape from Crete ...ends in  tragedy
Sir George Cayley  1773-1857 “ The Father of Aerodynamics” section A section A:  brook trout in fluid
1853: Brompton Dale, UK “ Governable Parachute” makes first manned heavier-than-air flight. design and construction: Sir G...
Otto von Lilienthal  1848-1896 “ Glider King” “ Newspapers and magazines in many countries published photographs of Lilien...
 
 
wind speed: 10 m/s (22.5 mph) 17 m (56 ft)
Otto von Lilienthal  died: August 10, 1896 “ Small sacrifices must  be made!”
The Wright Brothers  Orville Wright 1871-1948 Wilbur Wright 1867-1912 General Credit:  First sustained powered flight
dayton, ohio kitty hawk, north carolina In 1900 the brothers journeyed to  Kitty Hawk , North Caro lina to begin  their ma...
the flying problem propulsion lift control
the flying problem propulsion lift control
1900 Glider: They tested wing-warping using control ropes from the ground. The glider was also tested unmanned while suspe...
1901 Glider: Hoping to improve lift, they built the 1901 glider with a much larger wing area and made 50 to 100 flights in...
2 years later...
5 years after that... HOLY S#@%!!!! this rules!
...and, only a few short years later ...the excitement is gone.
Unpowered vs. Powered  Flight
 
 
“ The amount of judgement required to fly an aircraft is inversely proportional to its gross weight.” -Richard Bach
the challenge of gliding
four “glider” categories rigid wing flex wing RAM-air canopy body
Glider Performance: 1) Lift/Drag (AKA glide ratio) 2) Airspeed Range
 
rigid wing glider (AKA sailplane) aero-towed, or launched with motor max L/D:   85:1 maximum speed:   280 km/h (170 mph) s...
flex wing glider (AKA non-rigid hang glider) foot launched (an be aero-towed, or launched with motor) max L/D:   17:1 maxi...
RAM-air canopy (AKA paraglider) foot launched (an be winch-towed, or launched with motor) max L/D:   12:1 maximum speed:  ...
body (aided by tracking or wing suit) launched from other aircraft or fixed object (BASE) max L/D:   2.5:1 maximum speed: ...
Lift
ridge soaring overcoming L/D using lift from wind hitting a ridge paragliders, hanggliders and sailplanes can “ridge soar”...
thermal soaring overcoming L/D by circling in lift caused by  “bubbles” of rising air. paragliders, hanggliders and sailpl...
 
Cross Country
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
the Future
 
sailplane
 
 
speedflying
 
wingsuit
cross country....?
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Brown Bag Presentation: Free Flight

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This is a brown-bag presentation on the history of un-powered flight.
Carbon Design Group holds brown-bag lunch meetings on Thursdays for the purposes of building a sense of community, learning from each other, practicing our presentation skills, and developing a habit of learning. It is our belief that these things will make us a stronger as a team and as individuals. If you are around our office on a Thursday and you're interested in listening in, please let us know!
This presentation is not meant to be a stand-alone document - if you have any questions or comments, please contact us at slideshare@carbondesign.com.

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Brown Bag Presentation: Free Flight

  1. 1. FREE FLIGHT A SELECTED HISTORY
  2. 2. 1200 BC 2009 AD 0 1799 Ancient Greece circa 1200 BC myth of Icarus’ escape from Crete ...ends in tragedy
  3. 3. Sir George Cayley 1773-1857 “ The Father of Aerodynamics” section A section A: brook trout in fluid
  4. 4. 1853: Brompton Dale, UK “ Governable Parachute” makes first manned heavier-than-air flight. design and construction: Sir George Cayley pilot: Unknown 10 year old boy
  5. 5. Otto von Lilienthal 1848-1896 “ Glider King” “ Newspapers and magazines in many countries published photographs of Lilienthal gliding, favorably influencing public and scientific opinion about the possibility of flying machines becoming practical reality after ages of idle fantasy and unscientific tinkering.”
  6. 8. wind speed: 10 m/s (22.5 mph) 17 m (56 ft)
  7. 9. Otto von Lilienthal died: August 10, 1896 “ Small sacrifices must be made!”
  8. 10. The Wright Brothers Orville Wright 1871-1948 Wilbur Wright 1867-1912 General Credit: First sustained powered flight
  9. 11. dayton, ohio kitty hawk, north carolina In 1900 the brothers journeyed to Kitty Hawk , North Caro lina to begin their manned gliding experiments.
  10. 12. the flying problem propulsion lift control
  11. 13. the flying problem propulsion lift control
  12. 14. 1900 Glider: They tested wing-warping using control ropes from the ground. The glider was also tested unmanned while suspended from a small homemade tower. Although the glider's lift was less than expected (causing most tests to be unmanned), the brothers were encouraged because the craft's front elevator worked well and they had no accidents. However, the small number of free glides meant they were not able to give wing-warping a true test.
  13. 15. 1901 Glider: Hoping to improve lift, they built the 1901 glider with a much larger wing area and made 50 to 100 flights in July and August for distances of 20 to 400 ft (6 to 122 m). The glider stalled a few times, but the parachute effect of the forward elevator allowed Wilbur to make a safe flat or "pancake" landing, instead of a nose-dive.
  14. 16. 2 years later...
  15. 17. 5 years after that... HOLY S#@%!!!! this rules!
  16. 18. ...and, only a few short years later ...the excitement is gone.
  17. 19. Unpowered vs. Powered Flight
  18. 22. “ The amount of judgement required to fly an aircraft is inversely proportional to its gross weight.” -Richard Bach
  19. 23. the challenge of gliding
  20. 24. four “glider” categories rigid wing flex wing RAM-air canopy body
  21. 25. Glider Performance: 1) Lift/Drag (AKA glide ratio) 2) Airspeed Range
  22. 27. rigid wing glider (AKA sailplane) aero-towed, or launched with motor max L/D: 85:1 maximum speed: 280 km/h (170 mph) stall speed: 65 km/h (40 mph) Able to fly in windier turbulent conditions and can outrun bad weather. Exceptional penetration into the wind. Semi- or fully aerobatic.
  23. 28. flex wing glider (AKA non-rigid hang glider) foot launched (an be aero-towed, or launched with motor) max L/D: 17:1 maximum speed: 145 km/h (90+ mph) generally flexible but supported on a rigid frame which determines its shape and thus does not collapse in turbulence, but note that rigid wing hang gliders also exist.
  24. 29. RAM-air canopy (AKA paraglider) foot launched (an be winch-towed, or launched with motor) max L/D: 12:1 maximum speed: 90 km/h (55 mph) stall speed: 18 km/h (11 mph) relatively poor glide performance makes long-distances more difficult. Tighter turn radius allows circling in strongest part of thermals.
  25. 30. body (aided by tracking or wing suit) launched from other aircraft or fixed object (BASE) max L/D: 2.5:1 maximum speed: 180 km/h (110 mph) stall speed: N/A very poor glide but very high speeds. significant improvement related to normal body tracking in freefall. must be landed with a parachute.
  26. 31. Lift
  27. 32. ridge soaring overcoming L/D using lift from wind hitting a ridge paragliders, hanggliders and sailplanes can “ridge soar” at different wind speeds depending on performance L
  28. 33. thermal soaring overcoming L/D by circling in lift caused by “bubbles” of rising air. paragliders, hanggliders and sailplanes can all “thermal”. This is the primary method of achieving a cross-country flight. L sun warms the ground, which warms the air near it. when the rising column of air reaches the dew-point, the water condenses into a cloud.
  29. 35. Cross Country
  30. 51. the Future
  31. 53. sailplane
  32. 56. speedflying
  33. 58. wingsuit
  34. 59. cross country....?

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