Gender , Sexism And Rape


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Gender , Sexism And Rape

  2. 2. <ul><li>physical differences between men and women </li></ul>SEX
  3. 3. Females and males- women and men- have always been different . <ul><li>They differ in: </li></ul><ul><li>Biology </li></ul><ul><li>Social behavior </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>SOCIAL CONSTRUCTS </li></ul><ul><li>created by women and men themselves, they are a matter of culture </li></ul>
  5. 5. What is Gender?
  6. 6. GENDER <ul><li>refers to the socio-culturally constructed differences between men and women </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Gender- wise </li></ul><ul><li>---- a person is either FEMININE or MASCULINE </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>refers to the different roles and identities that we are given depending on whether we are male or female. </li></ul>
  9. 9. GENDER STEREOTYPE <ul><li>are widely shared beliefs that people have certain characteristics because of their membership in some group. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Gender stereotype <ul><li>FEMININE </li></ul><ul><li>Not all aggressive </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent </li></ul><ul><li>Very emotional </li></ul><ul><li>Does not hide emotions at all </li></ul><ul><li>Very subjective </li></ul><ul><li>Very easily influenced </li></ul><ul><li>Very submissive </li></ul><ul><li>Dislike math and science very much </li></ul><ul><li>MASCULINE </li></ul><ul><li>aggressive </li></ul><ul><li>not at all dependent </li></ul><ul><li>not at all emotional </li></ul><ul><li>almost hidden emotion </li></ul><ul><li>very objective </li></ul><ul><li>not at all easily influenced </li></ul><ul><li>very dominant </li></ul><ul><li>likes math and science very much </li></ul>
  11. 11. Gender stereotype <ul><li>FEMININE </li></ul><ul><li>Very excitable in a minor crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Very passive </li></ul><ul><li>Not at all competitive </li></ul><ul><li>Very illogical </li></ul><ul><li>Very home-oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Not at all skilled in business </li></ul><ul><li>MASCULINE </li></ul><ul><li>not at all excitable in a minor crisis </li></ul><ul><li>very active </li></ul><ul><li>very competitive </li></ul><ul><li>very logical </li></ul><ul><li>very worldly </li></ul><ul><li>very skilled in business </li></ul>
  12. 12. Gender stereotype <ul><li>FEMININE </li></ul><ul><li>Does not know the way of the world </li></ul><ul><li>Feelings easily hurt </li></ul><ul><li>Not at all adventurous </li></ul><ul><li>Cries very easily </li></ul><ul><li>Almost never acts as a leader </li></ul><ul><li>MASCULINE </li></ul><ul><li>knows the way of the world </li></ul><ul><li>feelings not easily hurt </li></ul><ul><li>very adventurous </li></ul><ul><li>never cries </li></ul><ul><li>almost acts as a leader </li></ul>
  13. 13. Gender stereotype <ul><li>FEMININE </li></ul><ul><li>Not at all self-confident </li></ul><ul><li>Not at all ambitious </li></ul><ul><li>Unable to separate feelings from ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Does not talk freely about sex with men </li></ul><ul><li>MASCULINE </li></ul><ul><li>very self- confident </li></ul><ul><li>very ambitious </li></ul><ul><li>easily able to separate feelings from ideas </li></ul><ul><li>talks freely about sex with men </li></ul>
  14. 14. GENDER SENSITIVITY <ul><li>individuals’ tendency to favor ideas and practices that justify equal rights and opportunities to both males and females </li></ul>
  15. 15. GENDER INEQUALITY <ul><li>Is deeply rooted in traditional stereotyping of gender roles </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>MANIFESTATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>OF </li></ul>GENDER BIAS
  17. 17. ECONOMIC MARGINALIZATION <ul><li>Under/ non-evaluation of women’s works </li></ul><ul><li>Unequal pay for work of equal values </li></ul><ul><li>Last to be hired and first to be fired </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Asked to grant sexual favors to bosses in exchange for job promotion or permanency </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Whether in the home, the community, the workplace, or society at a large, women are expected to play subordinate roles to men. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Decision-making, positions of leadership, status and prestige are assumed to be the domain of males with women playing supportive and submissive role. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>As a result, women no only pout in longer working hours, they also shoulder a wider breadth of responsibility. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>The multiple burden necessarily limits every woman’s capacity to fully develop herself while affording men the luxury of concentrating on their own concerns in the public sphere. </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>GENDER </li></ul><ul><li>and the </li></ul>MASS MEDIA
  25. 25. <ul><li>WOMEN ARE RELATIVELY INVISIBLE </li></ul><ul><li>Men outnumbered women two to one in television commercials </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Women are particularly absent from advertisements for expensive products and from advertisements shown during prime time. </li></ul>
  27. 29. <ul><li>WOMEN ARE SHOWN DOING HOUSEWORK </li></ul>
  28. 31. <ul><li>Women are typically shown as passive, dependent, and not very bright. </li></ul>
  29. 36. <ul><li>Women’s are likely to be shown with their whole bodies </li></ul>
  30. 44. <ul><li>Men’s faces are more prominent in newspapers. </li></ul>
  31. 46. SEXISM
  32. 47. <ul><li>is any attitude, behavior or practice that creates or promotes unfair or irrelevant distinctions between sexes and results in gender-discrimination or the marginalization of either sex. </li></ul>
  33. 48. <ul><li>SEXIST LANGUAGE </li></ul><ul><li>– it is a language that devalues members of one sex </li></ul>
  34. 49. <ul><li>MAN </li></ul><ul><li>– refers to all people. </li></ul><ul><li>It can be replaced by person or individual and mankind by humankind or humanity. </li></ul>
  35. 50. <ul><li>ENGINEERS </li></ul><ul><li>are always men </li></ul><ul><li>NURSES </li></ul><ul><li> always women </li></ul><ul><li>WOMEN </li></ul><ul><li>passive </li></ul><ul><li>MEN </li></ul><ul><li>strong and aggressive </li></ul>
  36. 51. <ul><li>Identify both men and women in the same way: </li></ul><ul><li>- instead of steward or stewardess </li></ul><ul><li>Flight attendant </li></ul>
  37. 52. <ul><li>instead of Congresswoman or Congressman </li></ul><ul><li>Representative </li></ul><ul><li> man and wife </li></ul><ul><li> Husband and wife </li></ul>
  38. 53. <ul><li>Avoid language that trivializes women and reinforces stereotyped images </li></ul><ul><li> chicks </li></ul><ul><ul><li> girls </li></ul></ul><ul><li>fair sex </li></ul><ul><li> weaker sex </li></ul>
  39. 54. <ul><li>1. CONDESCENSION </li></ul><ul><li>not taking women seriously, not listening or paying attention to what they have to say. </li></ul><ul><li>includes calling women by diminutives such as “ dear ” or “ darling ” which downgrade their dignity. </li></ul>
  40. 55. <ul><li>2. HOSTILITY </li></ul><ul><li>making remarks that fluster women or make them angry; </li></ul><ul><li>inappropriate references to women’s anatomy in lecture; </li></ul><ul><li>putting down traditionally female characteristics such as being nurturing or caring. </li></ul>
  41. 56. <ul><li>3. BACKLASHING </li></ul><ul><li>explicit reactions to feminism or those in the women’s movement; </li></ul><ul><li>putting pressure on women to conform in order to be seen as desirable or acceptable . </li></ul>
  42. 57. <ul><li>4. SEXUAL INNUENDO </li></ul><ul><li>– comments or snide remarks about women’s issues like sexual harassment, rape, etc, like this comment made by a politician regarding rape: </li></ul><ul><li>“ If you can’t prevent it, lie down and enjoy it.” </li></ul>
  43. 58. GENDER and CRIME
  45. 60. <ul><li>They appear to have little in common </li></ul><ul><li>BUT </li></ul><ul><li>battered women experience physical </li></ul><ul><li>and psychological violence </li></ul><ul><li>Women who are sexually harassed may experience physical violence. </li></ul><ul><li>Rape is a crime of violence, not sexual passion </li></ul>
  46. 61. In all three cases, men have more power than women women are left feeling even less powerful after the violence.
  47. 62. <ul><li>women are left feeling even less </li></ul><ul><ul><li>powerful after the violence; their bodies have been violated or beaten </li></ul></ul><ul><li>or they have been forced to accept unwanted sexual attention </li></ul>
  48. 63. <ul><li>Women cannot even regain power by reporting the violence, because legal procedures will be: </li></ul><ul><li>Embarrassing </li></ul><ul><li>Humiliating </li></ul><ul><li>Invading a woman’s right to privacy </li></ul>
  49. 64. In all 3 cases, people are likely to blame the victim
  50. 65. <ul><li>A woman is raped because she “ASKED FOR” by her behavior and actions. </li></ul>
  51. 66. <ul><li>A woman is beaten because she did not take good care of her husband’s needs </li></ul>
  52. 67. In CONTRAST <ul><li>… the aggressor may be perceived as acting “LIKE NORMAL MALE,” and receives little blame. </li></ul>
  53. 68. RAPE
  54. 69. RAPE <ul><li>is a form of assault where one individual forces another to have sexual intercourse against that person’s will . </li></ul><ul><li>forcing a person to submit to any sex act. </li></ul>
  55. 70. TYPES OF RAPE <ul><li>1. Acquaintance (&quot;date&quot;) rape </li></ul><ul><li>These are non-domestic rapes committed by someone who knows the victim. They include rapes of </li></ul><ul><li>co-workers </li></ul><ul><li>Schoolmates </li></ul><ul><li>friends </li></ul><ul><li>and other acquaintances </li></ul>
  56. 71. <ul><li>2. Blitz rape </li></ul><ul><li>Stranger rapes in which the rapist assaults the victim on the street with no prior contact. </li></ul><ul><li>Generally, the suspect &quot;comes out of nowhere.&quot; </li></ul>
  57. 72. <ul><li>3. Spousal rape </li></ul><ul><li> marital rape </li></ul><ul><li> wife rape </li></ul><ul><li> husband rape </li></ul><ul><li>partner rape </li></ul><ul><li> intimate partner sexual assaul (IPSA) </li></ul><ul><li>is rape between a married or de facto couple. </li></ul>
  58. 73. <ul><li>4. Anger rapes </li></ul><ul><li>rape that expresses hatred towards the victim and rage. </li></ul><ul><li>This type of rapist wants the person to feel and understand his anger towards them, even though they may have not been the one to provoke the rage they need to take it out on someone and make them suffer as he has for past wrongs and rejections. </li></ul>
  59. 74. <ul><li>5. Power rapes </li></ul><ul><li>this type of rape wants to express power and domination over the victim. </li></ul><ul><li>These rapists have a common fantasy of women who want them and resist there come-ons and then consent to sex. So when the fantasy is acted out and the victim doesn’t cooperate the fantasy becomes more about the domination or taking control over that person. </li></ul><ul><li>In this way he is showing how very powerful, masculine, and sexually adequate he really is. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  60. 75. <ul><li>6. Sadistic rape </li></ul><ul><li>this rapist is obsessed with the ritual that goes along with the sex. </li></ul><ul><li>This could be making the victim act out a part in some sort of role-play, it could involve mutilation, or torture as a means of getting the rapist excited. </li></ul><ul><li>These rapists are the ones that wake women out of a dead sleep, scared to death for their lives. </li></ul>
  61. 76. <ul><li>7. Group rape </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;gang&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;gang bang“ </li></ul><ul><li> &quot;run a train&quot; </li></ul><ul><li> &quot;pack&quot; rape </li></ul><ul><li>occurs when a group of people participate in the rape of a single victim. </li></ul>
  62. 77. <ul><li>8. FORCIBLE RAPE </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual intercourse carried out against a person’s will by the use or threat of physical force. </li></ul>
  63. 78. <ul><li>9. STATUTORY </li></ul><ul><li>RAPE </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual intercourse with a person who has not reached the age of consent </li></ul>
  64. 79. <ul><li>10. HOMOSEXUAL RAPE </li></ul><ul><li>anal or oral sex between members of the same sex, a type of sodomy </li></ul>
  65. 80. <ul><li>11. PRISON RAPE </li></ul><ul><li>These rapes are virtually always homosexual in nature (since prisons are separated by sex) </li></ul><ul><li>These acts are mostly committed by people who were not homosexual before prison. </li></ul><ul><li>The attacker is most commonly another inmate, but prison guards may also be involved, primarily in female prisons. </li></ul>
  66. 81. MYTHS & FACTS About RAPE
  67. 82. <ul><li>Myth: Rape is only committed by strangers in dark alleys and parking lots. </li></ul><ul><li>Fact: As many as 84 percent of women are raped by someone they know, such as friends, family or an acquaintance. </li></ul><ul><li>Myth: If a woman is raped, then she must have deserved it, especially if she agreed to go to the man's room or wore sexy clothing. </li></ul><ul><li>Fact: No one deserves to be raped. Being in a man's room or wearing revealing clothing does not mean a woman has agreed to have sex. </li></ul>
  68. 83. <ul><li>Myth: Women who don't physically fight back haven't been raped. </li></ul><ul><li>Fact: If a woman did not or could not consent to having sex, it is considered rape. Forcing a woman to have sex against her will, whether she physically fights back or not, is rape, plain and simple. </li></ul><ul><li>Myth: If there isn't a weapon involved, you haven't been raped. </li></ul><ul><li>Fact: Whether the man uses a weapon, his fists, the weight of his body, verbal threats, drugs, alcohol, or takes advantage of a woman's diminished physical or mental state to force her to have sex, it is rape. </li></ul>
  69. 84. <ul><li>Myth: It's not rape if the man is her boyfriend or husband or if they have had sex before. </li></ul><ul><li>Fact: A woman has the right to decide what she does with her body at all times - if she does not want to have sex, it is her decision, even if she willingly had sex with the man before. </li></ul><ul><li>Myth: If a woman lets a man buy her dinner or pay for a movie or drinks, she owes him sex. </li></ul><ul><li>Fact: No one owes sex as a payment to anyone else, no matter how expensive the date. </li></ul>
  70. 85. <ul><li>Myth: When a woman agrees to &quot;make out&quot; with a man, she is implying that will have intercourse with him, too. </li></ul><ul><li>Fact: Everyone has the right to say &quot;no&quot; to sexual activity, regardless of what has preceded it, and to have that &quot;no&quot; respected. </li></ul><ul><li>Myth: Women lie about being raped, especially when they accuse men they date or other acquaintances. </li></ul><ul><li>Fact: Rape really happens -- to people you know, by people you know. </li></ul>
  71. 86. <ul><li>Myth: When men are sexually aroused, they need to have sex or they will get &quot;blue balls.&quot; Also, once they get turned on, men can't stop themselves from forcing sex on a woman. </li></ul><ul><li>Fact: Men don't physically need to have sex after becoming aroused any more than women do. Moreover, men are still able to control themselves even after becoming sexually excited. </li></ul><ul><li>Myth: Only women are raped. </li></ul><ul><li>Fact: Ten percent of rape cases involve men as a victim. </li></ul>
  72. 87. <ul><li>Myth: If both people are drunk at the time of the incident, no one can be accused of rape. </li></ul><ul><li>Fact: Being drunk does not mean someone cannot be accused of and convicted of rape. </li></ul>
  73. 88. R.A. No. 8353 The Anti-Rape Law <ul><li>The crime of rape shall hereafter be classified as a Crime Against Persons under Title Eight of Act No. 3815 </li></ul>
  74. 89. Article 266-A. Rape: When And How Committed <ul><li>Rape is Committed - </li></ul><ul><li>1. By a man who shall have carnal knowledge of a woman under any of the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Through force, threat, or intimidation; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When the offended party is deprived of reason or otherwise unconscious; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By means of fraudulent machination or grave abuse of authority; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When the offended party is under twelve (12) years of age or is demented, even though none of the circumstances mentioned above be present. </li></ul></ul>
  75. 90. <ul><li>act of sexual assault by </li></ul><ul><li>inserting his penis into another person's mouth or anal orifice </li></ul><ul><li>or any instrument or object , into the genital or anal orifice of another person. </li></ul>