Rfid technologies

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Rfid technologies

  1. 1. RFID TechnologiesBy Francisco J. Carabezfranciscojavier@carabez.com
  2. 2. Index1 What is RFID? RFID History Working principle of RFID Technology?2 RFID Components RFID ReadersFixedHandheld RFID Antenna RFID TagsActive TagsSemi-Active TagsPassive Tags3 Are All Tags The Same? Frequencies of Operation Frequencies chart Technical details: LF Technical details: HF4 RFID System Basics What Constitutes an RFID System?5 Why RFID? Business Value Benefits of RFID Issues / Concerns RFID Future RFID Vs Barcode6 Application area of RFID Portal Applications Conveyor / Assembly Line Product Monitoring and Control Shipping Validation7 Application Examples Hand Held Application Categories
  3. 3. 1 What is RFID?Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) is an automatic identificationmethod, relying on storing and remotely retrieving data using devicescalled RFID tags or transponders.RFID (radio frequency identification) is a technology that incorporates theuse of electromagnetic or electrostatic coupling in the radio frequency(RF) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum to uniquely identify anobject, animal, or person.An alternative to bar code.
  4. 4. Invented in 1948 by Harry Stockman.Initial application was during World War II-TheUnited Kingdom used RFID devices todistinguish returning English airplanes frominbound German ones. RADAR was onlyable to signal the presence of a plane, notthe kind of plane it was..Came into commercial use only in 1990s.RFID History
  5. 5. Working principle of RFID Technology?The antenna enables the chip (data storage) to transmit itsidentification information to a reader/interrogator. The readerconverts the radio waves returned from the RFID tags intodigital information and passes it to the computer.
  6. 6. Index1 What is RFID? RFID History Working principle of RFID Technology?2 RFID Components RFID ReadersFixedHandheld RFID Antenna RFID TagsActive TagsSemi-Active TagsPassive Tags3 Are All Tags The Same? Frequencies of Operation Frequencies chart Technical details: LF Technical details: HF4 RFID System Basics What Constitutes an RFID System?5 Why RFID? Business Value Benefits of RFID Issues / Concerns RFID Future RFID Vs Barcode6 Application area of RFID Portal Applications Conveyor / Assembly Line Product Monitoring and Control Shipping Validation7 Application Examples Hand Held Application Categories
  7. 7. 2 RFID ComponentsAn RFID system consists of three components: An antenna and transceiver (often combined into one Reader) And a transponder (the Tag).An Application.
  8. 8. RFID Components Cont.Reader – A transmitter/receiver that reads the contents of RFID Tags in thevicinity, also called an "RFID interrogator." The maximum distance betweenthe Readers antenna and the Tag vary, depending on application.Tag – An electronic identification device that is made up of a chip and antenna.For reusable applications, it is typically embedded in a plastic housing, andfor tracking shipments, it is usually part of a "smart" packaging label. AnRFID Tag is an object that can be applied to or incorporated into a product,animal, or person for the purpose of identification and tracking using radiowaves. Some Tags can be read from several meters away and beyond theline of sight of the Reader. The Tag contains a unique serial number, butmay have other information, such as a customers account number. Thereare generally three types of RFID Tags: active RFID Tags, which contain abattery, and passive RFID Tags, which have no battery and Semi-ActiveRFID Tags which contain a battery but only activates when it is underfrequency of Reader.Host Computer:-Stores the data into database and view real time presentationof an asset with History.
  9. 9. RFID ReadersA reader (now more typically referred as an RFID Interrogator),is basically a radio frequency (RF) transmitter and receiver,controlled by a microprocessor or digital signal processor.The reader, using an attached antenna, captures data fromtags, then passes the data to a computer for processing.
  10. 10. Types of Readers: FixedFixed in a position (for example, beside aconveyor belt in a factory or dock doors ina warehouse). Consists of Antennasconnected to it. Antennas communicatewith Tags.
  11. 11. Types of Readers: HandheldPortable, integrated with an application andused to scan individual items in awarehouse or by mobile workers. Consistsof in built Antennas.
  12. 12. AntennaThe antenna uses radio frequency waves to transmita signal that activates the transponder. Whenactivated, the Tag transmits data back to theantenna. The data is used to notify aprogrammable logic controller that an actionshould occur.
  13. 13. RFID TagsRFID tag is a microchip combined with an antenna in acompact package. When attached to an object, objectwill be traced by a reader. Tags Antenna picks upsignals from Reader and then returns the signal withsome additional data (like unique serial number ofother customized information).
  14. 14. Types of Tags: Active TagsPowered by battery.Larger in size and expensive.Better identification range and largercapacity.Tag transmits radio signal.High Read Range (300 feet).
  15. 15. Types of Tags: Semi-Active TagsUses battery to power microchip but not to communicatewith reader.These Tags are used for longer range and with morecapabilities.Only activates when it is under frequency of Reader
  16. 16. Types of Tags: Passive TagsOperate using the power of RFID readers.(Tag reflects radio signal from reader)Small and inexpensiveShorter Read Range (4 inches - 15 feet)
  17. 17. Index1 What is RFID? RFID History Working principle of RFID Technology?2 RFID Components RFID ReadersFixedHandheld RFID Antenna RFID TagsActive TagsSemi-Active TagsPassive Tags3 Are All Tags The Same? Frequencies of Operation Frequencies chart Technical details: LF Technical details: HF4 RFID System Basics What Constitutes an RFID System?5 Why RFID? Business Value Benefits of RFID Issues / Concerns RFID Future RFID Vs Barcode6 Application area of RFID Portal Applications Conveyor / Assembly Line Product Monitoring and Control Shipping Validation7 Application Examples Hand Held Application Categories
  18. 18. Variations: MemorySize (16 bits - 512 kBytes +)Read-Only, Read/Write or WORMType: EEProm, Antifuse, FeRam Arbitration (Anti-collision)Ability to read/write one ormany tags at a time Frequency 125KHz - 5.8 GHz Physical DimensionsThumbnail to Brick sizes Price ($0.50 to $250) Read Range4 inches to 300 ft3 Are All Tags The Same?
  19. 19. Frequencies of OperationLow frequency 30-300 kHz Tags need to be closer to the reader Poor discriminationHigh frequency/radio frequency 3-30 MHz Tags can be read from relatively greater distances Tags can hold more informationUltra high frequency/microwave >300 MHz Longest range More interference
  20. 20. Frequencies chart
  21. 21. Technical details: LF
  22. 22. Technical details: HF
  23. 23. Index1 What is RFID? RFID History Working principle of RFID Technology?2 RFID Components RFID ReadersFixedHandheld RFID Antenna RFID TagsActive TagsSemi-Active TagsPassive Tags3 Are All Tags The Same? Frequencies of Operation Frequencies chart Technical details: LF Technical details: HF4 RFID System Basics What Constitutes an RFID System?5 Why RFID? Business Value Benefits of RFID Issues / Concerns RFID Future RFID Vs Barcode6 Application area of RFID Portal Applications Conveyor / Assembly Line Product Monitoring and Control Shipping Validation7 Application Examples Hand Held Application Categories
  24. 24. How far?How fast?How many?How much?Attached to and surround by what?4 RFID System Basics
  25. 25. One or more RF tagsTwo or more antennasOne or more interrogatorsOne or more host computersAppropriate softwareWhat Constitutes an RFID System?
  26. 26. Index1 What is RFID? RFID History Working principle of RFID Technology?2 RFID Components RFID ReadersFixedHandheld RFID Antenna RFID TagsActive TagsSemi-Active TagsPassive Tags3 Are All Tags The Same? Frequencies of Operation Frequencies chart Technical details: LF Technical details: HF4 RFID System Basics What Constitutes an RFID System?5 Why RFID? Business Value Benefits of RFID Issues / Concerns RFID Future RFID Vs Barcode6 Application area of RFID Portal Applications Conveyor / Assembly Line Product Monitoring and Control Shipping Validation7 Application Examples Hand Held Application Categories
  27. 27. 5 Why RFID? No need for physical contact between data carrier and thecommunication device. Tags can be used repeatedly. Tags can last up to 20 years. Works in harsh environments (compared to bar code, optical scantechnologies) withstands extreme temperatures, acid baths etc. Low maintenance costs. Tags available in a range of types, sizes and materials. Simultaneous & multiple tag reads, 10s to 1000s in short timeintervals. Non-line-of-sight communication makes it possible to read and writeTags in dirty conditions. Extremely low error rate. Can be read through the human body, clothing and non-metallicmaterials.
  28. 28. Business Value
  29. 29. Benefits of RFIDAutomates the entire process.Unique Identification - Each RFID tag has a unique serial number thatdistinguishes among many millions of identically manufacturedobjects.Wireless, non-contact, non-line-of-site.Ideally suited for providing low cost remote and instant identificationof objects.Real time tracking of assets and its content.Visibility of location of assets and their tampering history,maintenance history.RFID tags can be read through human body, clothing and non-metallic materials.
  30. 30. Issues / ConcernsCost of RFID technology.Active RFID life - 2 to 4 years.Privacy concerns-surreptitious consumer surveillance.Extreme weather.Security concerns-illicit tracking of RFID tags.Global standardization.Environmental concern-recycling.RFID system are vulnerable to virus.
  31. 31. RFID StandardThe good news is that the EPC global RFID technology standards havebeen recognized by the International Standards Organization (ISO) in 2006.The EPC global UHF Generation 2 protocol for radio frequency identification(RFID) has been endorsed by the International Standards Organization (ISO),paving the way for its use throughout the global supply chain.EPC is an international trade standard designed to drive RFID use forwardin the UHF (ultra high frequency) range. The standard was developed so thatmanufacturers are using compatible devices and RFID technologies.The royalty-free standards developed by EPCglobal are the foundations inthe continuing construction of a global supply chain information network thatcombines RFID technology, existing communications network infrastructureand a system called Electronic Product Code (EPC), a number for uniquelyidentifying an item.
  32. 32. RFID FutureRFID technology is growing very fast. As technology moves ahead,Tags and readers sizes are reducing with the increase of functionalities.According to experts, RFID technology represents a new approachtowards business with an interaction of computers with wirelesstechnology, sensors and networking.663 964.5360011700020004000600080001000012000MillionsY2000 2002 2006 2011
  33. 33. RFID Future cont.
  34. 34. RFID Vs BarcodeRFID BarcodeForging is difficult Forging is easyScanner not required. No need tobring the tag near the readerScanner needs to see the barcode to read itRFID is comparatively fastCan read multiple tags Can read only one tag at a timeRelatively expensive ascompared to Bar Codes(Reader 1000$, Tag 20 cents apiece)Can be reusable within factorypremisesCannot be reused
  35. 35. Index1 What is RFID? RFID History Working principle of RFID Technology?2 RFID Components RFID ReadersFixedHandheld RFID Antenna RFID TagsActive TagsSemi-Active TagsPassive Tags3 Are All Tags The Same? Frequencies of Operation Frequencies chart Technical details: LF Technical details: HF4 RFID System Basics What Constitutes an RFID System?5 Why RFID? Business Value Benefits of RFID Issues / Concerns RFID Future RFID Vs Barcode6 Application area of RFID Portal Applications Conveyor / Assembly Line Product Monitoring and Control Shipping Validation7 Application Examples Hand Held Application Categories
  36. 36. 6 Application area of RFIDCorporate offices and industries.Supply chain and retail industries.Asset Management.Pallet Tracking.Government, Military and Army.Commercial Industries.
  37. 37. Check in / Access
  38. 38. Portal ApplicationsBill of LadingMaterial Tracking
  39. 39. Portal ApplicationsLimited number items at forklift speeds8’ X 10’ doorwaysElectronic receipt & dispatchWrong destination alertElectronic markingPallet/container item tracking
  40. 40. Read / Write OperationsHigher Accuracy than Bar CodeConveyor / Assembly Line
  41. 41. Up to 450 fpm60+ items per containerInexpensive tunnelsLonger tunnel more itemsElectronic receiptSortingElectronic markingConveyor / Assembly Line
  42. 42. Product Monitoring and Control
  43. 43. Tote/Box/Unit/Pallet Level InventoryShipping Validation
  44. 44. Index1 What is RFID? RFID History Working principle of RFID Technology?2 RFID Components RFID ReadersFixedHandheld RFID Antenna RFID TagsActive TagsSemi-Active TagsPassive Tags3 Are All Tags The Same? Frequencies of Operation Frequencies chart Technical details: LF Technical details: HF4 RFID System Basics What Constitutes an RFID System?5 Why RFID? Business Value Benefits of RFID Issues / Concerns RFID Future RFID Vs Barcode6 Application area of RFID Portal Applications Conveyor / Assembly Line Product Monitoring and Control Shipping Validation7 Application Examples Hand Held Application Categories
  45. 45. Wireless / BatchInventory ManagementMaterial HandlingBy DestinationMaterial HandlingInspecting / MaintainingMaterial HandlingAggregate / De-aggregateWhere is it? What is it?What is inside the box?Where is it going? Where has it been?Should it be here?What have I assembled or disassembled?How many do I have? Do I have enough?Has this been repaired?Is this under warrantee?Has this been inspected?Is this complete?What is the asset’s status or state?7 Application Examples
  46. 46. WirelessBatchFixed StationHand Held Application Categories
  47. 47. Our Project
  48. 48. Our RFID solution
  49. 49. Q&A
  50. 50. End.

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