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Nature of intelligence Presentation


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A presentation that examines the following intelligence theories:
Multiple Intelligences by Gardner
Practical Intelligence by Sternberg
Emotional Intelligence by Goleman
Cultural impact on these theories

Published in: Education
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Nature of intelligence Presentation

  1. 1. NATURE OF INTELLIGENCE Multiple – Practical - Emotional Intelligence Cultural Impact on these Theories AET/500 July 13, 2015 Emily Bathea, Kristina Foxx, Karen Sheppard, James Stephens Sr.
  2. 2. "Intelligence is the ability to find and solve problems and create products of value in one's own culture." -Dr. Howard Gardner
  3. 3. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES • A theory developed in 1983 by Dr. Howard Gardner, professor of education at Harvard University. • It suggests that the traditional notion of intelligence, based on I.Q. testing, is far too limited (Armstrong, 2013) • There are eight defined intelligences also called abilities • There are eight distinct criteria that determine an intelligence • For a behavior to be considered an intelligence it must meet the requirements of all eight criteria.
  4. 4. THE EIGHT CRITERIA • Isolation as a Brain Function • Prodigies, Savants and Exceptional Individuals • Set of Core Operations • Developmental History with an Expert End Performance • Evolutionary History • Supported Psychological Tasks • Supported Psychometric Tasks • Encoded into a Symbol System McKenzie, Jr. (1999-2013)
  5. 5. THE EIGHT INTELLIGENCES • Musical–rhythmic • Visual-spatial • Verbal-linguistic • Logical–mathematical • Bodily–kinesthetic • Interpersonal • Intrapersonal • Naturalistic
  6. 6. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE IN THE CLASSROOM Whatever you are teaching or learning, see how you might connect it with: • words (linguistic intelligence) • numbers or logic (logical-mathematical intelligence) • pictures (spatial intelligence) • music (musical intelligence) • self-reflection (intrapersonal intelligence) • a physical experience (bodily-kinesthetic intelligence) • a social experience (interpersonal intelligence), and/or • an experience in the natural world. (naturalist intelligence) Armstrong, 2013
  8. 8. PRACTICAL INTELLIGENCE • Sternberg’s theory of Practical Intelligence goes beyond what adults learn in the classroom and focuses on practical application. • According to Merriam, Cafarella, & Baumgartner (2007), “Sternberg and his associates argue that ‘the problems faced in everyday life often have little relationship to the knowledge and skills acquired through formal education or the abilities used in classroom activities” (p. 377).
  9. 9. PRACTICAL INTELLIGENCE CONTINUED • An example of this theory: An adult student excels in all of his English and education classes for a degree in secondary English education, but cannot effectively teach students because he freezes while speaking and cannot adequately answer his students’ questions due to panic.
  10. 10. PRACTICAL INTELLIGENCE CONTINUED Sternberg developed the triarchic theory of intelligence. The three sub theories of the triarchic theory are as follows: • Componential sub theory, describing the internal analytical mental mechanisms and processes involved in intelligence; • Experiential sub theory, focusing on how a person’s experience combined with insight and creativity affects how she thinks; • Contextual sub theory, emphasizing the role of the external environment in determining what constitutes intelligent behavior in a situation” Merriam, S., Caffarella, R., & Baumgartner, L., 2007, p. 378
  11. 11. PRACTICAL INTELLIGENCE CONTINUED • Parts of the theory are: • Culturally universal • Culturally relative • Practical Intelligence testing methods are currently being validated • When available the test will be called • Sternberg’s Triarchic Abilities Test or STAT Merriam, S., Caffarella, R., & Baumgartner, L., 2007
  12. 12. PRACTICAL INTELLIGENCE CONTINUED • Practical intelligence and successful intelligence are connected • To be successfully intelligent is to think well in three ways • Analytically • Creatively • Practically • Practical intelligence is the same as “tacit knowledge” • Tacit knowledge is a combination of learned knowledge's not necessarily explicitly known • Difficult be transferred from person –to-person by written means • Difficult to be transferred from person-to-person by verbal means Merriam, S., Caffarella, R., & Baumgartner, L., 2007
  13. 13. PRACTICAL INTELLIGENCE CONTINUED • Twenty-year research history provides a different level of credibility to this work than to that of Gardner • Evidence that adult intelligence: • Is much more than academic abilities • Measures on the more traditional IQ tests • Encompasses what many of us have believed it to include all along: everyday or practical intelligence Merriam, Cafarella, & Baumgartner (2007)
  14. 14. EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE • What is Emotional Intelligence? i. Goleman’s theory suggests that emotional intelligence comes from two different ways of knowing, the rational and the emotional and that feelings are essential to thought and thought is essential to feelings. ii. These two ways of knowing are thought to be intertwined and go hand and hand.
  15. 15. EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE EXAMINED • Goleman's popular book from 1995 explored and examined Emotional Intelligence in adults: Emotional Intelligence.
  16. 16. EXAMPLES OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE. • Knowing when an argument is reasonable and will promote a change, without having to say “I told you so”, people who have good Emotional Intelligence rarely go this route in an argument.
  17. 17. MODEL OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE • Model of emotional intelligence has five primary domains Goleman’s source from authors Mayer and Salovey: • Knowing ones emotions • Managing one’s emotion • Motivating oneself • Recognizing emotions in others • Handling relationships -Mayer and Salovey’s model suggests four branches with different meanings including: • Perceiving emotions • Using emotions to facilitate thought • Understanding emotions • Managing emotions
  18. 18. EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE IN THE WORKPLACE • Goleman studied author theorist Opengart, (2005) who did a search that people need to be able to have emotional intelligence and emotional work in the work place to act appropriately in emotional situations.
  19. 19. EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE Why do we consider Emotional Intelligence? • It is said by Goleman that Emotional Intelligence can be more powerful than IQ at times. • Goleman’s theory suggest that emotional intelligence is the determiner of success in life ( Goleman) • We should only use emotional intelligence research to enhance the practice of educators of adults and not to create educational programs. This is true to the fact that there is not enough critical evidence to support emotional intelligence.
  20. 20. CULTURAL IMPACT ON MULTIPLE, PRACTICAL AND EMOTIONAL THEORIES OF INTELLIGENCE(S) • An individual’s culture strongly influences the growth of the individual’s intellects. • All cultures assign different values of importance to different types of intelligences. • Relating what was absorbed from experiences to routine life events depends on one’s individual culture. The learner uses what is familiar then modify accordingly. • Relating what was absorbed from experiences to routine life events depends on one’s individual culture. The learner uses what is familiar then modify accordingly. • Gardner says: "It is the culture that defines the stages and fixes the limits of individual achievement.”
  21. 21. REFERENCES Multiple Intelligences Armstrong, Dr. T. (2013). American institute for learning and human development. Retrieved from McKenzie, Jr., W. L. (1999-2013). Gardener's eight criteria for identifying an intelligence. Retrieved from Practical Intelligence Merriam, S., Caffarella, R., & Baumgartner, L. (2007). Knowles's andragogy, and models of adult learning by mcclusky, illeris, and jarvis. In Learning in adulthood: A comprehensive guide (3rd ed., pp. 83-104). San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons. Emotional Intelligence Merriam, S.B., Caffarella, R. S., & Baumgartner, L. (2007). Learning in adulthood: A comprehensive guide (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA. Cultural Impact Montrose, (2010). Multiple Intelligences and Their Impact on Education. Retrieved from