Setting Goals

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These are the slides for the next series of lectures.

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Setting Goals

  1. 1. Setting Personal and Professional Goals FOR INDIVIDUALS AND GROUPS
  2. 2. Goal Setting Theory A group goal is “an outcome desired by  members of the group as a unit (Mesch et al. 1994: 312).” © 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Organizational Behavior for the Hospitality Industry All Rights Reserved. 2 Berger/Brownell
  3. 3. Goal Setting Theory Achievement goal –  directs a group toward a major outcome or goal Maintenance goal –  maintains or strengthens the group itself © 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Organizational Behavior for the Hospitality Industry All Rights Reserved. 3 Berger/Brownell
  4. 4. Specific Goals Specific, difficult goals generate better  performance than “do your best” goals or no goals at all A specific goal directs a group’s  attention towards planning development that, in turn, creates a motivational effect to follow through with the plan © 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Organizational Behavior for the Hospitality Industry All Rights Reserved. 4 Berger/Brownell
  5. 5. Difficult Goals Difficult goals create an anticipation of  satisfaction that motivates extra intensity and duration on task performance Difficult goals prompt more  spontaneous planning, larger amounts of planning, and higher quality planning than easy goals © 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Organizational Behavior for the Hospitality Industry All Rights Reserved. 5 Berger/Brownell
  6. 6. 3 Levels of Task Performance Simply carrying Determining how to Groups must choose out a task - a approach the task - between many goal setting helps group goal leads to available strategies - limit the strategy At this level, where improved domain to be performance depends performance searched on strategy rather than through an increase task effort, groups can in effort, diligence, use strategy development to and energy. overcome the negative effect of a specific, difficult goal (Earley et al. 1989: 25). © 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Organizational Behavior for the Hospitality Industry All Rights Reserved. 6 Berger/Brownell
  7. 7. Warning: Specific and Direct Goals can be Debilitating © 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Organizational Behavior for the Hospitality Industry All Rights Reserved. 7 Berger/Brownell
  8. 8. Formal Goal Setting Methods SMART  (Specific, Measurable, Acceptable, Realistic, Ti mely) Management by objectives (MBO)  like goal setting theory – emphasizes  specific goals and feedback unlike goal setting theory – stresses the  need for participation in goal setting 360-degree - helps to explicitly state goals  in terms of the customer’s words and language © 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Organizational Behavior for the Hospitality Industry All Rights Reserved. 8 Berger/Brownell
  9. 9. Goal Commitment External Influences -- Legitimate  Authority and Peer Group Interactive Factors -- Participation  and Competition Internal Factors -- Personal  Goal, Self Efficacy and Internal Rewards © 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Organizational Behavior for the Hospitality Industry All Rights Reserved. 9 Berger/Brownell
  10. 10. External Influences Peer – beneficial or detrimental  Supervisor – determine goal  commitment through legitimate authority Assigned goals lead to:  Commitment  A sense of purpose, direction, and clarity  Improved employee beliefs of what they  can and should do The development of high quality plans  © 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Organizational Behavior for the Hospitality Industry All Rights Reserved. 10 Berger/Brownell
  11. 11. Interactive Factors (Participatory Goal Setting) May have as great an influence as  assigned goals Increased effectiveness attributed  to motivation, cognition and increased self-efficacy Competition can enhance  performance © 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Organizational Behavior for the Hospitality Industry All Rights Reserved. 11 Berger/Brownell
  12. 12. Internal Factors Self-set goals reflect personal or group  expectations for task performance Self-set goals tend to be higher than  assigned goals Self-efficacy is more fundamental than  rewards Self-administered rewards are also  essential to goal commitment © 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Organizational Behavior for the Hospitality Industry All Rights Reserved. 12 Berger/Brownell
  13. 13. Commitment to Difficult Goals Groups are more likely to accept easy  goals that lead to low performance than very hard goals which lead to high performance Difficult goals require high commitment  Low goals may be restricted by high  commitment, they will not be raised Culture may also play a role in this  dynamic of goal commitment © 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Organizational Behavior for the Hospitality Industry All Rights Reserved. 13 Berger/Brownell
  14. 14. Increasing Goal Commitment Persuade groups that goals are both attainable and important Make goals public rather than private Offer appropriate external rewards for difficult goals © 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Organizational Behavior for the Hospitality Industry All Rights Reserved. 14 Berger/Brownell
  15. 15. Feedback and Goals © 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Organizational Behavior for the Hospitality Industry All Rights Reserved. 15 Berger/Brownell
  16. 16. Negative Feedback Groups respond to negative feedback by setting higher goals than groups that receive positive feedback. © 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Organizational Behavior for the Hospitality Industry All Rights Reserved. 16 Berger/Brownell
  17. 17. Goal Selection Groups pursuing multiple goals will  devote more time and effort to one goal than another, often trading off between quantity and quality goals Groups should focus on a small number  of goals, no more than 8, and these goals should be prioritized by urgency and significance © 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Organizational Behavior for the Hospitality Industry All Rights Reserved. 17 Berger/Brownell
  18. 18. How to Achieve a Goal 1. Use Visualization 2. Set Objectives 3. Record Progress 4. Make a Gantt Chart © 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Organizational Behavior for the Hospitality Industry All Rights Reserved. 18 Berger/Brownell
  19. 19. How to Achieve a Goal 4. Create Goal Aids 5. Reevaluate Goals © 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Organizational Behavior for the Hospitality Industry All Rights Reserved. 19 Berger/Brownell
  20. 20. When to Implement Goals Managers should give careful attention  to when organizational goals are presented to employees, in order to establish focus on achievement at the appropriate time. © 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Organizational Behavior for the Hospitality Industry All Rights Reserved. 20 Berger/Brownell
  21. 21. Goal Conflict Sometimes conflict arises between  individual and group goals. VS. To avoid goal conflict, managers should  set the individual goal so that its attainment facilitates the attainment of the group goal. + + = © 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Organizational Behavior for the Hospitality Industry All Rights Reserved. 21 Berger/Brownell
  22. 22. Creativity and Goal Setting Adding a dimension of creativity, in which individuals realize their capabilities to make a unique contribution to collective goals, helps to unleash that energy and commitment to excellence. © 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Organizational Behavior for the Hospitality Industry All Rights Reserved. 22 Berger/Brownell
  23. 23. Group Dynamics and Goals Group lifecycle has a beginning, a  middle and an end. Middle Beginning End © 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Organizational Behavior for the Hospitality Industry All Rights Reserved. 23 Berger/Brownell
  24. 24. The Beginning It is during these early stages of  development that groups begin to generate plans, formulate ideas, and set goals. Storming is an early period  punctuated by fears, anxieties, and dissatisfaction that can lead to hostility and conflict. © 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Organizational Behavior for the Hospitality Industry All Rights Reserved. 24 Berger/Brownell
  25. 25. The Middle Time for Norming and Performing  Norming is the time when alternatives are chosen  and agreed upon, policies set, and goals established Performing categorizes functional role relatedness  as solutions develop and members carry out the work Members align and work together toward a  realistic appraisal of what they can accomplish © 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Organizational Behavior for the Hospitality Industry All Rights Reserved. 25 Berger/Brownell
  26. 26. The End The end is the period of  disengagement, ending and adjournment. It is a time concerned with sadness, good-byes, and self-evaluation. © 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Organizational Behavior for the Hospitality Industry All Rights Reserved. 26 Berger/Brownell
  27. 27. Setting Personal Goals Brainstorm Desires  Rank Ideas  Identify Methods of  Achievement Consider Limitations  Identify Risks  © 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Organizational Behavior for the Hospitality Industry All Rights Reserved. 27 Berger/Brownell
  28. 28. Achieving Personal Goals Develop a positive attitude  and enthusiasm Allow yourself to relax  Imagine accomplishment  Reorient, resume normal  activities © 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Organizational Behavior for the Hospitality Industry All Rights Reserved. 28 Berger/Brownell
  29. 29. Goals Into Action State requirements and method  Set up a time frame  Break down goals into smaller units  Set deadlines  Re-evaluate and set  new deadlines © 2009 Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. Organizational Behavior for the Hospitality Industry All Rights Reserved. 29 Berger/Brownell

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