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Child development, chapter 16, Caprice Paduano


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Child development, chapter 16, Caprice Paduano

  1. 1. Chapter 16 Social Development in Teenagers Caprice Paduano Child Development
  2. 2. Chapter 16 Key Questions <ul><li>How does the development of self-concept, self-esteem, and identity proceed during adolescence? </li></ul><ul><li>What dangers do adolescents face as they deal with the stresses of adolescence? </li></ul><ul><li>How does the quality of relationships with family and peers change during adolescence? </li></ul><ul><li>What are gender, race, and ethnic relations like in adolescence? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Chapter 16 Key Questions <ul><li>What does it mean to be popular and unpopular in adolescence, and how do adolescents respond to peer pressure? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the functions and characteristics of dating during adolescence? </li></ul><ul><li>How does sexuality develop in the adolescent years? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Identity: Asking “Who Am I?” <ul><li>Adolescents’ intellectual capacities become more adultlike. </li></ul><ul><li>They are able to see how they stack up to others and become aware that they are individuals, apart not just from their parents, but from all others. </li></ul><ul><li>The dramatic physical changes during puberty make adolescents acutely conscious of their own bodies and aware that others are reacting to them in ways to which they are unaccustomed. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Self-Concept: What Am I Like? <ul><li>This broader view of themselves is one aspect of adolescents’ increasing understanding of who they are. </li></ul><ul><li>In some ways, however, this broader, more multifaceted self-concept is a mixed blessing, especially during the earlier years of adolescence. </li></ul><ul><li>At that time, adolescents may be troubled by the multiple aspects of their personalities. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Self-Esteem: How Do I Like Myself? <ul><li>Although adolescents become increasingly accurate in understanding who they are (their self-concept), this knowledge does not guarantee that they like themselves (their self-esteem) any better. </li></ul><ul><li>The same cognitive sophistication that allows adolescents to differentiate various aspects of the self also leads them to evaluate those aspects in different ways. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Gender Differences in Self-Esteem <ul><li>Particularly during early adolescence, girls’ self-esteem tends to be lower and more vulnerable than that held by boys. </li></ul><ul><li>Although self-esteem is typically higher in adolescent boys than in girls, boys do have vulnerabilities of their own. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Socioeconomic Status and Race Differences in Self-Esteem <ul><li>Socioeconomic status (SES) and race also influence self-esteem. </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescents of higher SES generally have higher self-esteem than those of lower SES, particularly during middle and later adolescence. </li></ul><ul><li>Race and ethnicity also play a role in self-esteem, but their impact has lessened as prejudicial treatment of minorities has eased. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Identity Formation: Change or Crisis? <ul><li>According to Erikson, the search for identity inevitably leads some adolescents into substantial psychological turmoil as they encounter the adolescent identity crisis. </li></ul><ul><li>Identity-versus-identity-confusion stage The period during which teenagers seek to determine what is unique and distinctive about themselves </li></ul>
  10. 10. Identity Formation: Change or Crisis? <ul><li>In Erikson’s view, adolescents who stumble in their efforts to find a suitable identity may go off course in several ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Those who are successful in forging an appropriate identity set a course that provides a foundation for future psychosocial development. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Erikson’s Stages
  12. 12. Societal Pressures and Reliance on Friends and Peers <ul><li>Societal pressures are also high during the identity-versus-identity-confusion stage. </li></ul><ul><li>During this period, adolescents increasingly rely on their friends and peers as sources of information. </li></ul><ul><li>This reliance on peers and relationship formation is the link between this stage of psychosocial development and the intimacy-versus-isolation stage. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Psychological Moratorium <ul><li>The psychological moratorium is a period during which adolescents take time off from the upcoming responsibilities of adulthood and explore various roles and possibilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Many adolescents cannot, for practical reasons, pursue a psychological moratorium involving a relatively leisurely exploration of various identities. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Limitations of Erikson’s Theory <ul><li>One criticism that has been raised regarding Erikson’s theory is that he uses male identity development as the standard against which to compare female identity. </li></ul><ul><li>To critics, Erikson’s view is based on male-oriented concepts of individuality and competitiveness. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Marcia’s Approach to Identity Development: Updating Erikson <ul><li>Marcia suggests that identity can be seen in terms of which of two characteristics—crisis or commitment—is present or absent. </li></ul><ul><li>Crisis is a period of identity development in which an adolescent consciously chooses between various alternatives and makes decisions. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Marcia’s Approach to Identity Development: Updating Erikson <ul><li>Commitment is psychological investment in a course of action or an ideology. </li></ul><ul><li>Marcia proposed four categories of adolescent identity (see Table 16-2). </li></ul>
  17. 17. Adolescent Development
  18. 18. Marcia’s Approach to Identity Development: Updating Erikson <ul><li>Identity achievement The status of adolescents who commit to a particular identity following a period of crisis during which they consider various alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Identity foreclosure The status of adolescents who prematurely commit to an identity without adequately exploring alternatives </li></ul>
  19. 19. Marcia’s Approach to Identity Development: Updating Erikson <ul><li>Moratorium The status of adolescents who may have explored various identity alternatives to some degree, but have not yet committed themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Identity diffusion The status of adolescents who consider various identity alternatives, but never commit to one or never even consider identity options in any conscious way </li></ul>
  20. 20. Identity, Race, and Ethnicity <ul><li>Cultural assimilation model </li></ul><ul><li>Pluralistic society model </li></ul><ul><li>Bicultural identity </li></ul><ul><li>The process of identity formation is not simple for anyone and may be doubly complicated for minority group members. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Depression and Suicide: Psychological Difficulties in Adolescence <ul><li>Although by far the majority of teenagers weather the search for identity—as well as the other challenges presented by the period—without major psychological difficulties, a number of adolescents some find this period particularly stressful. </li></ul><ul><li>Some, in fact, develop severe psychological problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Two of the most serious are adolescent depression and suicide. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Adolescent Depression <ul><li>More than one-fourth of adolescents report feeling so sad or hopeless for 2 or more weeks in a row that they stop doing their normal activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Almost two-thirds of teenagers say they have experienced such feelings at one time or another. </li></ul><ul><li>On the other hand, only a small minority of adolescents—some 3%—experience major depression . </li></ul><ul><li>Research has found gender, ethnic, and racial differences in the incidence of depression. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Adolescent Suicide <ul><li>The rate of adolescent suicide in the United States has tripled in the last 30 years. </li></ul><ul><li>In adolescence, the rate of suicide is higher for boys than for girls, although girls attempt suicide more frequently. </li></ul><ul><li>The reasons behind the increase in adolescent suicide over past decades are unclear. </li></ul><ul><li>Cluster suicide </li></ul>
  24. 24. Relationships: Family and Friends <ul><li>The social world of adolescents is considerably wider than that of younger children. </li></ul><ul><li>As adolescents’ relationships with people outside the home grow increasingly important, their interactions with their families evolve and take on a new, and sometimes difficult, character. </li></ul>
  25. 25. The Quest for Autonomy <ul><li>One reason for clashes are the shifting roles both children and parents must deal with during adolescence. </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescents increasingly seek autonomy, independence, and a sense of control over their lives. </li></ul><ul><li>In most families, teenagers’ autonomy grows gradually over the course of adolescence. </li></ul><ul><li>The increase in adolescent autonomy changes the relationship between parents and teenagers. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Culture and Autonomy <ul><li>The degree of autonomy that is eventually achieved varies from one family and one child to the next. </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescents from different cultural backgrounds also vary in the degree of obligation to their family that they feel. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition to cultural factors affecting autonomy, gender also plays a role. </li></ul>
  27. 27. The Myth of the Generation Gap <ul><li>Generation gap A divide between parents and adolescents in attitudes, values, aspirations, and worldviews </li></ul><ul><li>In reality, most adolescents and their parents get along quite well. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no evidence suggesting that family problems are worse during adolescence than at any other stage of development. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Conflicts With Parents <ul><li>A reason for conflict involves differing definitions of, and rationales for, appropriate and inappropriate conduct. </li></ul><ul><li>The argumentativeness and assertiveness of early adolescence at first may lead to an increase in conflict, but in many ways these qualities play an important role in the evolution of parent–child relationships. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Conflicts With Parents <ul><li>In most cases, parents eventually come to realize that their children are growing up and that they want to support them in that process. </li></ul><ul><li>However, as many as 20% of teenagers pass through a fairly rough time. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Cultural Differences in Parent– Child Conflicts During Adolescence <ul><li>Although parent–child conflicts are found in every culture, there does seem to be less conflict between parents and their teenage children in “traditional,” preindustrial cultures. </li></ul><ul><li>Teens in such traditional cultures also experience fewer mood swings and instances of risky behavior than do teens in industrialized countries. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Relationships With Peers: The Importance of Belonging <ul><li>The seemingly compulsive need to communicate with friends demonstrates the role that peers play in adolescence. </li></ul><ul><li>There is probably no period of life in which peer relationships are as important as they are in adolescence. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Social Comparison <ul><li>Peers provide each other with the opportunity to compare and evaluate opinions, abilities, and even physical changes—a process called social comparison . </li></ul><ul><li>Parents are unable to provide social comparison. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Reference Groups <ul><li>Reference groups Groups of people with whom one compares oneself </li></ul><ul><li>Reference groups present a set of norms , or standards, against which adolescents can judge their abilities and social success. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Cliques and Crowds <ul><li>Cliques Groups of from 2 to 12 people whose members have frequent social interactions with one another </li></ul><ul><li>Crowds Groups larger than cliques, composed of individuals who share particular characteristics but who may not interact with one another </li></ul><ul><li>The emergence of distinct cliques and crowds during adolescence reflects in part the increased cognitive capabilities of adolescents. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Gender Relations <ul><li>Sex cleavage Sex segregation in which boys interact primarily with boys and girls primarily with girls </li></ul><ul><li>The situation changes as members of both sexes enter puberty. </li></ul><ul><li>As they move into puberty, boys’ and girls’ cliques, which previously had moved along parallel but separate tracks, begin to converge. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Race Segregation <ul><li>Adolescents who have interacted regularly and extensively with those of different races earlier in their lives are more likely to have friends of different races. </li></ul><ul><li>However, many societal pressures act to keep members of different races from interacting with one another. </li></ul><ul><li>Peer pressure, too, may encourage this as some cliques may actively promote norms that discourage group members from crossing racial and ethnic lines to form new friendships. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Popularity and Rejection <ul><li>Controversial adolescents Children who are liked by some peers and disliked by others </li></ul><ul><li>Rejected adolescents Children who are actively disliked, and whose peers may react to them in an obviously negative manner </li></ul><ul><li>Neglected adolescents Children who receive relatively little attention from their peers in the form of either positive or negative interactions </li></ul>
  38. 38. High School Status
  39. 39. Conformity: Peer Pressure in Adolescence <ul><li>Peer pressure The influence of one’s peers to conform to their behavior and attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>It does not appear that susceptibility to peer pressure suddenly soars during adolescence. </li></ul><ul><li>Instead, adolescence brings about a change in the people to whom an individual conforms. </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimately, adolescents conform less to both peers and adults as they develop increasing autonomy over their lives. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Juvenile Delinquency: The Crimes of Adolescence <ul><li>Adolescents, along with young adults, are more likely to commit crimes than any other age group. </li></ul><ul><li>Undersocialized delinquents Adolescent delinquents who are raised with little discipline or with harsh, uncaring parental supervision </li></ul><ul><li>Socialized delinquents Adolescent delinquents who know and subscribe to the norms of society and who are fairly normal psychologically </li></ul>
  41. 41. Dating: Close Relationships in the 21st Century <ul><li>When and how adolescents begin to date is determined by cultural factors that change from one generation to another. </li></ul><ul><li>Today, some adolescents believe that the concept of dating is outmoded and limiting, and in some places the practice of hooking up is viewed as more appropriate. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Dating: Close Relationships in the 21st Century <ul><li>Despite changing cultural norms, dating remains the dominant form of social interaction that leads to intimacy among adolescents. </li></ul>
  43. 43. The Functions of Dating <ul><li>Although on the surface dating is part of a pattern of courtship that can potentially lead to marriage, it actually serves other functions as well. </li></ul><ul><li>Just how well dating serves such functions, particularly the development of psychological intimacy, is an open question. </li></ul><ul><li>True intimacy becomes more common during later adolescence. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Dating, Race, and Ethnicity <ul><li>Culture influences dating patterns among adolescents of different racial and ethnic groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Parents may try to control their children’s dating behavior in an effort to preserve their culture’s traditional values or to ensure that their child dates within his or her racial or ethnic group. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Sexual Relationships <ul><li>The hormonal changes of puberty bring the maturation of the sexual organs and a new range of feelings and possibilities in relations with others: sexuality. </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual behavior and thoughts are among the central concerns of adolescents. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Masturbation <ul><li>Masturbation Sexual self-stimulation </li></ul><ul><li>Although masturbation is widespread, it still may produce feelings of shame and guilt. </li></ul><ul><li>Today, experts on sexual behavior view it as a normal, healthy, and harmless activity. </li></ul><ul><li>In fact, some suggest that it provides a useful way to learn about one’s own sexuality. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Sexual Intercourse <ul><li>Sexual intercourse remains a major milestone in the perceptions of most adolescents. </li></ul><ul><li>Double standards related to gender </li></ul><ul><li>“ Permissiveness with affection” </li></ul><ul><li>The demise of the double standard is far from complete, however. </li></ul>
  48. 48. The Decline in Teen Pregnancy <ul><li>For these teenagers, life becomes increasingly challenging as they struggle with the demands of parenthood while still facing the complexities of adolescence. </li></ul><ul><li>The good news, though, is that the number of teenage pregnancies is declining. </li></ul><ul><li>Several factors explain the drop in teenage pregnancies. </li></ul>
  49. 49. The Challenges of Teenage Pregnancy <ul><li>Even with the decline in the birth rate for U.S. teens, the rate of teenage pregnancy in the United States is 2 to 10 times higher compared to that of other industrialized countries. </li></ul><ul><li>The results of an unintended pregnancy can be devastating to both mother and child. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Virginity Pledges <ul><li>Most recent research finds that virginity pledges are ineffective. </li></ul><ul><li>Some researchers have called for more comprehensive education programs to replace ones that focus on abstinence as the only option. </li></ul><ul><li>Safer Choices is one such program. </li></ul>
  51. 51. Sexual Orientation: Heterosexuality, Homosexuality, and Bisexuality <ul><li>Some teens experiment with homosexuality. </li></ul><ul><li>Most experts believe that between 4% and 10% of both men and women are exclusively homosexual during extended periods of their lives. </li></ul><ul><li>The determination of sexual orientation is further complicated by distinctions between sexual orientation and gender identity. </li></ul><ul><li>Transgendered individuals may pursue sexual reassignment surgery. </li></ul>
  52. 52. What Determines Sexual Orientation? <ul><li>The factors that induce people to develop as heterosexual, homosexual, or bisexual are not well understood. </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence suggests that genetic and biological factors may play an important role. </li></ul><ul><li>Other researchers have suggested that family or peer environmental factors play a role. </li></ul><ul><li>In short, there is no accepted explanation of why some adolescents develop a heterosexual orientation. </li></ul>