CHAPTER 1
OUR ATMOSPHERE
The atmosphere consists of five
principal layers.
THE TROPOSPHERE
THE STRATOSPHERE
THE MESOSPHERE
THE THERMOSPHERE
THE EXO...
Our atmosphere is a mixture
of different gases.
oxygen
nitrogen
argon 1%
21%
78%
Scattered within the atmosphere is about
1 percent water vapor, called humidity.
Equatorial
Polar
Polar
The amount of water vapor is greater in
equatorial regions than in polar regions.
Virtually all of the
Earth’s weather
(tempestuous air
ocean) occurs
within the first
3.5 miles of our
atmosphere.
Tumultuous; turbulent
Tempestuous
About 99% of the
atmospheric
gases lie below
20 miles.
20 MILES
Troposphere
Beyond 45 miles, only
helium and hydrogen
exist in minute amounts.
322 MILES
11 MILES
20 MILES
20 MILES
18,000
372
50
30
11 miles
Chemosphere
(Ozone)
The tropopause lies between the
troposphere and the stratosphere.
18,000
372
50
30
11 miles
Tropopause
The chemosphere (ozone layer) lies
mainly between the stratosphere and
mesosphere.
18,000
372
50
30
11 miles
Chemosphere
(Ozone)
Tropopause
500
Ionosphere
The ionosphere is the whole area
encompassing the ...
What element or gas makes up the
majority of the Earth’s atmosphere?
a. Nitrogen
b. Oxygen
c. Argon
d. Carbon dioxide
The troposphere extends to a height
of about 11 miles above the equator,
some 7.5 miles in the temperate zones,
and only a...
The lowest layer of the atmosphere,
within which there is a steady drop
in temperature with increasing
altitude and within...
Nearly all clouds are in the
troposphere,
so it is here that weather occurs. Air
heated by the Earth rises, in a process
c...
In the troposphere,
the air automatically
changes about 5½°
for each 1,000 feet
traveled vertically.
This is called
adiaba...
Swift movement of cold air masses
about the vast Antarctic continent is
a major factor in determining the
world’s weather.
New
Zealand South
America
Antarctica
Located in the area between 20,000 and
40,000 feet is the jet stream. It is most
prominent above the extra tropical and
Ar...
The jet stream was discovered in WW II,
when B-29 bombers flying about 4 miles
high, found great assistance from
westerly ...
It has been found that jet streams are
the strongest over Japan and the New
England states.
Summer Jet Stream
The stratosphere lies just above the
tropopause and extends to an altitude
of about 30 miles, characterized by little
vert...
Modern commercial airlines seek to fly
in the stratosphere when not using the
jet stream because there is so much
less air...
18,000
372
50
30
11 miles
500
The ionosphere is an area of electrically charged
ions lying above the stratosphere. It begi...
Disturbances from the Sun can
cause
changes in the ionosphere’s form.
These magnetic and electrical storms
cause the North...
The ionosphere
will reflect radio
waves of certain
frequencies.
By determining the
best frequencies
and times of day to
tr...
THE
EARTH
30 MILES
THE MESOSPHERE
11 MILES
The lowest level of the ionosphere, the
mesosphere, extends from 30 - 50 miles
...
The region between the ionosphere
and the exosphere, extending from
about 30 - 50 mi. above the surface
of the Earth
Mesos...
THE
EARTH
322 MILES
THE THERMOSPHERE
The thermosphere is the highest layer
of the ionosphere. The principal radio
reflecti...
The region of the upper atmosphere
in which temperature increases
continuously with altitude,
encompassing essentially all...
Starting below and extending into the
ionosphere is the chemosphere (ozone
layer). It begins at about 15 miles up
and shie...
The layer of the upper atmosphere
where most atmospheric ozone is
concentrated, from about 8 - 30 mi.
(12 - 48 km) above t...
The ozone layer is being depleted by
luorocarbons used as propellants for aerosol cans
and refrigerants used for air condi...
The exosphere
begins about 500
miles above the
Earth’s surface
and continues
out about 18,000
miles. Only light
hydrogen a...
Located within the exosphere are intense
radiation areas called the Van Allen
Radiation Belts.
Van Allen Radiation Belts
The inner belt is located about 400 -
3,400 miles above the Earth. It contains
high-energy protons.
Van Allen Radiation Be...
Van Allen Radiation Belts
Outer
Belt
The outer belt is located 8,000 - 40,000
miles above the Earth. It contains high-
ene...
Manned space
missions are
intentionally flown
well below the
lower limits of the
Van Allen Belts,
and satellites
operating...
The weight of the atmosphere varies with the
amount of water vapor present, the
temperature, and the height above the Eart...
Generally employed
for use at sea, the
mercurial type
barometer consists
of an accurately
calibrated glass tube
filled wit...
Vacuum Chamber
Lever
Spindle
Pointer
Aneroid Barometer
The aneroid, or dry
barometer, contains
a small metallic cell
that ...
Barometers can be graduated in either
inches of mercury or millibars. Millibars
are normally used on weather charts.
The metric unit of measurement for
air pressure
A centimeter-gram-second unit of
pressure equal to one thousandth
of a bar...
The average atmospheric pressure at
the Earth’s surface is 29.92 inches,
or
1,013.2 millibars.
An air mass is a large body of air with
the same temperature and humidity. It
generally takes on the characteristics of
th...
It takes more heat to warm water
temperatures than soil temperatures.
In seawater, heat is absorbed to depths
in excess of 80 feet.
Only a few inches of topsoil will
absorb radiation. This means oceans
are slower to warm up and cool down
than landmasses.
In winter, the United States is swept
by continental air masses from the
cold Arctic.
Winter
Air Masses
In summer, we are swept by warm,
moist maritime air masses.
Summer
Air Masses
When warm and cold air masses touch,
the boundary between them is called a
front.
A warm front is formed when a
warm air mass moves over a cold
air mass.
Warm Front
A cold front is formed when a
cold air mass moves under a
warm air mass and pushes the
warm air up.
Cold Front
A front between warm and cold air
masses that is moving very slowly,
or not at all
When a warm or cold front stops
moving,...
Violent frontal weather systems can
be predicted from a chart showing
atmospheric pressures.
Weather charts usually illustrate barometric
pressures as millibar reading points. The lines
on the above map, drawn throu...
Isobars give a rough indication of the
amount of wind in an area. The closer
the bars, the stronger the wind in that
area.
The weight of the atmosphere varies
from place to place depending on
which of the following?
a. Wind, temperature, pressur...
Weather is the condition of the
atmosphere, expressed in terms of its
heat, pressure, wind, and moisture.
It is heat, and the transfer of heat, that
causes the weather. Without it there
would be no winds, varying air
pressures, ...
Fundamental natural laws determine
weather changes:
• Warm air is lighter
in weight and can
hold more water
vapor than col...
Fundamental natural laws determine
weather changes:
• As air moves, wind
is created. This is
beginning of the
complex forc...
The Sun is our principal source of
energy:
• It bombards the Earth with 126 trillion
horsepower each second.
• Its energy ...
Solar energy is referred to as insolation,
Incoming Solar Radiation.
About 43% of the radiation reaching our
planet is cha...
• Clouds reflect back 75% of sunlight.
• Earth’s average cloudiness is 52%.
• About 36% of the total insolation never
reac...
Dense forests absorb 95% of insolation.
Water reflects 60 - 96% of insolation,
depending on the angle the light hits the
surface.
In effect, the Earth’s
cloud cover acts like
the glass of a
greenhouse. It lets
short solar rays
pass through; the
Earth a...
Long heat waves
cannot all get
through the
atmosphere
because they are
absorbed by water
vapor, so they
stay within the
“g...
Without atmosphere, the Earth would be
like the Moon with boiling temperatures
during the day and sub-freezing
temperature...
The Navy and most
civilians in America
use thermometers
with a Fahrenheit
(F) scale.
Steam Point
Ice Point 32°F
212°F
Fahr...
Noting, pertaining to, or measured
according to a temperature scale in
which 32° represents the freezing
point and 212° th...
Temperatures in
meteorology and
most other sciences,
however, are usually
expressed according
to the Celsius (C)
scale.
Bo...
Pertaining to or noting a temperature
scale in which 0° represents the
freezing point and 100° the boiling
point of water
...
There are 5 °C temperature for every
9 °F.
Formula: C = 5/9 (F - 32)
Since 32 °F is equivalent to 0 °C, to
change a Fahren...
What is the temperature in Celsius
if it is 59 °F?
First subtract 32 from the
F temperature
Then multiply the number by 5/...
What is the temperature in Celsius
if it is 59 °F?
- 32 °
59 °
27 °
27 °
5
9
= 15 °CX
Conversion Formula
This process is reversed to convert
Fahrenheit to Celsius.
Formula: F = 9/5 C + 32°
What is the temperature in
Fahrenheit if it is 15 °C?
First multiply the C temperature
by 9/5
Then add 32 to the product t...
+ 32 °
27 °
59 °F
15 °
9
5
= 27 °X
What is the temperature in Fahrenheit
if it is 15 °C?
If you compare these
thermometers, you will
note that the top of the
column of alcohol is in
the shape of a curve
called a...
A crescent or a crescent-shaped
body
The convex or concave upper
surface of a column of liquid, the
curvature of which is ...
Heat causes evaporation of millions of
tons of water daily.
A process called transpiration causes
additional huge amounts of water to
enter the air from the green leaves of
plants.
The passage of water through a plant
from the roots through the vascular
system to the atmosphere
Transpiration
As warm, moist air rises, it expands and
cools, eventually reaching its saturation
level (100% relative humidity) and caus...
Falling products of condensation in
the atmosphere, as rain, snow, or
hail
Precipitation
This hydrologic cycle of evaporation,
condensation, and precipitation is
continually in process.
Precipitation
on Land
Eva...
Since warm air can hold more moisture
than cold air, relative humidity goes up
when air with a given amount of water
vapor...
When air is cooled to its dew point temperature,
small water droplets condense on objects and
dew is formed.
The temperature to which air must
be cooled, at a given pressure and
water vapor content for it to reach
saturation
The te...
Relative humidity is
measured using a
psychrometer, an
instrument for determining
the atmospheric humidity
by the reading ...
Sling psychrometers are often used aboard
ship to speed up the process of getting
accurate wet and dry-bulb readings.
Slin...
A.1. TRUE
Q.1. TRUE or FALSE. The harsh
Russian winter weather was a
factor that helped defeat Hitler
in World War II.
A.2. Galileo
Q.2. Who invented the
thermometer?
A.5. A general view of the weather
Q.5. What does synoptic
meteorology mean?
A.6. As observational tools
Q.6. How do meteorologists use
satellites?
A.7. Meteorology
Q.7. What name is given to the
science of weather?
A.8. A crude hygrometer
Q.8. What was the first
meteorological instrument to
be developed?
A.9. An ocean of air immediately
above the Earth’s surface
Q.9. What is the troposphere?
A.10. The transitional zone between
the troposphere and the near
void of the stratosphere
Q.10. What is the tropopause?
A.11. The consistent temperature
change due to change in
altitude
Q.11. What is adiabatic warming and
cooling?
A.12. A current of air that moves
swiftly from west to east
around the Earth
Q.12. What is a jet stream?
A.13. Mercurial and aneroid
Q.13. In the Navy, what two types of
barometers are used?
A.14. Exosphere
Q.14. What is the topmost layer of
the atmosphere?
A.15. Mesosphere
Q.15. What is the lowest level of the
ionosphere?
A.16. Thermosphere
Q.16. What is the highest level of the
ionosphere?
A.17. When warm and cold air
masses touch, the boundary
between them is a front.
Q.17. What is a front?
A.18. A large body of air with the
same temperature, humidity,
and pressure
Q.18. What is an air mass?
A.19. The chemosphere or ozone
layer
Q.19. Which layer shields the Earth
from the Sun's harmful
ultraviolet rays?
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Naval Science II
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The atmosphere

  1. 1. CHAPTER 1 OUR ATMOSPHERE
  2. 2. The atmosphere consists of five principal layers. THE TROPOSPHERE THE STRATOSPHERE THE MESOSPHERE THE THERMOSPHERE THE EXOSPHERE 39,600 MILES 322 MILES 20 MILES 20 MILES 20 MILES THE EARTH
  3. 3. Our atmosphere is a mixture of different gases. oxygen nitrogen argon 1% 21% 78%
  4. 4. Scattered within the atmosphere is about 1 percent water vapor, called humidity.
  5. 5. Equatorial Polar Polar The amount of water vapor is greater in equatorial regions than in polar regions.
  6. 6. Virtually all of the Earth’s weather (tempestuous air ocean) occurs within the first 3.5 miles of our atmosphere.
  7. 7. Tumultuous; turbulent Tempestuous
  8. 8. About 99% of the atmospheric gases lie below 20 miles. 20 MILES Troposphere
  9. 9. Beyond 45 miles, only helium and hydrogen exist in minute amounts. 322 MILES 11 MILES 20 MILES 20 MILES
  10. 10. 18,000 372 50 30 11 miles Chemosphere (Ozone) The tropopause lies between the troposphere and the stratosphere.
  11. 11. 18,000 372 50 30 11 miles Tropopause The chemosphere (ozone layer) lies mainly between the stratosphere and mesosphere.
  12. 12. 18,000 372 50 30 11 miles Chemosphere (Ozone) Tropopause 500 Ionosphere The ionosphere is the whole area encompassing the mesosphere and the thermosphere.
  13. 13. What element or gas makes up the majority of the Earth’s atmosphere? a. Nitrogen b. Oxygen c. Argon d. Carbon dioxide
  14. 14. The troposphere extends to a height of about 11 miles above the equator, some 7.5 miles in the temperate zones, and only about 5 miles above the poles. THE EARTH 11 MILES THE TROPOSPHERE
  15. 15. The lowest layer of the atmosphere, within which there is a steady drop in temperature with increasing altitude and within which nearly all cloud formations occur and weather conditions manifest themselves Troposphere
  16. 16. Nearly all clouds are in the troposphere, so it is here that weather occurs. Air heated by the Earth rises, in a process called convection.
  17. 17. In the troposphere, the air automatically changes about 5½° for each 1,000 feet traveled vertically. This is called adiabatic warming or cooling. Troposphere 85 °F (Sea level) 56 °F
  18. 18. Swift movement of cold air masses about the vast Antarctic continent is a major factor in determining the world’s weather.
  19. 19. New Zealand South America Antarctica
  20. 20. Located in the area between 20,000 and 40,000 feet is the jet stream. It is most prominent above the extra tropical and Arctic tropopause overlap. Jet Stream
  21. 21. The jet stream was discovered in WW II, when B-29 bombers flying about 4 miles high, found great assistance from westerly winds of up to 300 mph.
  22. 22. It has been found that jet streams are the strongest over Japan and the New England states. Summer Jet Stream
  23. 23. The stratosphere lies just above the tropopause and extends to an altitude of about 30 miles, characterized by little vertical change in temperature (a fairly constant -40 to -50 °F). There is almost no weather here due to the thin air and few clouds. THE EARTH 30 MILES THE STRATOSPHERE
  24. 24. Modern commercial airlines seek to fly in the stratosphere when not using the jet stream because there is so much less air resistance. This makes for better fuel mileage, little turbulence, and flight at top speeds.
  25. 25. 18,000 372 50 30 11 miles 500 The ionosphere is an area of electrically charged ions lying above the stratosphere. It begins 30 - 40 miles up and extends to about 500 miles.
  26. 26. Disturbances from the Sun can cause changes in the ionosphere’s form. These magnetic and electrical storms cause the Northern Lights.
  27. 27. The ionosphere will reflect radio waves of certain frequencies. By determining the best frequencies and times of day to transmit messages, communications are greatly enhanced.
  28. 28. THE EARTH 30 MILES THE MESOSPHERE 11 MILES The lowest level of the ionosphere, the mesosphere, extends from 30 - 50 miles above the Earth. Temperatures range from a high of 32 °F to a low of minus 100 °F.
  29. 29. The region between the ionosphere and the exosphere, extending from about 30 - 50 mi. above the surface of the Earth Mesosphere
  30. 30. THE EARTH 322 MILES THE THERMOSPHERE The thermosphere is the highest layer of the ionosphere. The principal radio reflecting layers are here. Temperatures in the thermosphere may reach 1,700 °F at 300 miles up.
  31. 31. The region of the upper atmosphere in which temperature increases continuously with altitude, encompassing essentially all of the atmosphere above the mesosphere Thermosphere
  32. 32. Starting below and extending into the ionosphere is the chemosphere (ozone layer). It begins at about 15 miles up and shields the Earth from the harmful ultraviolet rays of the Sun. 18,000 372 50 30 11 miles
  33. 33. The layer of the upper atmosphere where most atmospheric ozone is concentrated, from about 8 - 30 mi. (12 - 48 km) above the Earth, with the maximum ozone concentration occurring at an altitude of about 12 mi. (19 km.) Ozone Layer (Chemosphere)
  34. 34. The ozone layer is being depleted by luorocarbons used as propellants for aerosol cans and refrigerants used for air conditioning systems.
  35. 35. The exosphere begins about 500 miles above the Earth’s surface and continues out about 18,000 miles. Only light hydrogen and helium atoms exist because of intense cosmic radiation. Temperatures may range from 4,500 °F to near absolute zero. 18,000
  36. 36. Located within the exosphere are intense radiation areas called the Van Allen Radiation Belts. Van Allen Radiation Belts
  37. 37. The inner belt is located about 400 - 3,400 miles above the Earth. It contains high-energy protons. Van Allen Radiation Belts Inner Belt
  38. 38. Van Allen Radiation Belts Outer Belt The outer belt is located 8,000 - 40,000 miles above the Earth. It contains high- energy electrons.
  39. 39. Manned space missions are intentionally flown well below the lower limits of the Van Allen Belts, and satellites operating in these regions must be shielded against the radiation encountered there.
  40. 40. The weight of the atmosphere varies with the amount of water vapor present, the temperature, and the height above the Earth’s surface. A barometer measures variations in atmospheric pressure.
  41. 41. Generally employed for use at sea, the mercurial type barometer consists of an accurately calibrated glass tube filled with mercury. It is used at shore activities to check aneroid barometers for accuracy. Mercurial Barometer
  42. 42. Vacuum Chamber Lever Spindle Pointer Aneroid Barometer The aneroid, or dry barometer, contains a small metallic cell that atmospheric Pressure increases and expands when Pressure decreases moving a needle that points to a graduated scale.
  43. 43. Barometers can be graduated in either inches of mercury or millibars. Millibars are normally used on weather charts.
  44. 44. The metric unit of measurement for air pressure A centimeter-gram-second unit of pressure equal to one thousandth of a bar or 1000 dynes per square centimeter, used to measure air pressure Millibar
  45. 45. The average atmospheric pressure at the Earth’s surface is 29.92 inches, or 1,013.2 millibars.
  46. 46. An air mass is a large body of air with the same temperature and humidity. It generally takes on the characteristics of the surface over which it forms but has different characteristics.
  47. 47. It takes more heat to warm water temperatures than soil temperatures.
  48. 48. In seawater, heat is absorbed to depths in excess of 80 feet.
  49. 49. Only a few inches of topsoil will absorb radiation. This means oceans are slower to warm up and cool down than landmasses.
  50. 50. In winter, the United States is swept by continental air masses from the cold Arctic. Winter Air Masses
  51. 51. In summer, we are swept by warm, moist maritime air masses. Summer Air Masses
  52. 52. When warm and cold air masses touch, the boundary between them is called a front.
  53. 53. A warm front is formed when a warm air mass moves over a cold air mass. Warm Front
  54. 54. A cold front is formed when a cold air mass moves under a warm air mass and pushes the warm air up. Cold Front
  55. 55. A front between warm and cold air masses that is moving very slowly, or not at all When a warm or cold front stops moving, it becomes a stationary front. Stationary Front
  56. 56. Violent frontal weather systems can be predicted from a chart showing atmospheric pressures.
  57. 57. Weather charts usually illustrate barometric pressures as millibar reading points. The lines on the above map, drawn through points of equal pressure, are called isobars, which never join or cross.
  58. 58. Isobars give a rough indication of the amount of wind in an area. The closer the bars, the stronger the wind in that area.
  59. 59. The weight of the atmosphere varies from place to place depending on which of the following? a. Wind, temperature, pressure b. Temperature, height, wind c. Water vapor, temperature, height d. Water vapor, pressure, wind
  60. 60. Weather is the condition of the atmosphere, expressed in terms of its heat, pressure, wind, and moisture.
  61. 61. It is heat, and the transfer of heat, that causes the weather. Without it there would be no winds, varying air pressures, storms, rain, or snow. All weather changes are caused by temperature changes in different parts of the atmosphere.
  62. 62. Fundamental natural laws determine weather changes: • Warm air is lighter in weight and can hold more water vapor than cold air. • Cold air is heavier and has a tendency to flow toward the rising warm air.
  63. 63. Fundamental natural laws determine weather changes: • As air moves, wind is created. This is beginning of the complex forces that cause the changing weather.
  64. 64. The Sun is our principal source of energy: • It bombards the Earth with 126 trillion horsepower each second. • Its energy waves, or radiation, travel at 186,300 miles per second (speed of light).
  65. 65. Solar energy is referred to as insolation, Incoming Solar Radiation. About 43% of the radiation reaching our planet is changed into heat.
  66. 66. • Clouds reflect back 75% of sunlight. • Earth’s average cloudiness is 52%. • About 36% of the total insolation never reaches Earth. Clouds and other atmospheric influences absorb some of the incoming radiation, but they reflect much of it.
  67. 67. Dense forests absorb 95% of insolation.
  68. 68. Water reflects 60 - 96% of insolation, depending on the angle the light hits the surface.
  69. 69. In effect, the Earth’s cloud cover acts like the glass of a greenhouse. It lets short solar rays pass through; the Earth absorbs the ones that get through, then re-radiates long heat rays.
  70. 70. Long heat waves cannot all get through the atmosphere because they are absorbed by water vapor, so they stay within the “greenhouse” in a continual cycle. Atmosphere Earth Heat
  71. 71. Without atmosphere, the Earth would be like the Moon with boiling temperatures during the day and sub-freezing temperatures during the night.
  72. 72. The Navy and most civilians in America use thermometers with a Fahrenheit (F) scale. Steam Point Ice Point 32°F 212°F Fahrenheit
  73. 73. Noting, pertaining to, or measured according to a temperature scale in which 32° represents the freezing point and 212° the boiling point Fahrenheit
  74. 74. Temperatures in meteorology and most other sciences, however, are usually expressed according to the Celsius (C) scale. Boiling Point Freezing Point Celsius 0°C 100°C
  75. 75. Pertaining to or noting a temperature scale in which 0° represents the freezing point and 100° the boiling point of water Celsius
  76. 76. There are 5 °C temperature for every 9 °F. Formula: C = 5/9 (F - 32) Since 32 °F is equivalent to 0 °C, to change a Fahrenheit reading to Celsius, you subtract 32° and then multiply the remainder by 5/9.
  77. 77. What is the temperature in Celsius if it is 59 °F? First subtract 32 from the F temperature Then multiply the number by 5/9 to get the C temperature
  78. 78. What is the temperature in Celsius if it is 59 °F? - 32 ° 59 ° 27 ° 27 ° 5 9 = 15 °CX
  79. 79. Conversion Formula This process is reversed to convert Fahrenheit to Celsius. Formula: F = 9/5 C + 32°
  80. 80. What is the temperature in Fahrenheit if it is 15 °C? First multiply the C temperature by 9/5 Then add 32 to the product to get the Fahrenheit temperature
  81. 81. + 32 ° 27 ° 59 °F 15 ° 9 5 = 27 °X What is the temperature in Fahrenheit if it is 15 °C?
  82. 82. If you compare these thermometers, you will note that the top of the column of alcohol is in the shape of a curve called a meniscus. The accurate reading for an alcohol thermometer is at the bottom of this curve; for mercury it is at the top. Alcohol in Glass Mercury in Glass
  83. 83. A crescent or a crescent-shaped body The convex or concave upper surface of a column of liquid, the curvature of which is caused by surface tension Meniscus
  84. 84. Heat causes evaporation of millions of tons of water daily.
  85. 85. A process called transpiration causes additional huge amounts of water to enter the air from the green leaves of plants.
  86. 86. The passage of water through a plant from the roots through the vascular system to the atmosphere Transpiration
  87. 87. As warm, moist air rises, it expands and cools, eventually reaching its saturation level (100% relative humidity) and causes the vapor to condense into a liquid. Water droplets form in the clouds, and precipitation occurs.
  88. 88. Falling products of condensation in the atmosphere, as rain, snow, or hail Precipitation
  89. 89. This hydrologic cycle of evaporation, condensation, and precipitation is continually in process. Precipitation on Land Evaporation from Land Evaporation from Ocean Precipitation on Ocean Moisture over Land
  90. 90. Since warm air can hold more moisture than cold air, relative humidity goes up when air with a given amount of water vapor cools, and drops when that air is heated.
  91. 91. When air is cooled to its dew point temperature, small water droplets condense on objects and dew is formed.
  92. 92. The temperature to which air must be cooled, at a given pressure and water vapor content for it to reach saturation The temperature at which dew begins to form Dew Point
  93. 93. Relative humidity is measured using a psychrometer, an instrument for determining the atmospheric humidity by the reading of two thermometers, the bulb of one being kept moist and ventilated Psychrometer
  94. 94. Sling psychrometers are often used aboard ship to speed up the process of getting accurate wet and dry-bulb readings. Sling Psychrometer
  95. 95. A.1. TRUE Q.1. TRUE or FALSE. The harsh Russian winter weather was a factor that helped defeat Hitler in World War II.
  96. 96. A.2. Galileo Q.2. Who invented the thermometer?
  97. 97. A.5. A general view of the weather Q.5. What does synoptic meteorology mean?
  98. 98. A.6. As observational tools Q.6. How do meteorologists use satellites?
  99. 99. A.7. Meteorology Q.7. What name is given to the science of weather?
  100. 100. A.8. A crude hygrometer Q.8. What was the first meteorological instrument to be developed?
  101. 101. A.9. An ocean of air immediately above the Earth’s surface Q.9. What is the troposphere?
  102. 102. A.10. The transitional zone between the troposphere and the near void of the stratosphere Q.10. What is the tropopause?
  103. 103. A.11. The consistent temperature change due to change in altitude Q.11. What is adiabatic warming and cooling?
  104. 104. A.12. A current of air that moves swiftly from west to east around the Earth Q.12. What is a jet stream?
  105. 105. A.13. Mercurial and aneroid Q.13. In the Navy, what two types of barometers are used?
  106. 106. A.14. Exosphere Q.14. What is the topmost layer of the atmosphere?
  107. 107. A.15. Mesosphere Q.15. What is the lowest level of the ionosphere?
  108. 108. A.16. Thermosphere Q.16. What is the highest level of the ionosphere?
  109. 109. A.17. When warm and cold air masses touch, the boundary between them is a front. Q.17. What is a front?
  110. 110. A.18. A large body of air with the same temperature, humidity, and pressure Q.18. What is an air mass?
  111. 111. A.19. The chemosphere or ozone layer Q.19. Which layer shields the Earth from the Sun's harmful ultraviolet rays?

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