Civil war part one


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Civil war part one

  1. 1. CHAPTER 4 THE CIVIL WAR 1861-1865
  3. 3. Clipper Packet Whaler Overseas trade and immigration were the focus of maritime interests in the 1840s.
  4. 4. The issue of slavery was not of prime importance to the average American of the early 1800s.
  5. 5. The majority of Southerners were small farmers who could not afford slaves and most Northerners were small farmers or tradesmen who had never come into contact with any slaves.
  6. 6. Slave trade had been illegal since 1820.
  7. 7. Southern economy depended on slavery to be profitable while Northern economy was based on commerce and industry.
  8. 8. Slavery A Moral and Commercial Issue
  9. 9. Total Population 1850 By 1850 only about a third of the national population lived in the South. Southern politicians had become alarmed at the loss of political power in the House of Representatives.
  10. 10. Free States and Territories Slave States Territories Open to Slavery The South pressed for admission of the new states as slave states so that their political power base would remain
  11. 11. Closed to slavery by Missouri Compromise Open to slavery by Missouri Compromise Free states and territories Slave States Missouri Compromise of 1820 It stipulated that a balance between slave and free states had to be maintained as
  12. 12. Free state or territory Slavery state or territory Open to slavery by principle of popular sovereignty. Compromise of 1850 Open to slavery by principle of popular sovereignty. Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 The Missouri Compromise of 1820 lasted until the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, which eliminated it and made it possible for slavery to be introduced into any new territory based on the decision of the residents.
  13. 13. SLAVERY DEBATES Stephen Douglas Abraham Lincoln Slavery became a major political
  14. 14. West Virginia a en Sh Harper’s Ferry nd h oa Virginia ac to m Po Maryland The threat to stop the spread of slavery intensified in 1859 when John Brown raided the Federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia (now West Virginia) and called for a general insurrection of Southern slaves.
  15. 15. ARGUING ABOUT SLAVERY Extremists on both sides became willing to go to war to ensure that their views prevailed. Against this backdrop of tension the presidential election of 1860 took place.
  16. 16. Abraham Lincoln Stephen Douglas 1860 Presidential Candidates John Bell John Breckinridge
  17. 17. Election of 1860 Lincoln won the election with just 40 percent of the popular vote, and no Southern electoral votes.
  18. 18. VA KY TN NC SC AL GA FL December 1860 South Carolina Secedes
  19. 19. Fort Sumter, SC Star of the West In January 1861, the Star of the West attempted to enter the harbor of Charleston to resupply Union troops at Fort Sumter. She was fired on, and she retreated out of range.
  20. 20. Jefferson Davis President of Confederate States of America
  21. 21. Confederacy in January 1861 TX MS LA AL GA SC FL
  22. 22. Southern officers had to choose between loyalty to their country and ties to their homes.
  23. 23. Robert E. Matthew F. Maury
  24. 24. Most career enlisted sailors sided with the Union.
  25. 25. Southern militias quickly took over most forts in the South.
  26. 26. Fort Sumter The Civil War started
  27. 27. On 11 April 1861, General Beauregard demanded that Fort Sumter Major Anderson USA, garrison commander, refused.
  28. 28. Fort Sumter April 12, 1861, first shots
  29. 29. On 15 April, President Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers for 3 months to suppress the rebellion.
  30. 30. Fort Sumter’s fall contributed to additional states joining each side of the conflict. TX W VA VA TN NC AR SC AL GA MS LA FL
  31. 31. Population In Uniform North 22 Million 2.5 Million South 9 Million 1 Million
  32. 32. North Advantages Heavy Industry Rail System $331 Million in Exports South Disadvantages No Foundries or Metal Works Transportation System Only $31 Million in Exports
  33. 33. Naval Differences Shipyards Seaman Navy North Yes Adequate Small South None Few None
  34. 34. The Confederacy had no navy at all when the war began. It tried to build naval ships and armored gunboats called ironclads for harbor defense, and fought valiantly, but it
  35. 35. Ironclad Covered or cased with iron plates, as a ship for naval warfare; armorplated A wooden warship of the middle or late 19th century having iron or steel armor plating
  36. 36. The South was dependent on importation of food.
  37. 37. Because of the Union blockade, the Confederacy was near starvation by war’s end.
  38. 38. South’s Emotions and Wishful Thinking • Major war not expected • North would quickly tire of casualties and losses • Unstable politics in the North • Border states’ sympathies
  40. 40. The Border States Maryland Delaware Kentucky Missouri While remaining in the Union, these four states were at least partially sympathetic to the Confederate cause. They supported both sides with
  41. 41. King Cotton The South had no idea about the economic demands of a modern war.
  42. 42. The South believed that once the Northern blockade cut off “King Cotton” from British and French markets, it would force these countries to help the Southern cause for economic reasons.
  43. 43. Strengths of the South • Officer corps • Vast territory • Loyalty to cause
  44. 44. Comparison of North and South in 1860 Category Population Wealth Produced Farm Acreage Value of Crops Railroad Mileage Factories Iron Production Bank Deposits North South 71% 75% 65% 70% 72% 85% 96% 81% 29% 25% 35% 30% 28% 15% 4% 19%
  45. 45. Jefferson Davis • Authorized privateering • Declared embargo on cotton
  46. 46. • Began a naval blockade of all Southern ports from Virginia Capes to Texas Abraham
  47. 47. Blockade Runner A ship or person that passes through a blockade
  48. 48. Blockaded ports by the
  49. 49. Davis’ Miscalculations • British and French observed blockade. • Europeans had huge inventories of cotton.
  50. 50. • Began with 3 ships in home waters to patrol 3,550 miles Gideon Welles Secretary of the Navy • By December 1861, had 264 vessels and adequate blockade of all major cotton ports
  51. 51. Entrance to Mississippi River Major Cotton Ports
  52. 52. Paddle Steamer Naval Blockade • Many types of vessels were used for the blockade. Whaling Ship Tugs • The crews had little or no training.
  53. 53. Blockade Expansion by End of 1862 • Blockade depended upon coal and other supplies. • Union established bases in Confederate territory.
  54. 54. Florida’s poor inland transportation, coupled with the Union blockade, deprived the South of essential salt for preservation of food.
  55. 55. Fort Pickens Union supply bases in the South were significant factors in the victory.
  56. 56. • Responsible for improved naval ordnance • Developed larger smooth-bore guns Commander John Dahlgren
  57. 57. END OF PART ONE