Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

World Retail Banking Report: Special Edition 2010


Published on

Small Business Banking and the Crisis: Managing Development and Risk is the seventh edition of the World Retail Banking Report. Jointly produced by Capgemini, UniCredit and Efma, the report focuses on investigating the challenge the small business banking market faces to master risk while accelerating business development, which was brought to the forefront by the economic and financial crisis.

Based on 58 in-depth interviews with senior executives from leading banks in 21 countries, the report offers an overview of the challenging but critical small business market, proposes a winning model to overcome today’s risk management and development challenges, highlights the major benefits of this model, and suggests practical next steps to reach and implement it successfully.

Published in: Business
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

World Retail Banking Report: Special Edition 2010

  1. 1. Small BuSinESS Banking and thE CRiSiS:Managing developMent and risk World Retail Banking Report Special Edition 2010
  2. 2. Contents 3 Preface 5 Principal Findings 7 Introduction 1 1 Chapter 1 The Winning Bank Model in the Small Business Market2 1 Chapter 2 Key Benefits of the Winning Bank Model3 1 Chapter 3 Moving Forward: Transforming the Business to Reach the Winning Bank Model 3 7 Methodology3 8 About Us© 2010 Capgemini. All Rights Reserved. Capgemini, UniCredit and Efma, their services mentioned herein as well as their respective logos, aretrademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies. All other company, product and service names mentioned are the trademarksof their respective owners and are used herein with no intention of trademark infringement. No part of this document may be reproduced or copiedin any form or by any means without written permission from Capgemini.DisclaimerThe information contained herein is general in nature and is not intended, and should not be construed, as professional advice or opinion providedto the user. This document does not purport to be a complete statement of the approaches or steps, which may vary according to individualfactors and circumstances, necessary for a business to accomplish any particular business goal. This document is provided for informationalpurposes only; it is meant solely to provide helpful information to the user. This document is not a recommendation of any particular approach andshould not be relied upon to address or solve any particular matter. The information provided herein is on an “as-is” basis. Capgemini, UniCreditand Efma disclaim any and all warranties of any kind concerning any information provided in this report.
  3. 3. PrefaceCapgemini, UniCredit, and Efma (European financial marketing association) are pleased to present thisseventh edition of the World Retail Banking Report. Because the financial and economic crisis has had atremendous impact on bank operating models and their ability to handle liquidity, manage risk and compliance,and generate revenue, we have focused this year on evaluating the effect of the global financial crisis and howto deal with it. We especially highlight trends in the small business market, which is a very important strategicmarket for retail banks.This year’s study, therefore, investigates the challenge small business banking faces to master risk whileaccelerating business development, which was brought to the fore by the crisis. As detailed in the Methodology,our analysis is based on 58 in-depth interviews with senior executives from leading banks in 21 countries:Austria, Belgium, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hong Kong, India, Ireland, Italy, theNetherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom,and United States.Our report provides bankers with an overview of the challenging but critical small business market, proposes awinning model to overcome today’s risk management and development challenges, highlights the major benefitsof this model, and suggests practical next steps to reach and implement it successfully.It is with great pleasure that we publish this 2010 edition of the World Retail Banking Report. We trust itsfindings will help answer key questions and stimulate debate. Most of all, we want to provide useful informationthat helps retail bankers deal more effectively with the difficult operational and strategic issues they will face inthe post-crisis period.Bertrand Lavayssière Roberto Nicastro Patrick DesmarèsManaging Director Group Deputy CEO & Secretary GeneralGlobal Financial Services Head of Retail Strategic Business Area European financialCapgemini UniCredit S.p.A. marketing association
  4. 4. 4 Small Business Banking and the Crisis: Managing Development and Risk
  5. 5. 5 Principal Findings Small Business Banking and the Crisis: Managing Development and RiskThe global financial and economic crisis—with the ƒ Accelerating development through increased clientincreasing cost of risk, the drop in demand, and the satisfaction and the bank’s ability to cross-sellrising pressure on banks to support the economy—has successfully, thereby supporting revenue generationhighlighted the major challenge that small business under the increased cost-of-risk pressure.bankers face: how can they both accelerate business ƒ Mastering risk, based on wider usage anddevelopment and manage risk? sophistication of rating-based scoring tools, strengthened proactive management of performingTo cope with this challenge, successful retail banks credit portfolios, and an improved credit collectionwill develop along two key dimensions to reach what process with “soft collection”.we call the “winning bank” model (see matrix below):ƒ Move the role of their relationship managers (RMs) To reach and implement the winning bank model, towards closer relationships with their clients, a deep successful banks will design an appropriate understanding of each client’s needs and expectations, transformation strategy (see matrix): and increased empowerment on risk management ƒ Transformation paths depend on a bank’s issues, fully in line with policies and practices defined starting point on both axes, on its original market by the risk management department. positioning (retail versus corporate), and on itsƒ Implement an efficient and complete credit culture and organisation. risk management system—characterised by an ƒ These transformation paths will be a combination appropriate governance scheme, fully integrated of technical, organisational, and HR measures processes, and a complete and efficient supporting implemented through quick wins, incremental steps, information system—that meets the highly specific or longer term actions. and complex risk management needs of the small business market. ƒ To succeed in this transformation, banks will have to set up robust change-management approaches toThis model will enable banks to outperform achieve alignment with the bank’s overall strategy,their competitors on both development and risk support from senior management, and buy-inmanagement, by: from employees. Complete and fully integrated processes and information system aligned with risk management needs “Top-Down, inTegraTeD bank” “winning bank” Credit risk management system “TraDiTional “branCh as a bank” bank” Incomplete and not fully integrated processes and information system relationship manager role Low level of empowerment on High level of empowerment on risk management and/or lack of risk management and close closeness in client relationships relationships with clients
  6. 6. 6 Small Business Banking and the Crisis: Managing Development and Risk
  7. 7. 7 Introduction The financial and economic crisis has brought to the fore small business banking’s key challenge: How can banks master the cost of risk and also accelerate development?FinAnCing ThE SMAll BUSinESS MARkET This is a high-growth market. In Europe betweeniS A kEy FACToR in ThE woRlD’S 2002 and 2007, the number of small and mediumEMployMEnT AnD EConoMy enterprises grew by 11%, and their number ofSmall businesses play a major role in the world employees went up by 9% (versus 4% and 3% for theeconomy. In Europe, Japan, and the USA, 99% of larger enterprises). The line-of-business diversificationthe enterprises belong to the small business market of small businesses helps mitigate the impacts ofand are responsible for 51% of the employment in the macroeconomic downturns at the national or globalprivate and non-financial economy (see Methodology level. That is why, when added to the fact that smallfor how we define the small business market). Small businesses employ such a large portion of a nation’sbusiness employment is more than 50% in the EU27 people, governments often rely on small businesses toand approximately 40% in the USA (see Figure 1). boost economic recovery in times of crisis.Figure 1 Contribution, by size category, in terms ThE SMAll BUSinESS MARkET iS A vERy of number of enterprises, employees, ATTRACTivE AnD STRATEgiC MARkET and value added FoR RETAil BAnkS According to our interviews, while representing less 1% than 10% of the retail banking client portfolio, the 7% small business market accounts for almost a third of retail banks’ net banking income (NBI) (see Figure 2). 32% 42% Figure 2 weight of the small business market 17% in retail banking 99% 92% 18% 21% Proportion of small business clients in 10% 19% retail banking 51% 40% 30% Proportion of small 21% business net banking 27% income in retail banking Number of Number of Value added at enterprises persons employed factor cost Proportion of small I Large-sized enterprises I Medium-sized enterprises business risk-weighted 46% I Small-sized enterprises I Micro-sized enterprises assets in retail banking Small BusinessSource: EIM/European Commission, Annual Report on EU Small and Medium Enterprises (first section), January 2009. Source: Capgemini analysis from bank interviews, 2010.
  8. 8. 8 Small Business Banking and the Crisis: Managing Development and RiskSmall businesses rely mainly on banks for their Figure 3 Small business net banking incomefinancing needs, because they have very limited access product structureto equity. Credit and loans, therefore, are at the heartof small businesses’ relationships with their banks, 5%and represent 40% of the total retail banking NBI inthis market (see Figure 3). 26% 40%Small business clients also represent a highdevelopment potential for banks. One of the primarychallenges is to become the client’s main banker andcapture as much of the flows, credit, and savings as 29%possible through cross-selling and up-selling. Butpart of the challenge also lies on the private side, as I Loans and credit I Deposits and savingsbankers try to cross-sell products to the entrepreneur I Operations and transactions I Otherand secure client loyalty. Source: Capgemini analysis from bank interviews, 2010.ThE SMAll BUSinESS MARkET iS A hARD nUTTo CRACk BECAUSE iT iS RiSky AnD CoMplExThe small business market is risky. Small businessesare more vulnerable than larger enterprises (low The tremendous increase in the cost of risk hascapitalisation and no credit ratings, for instance) and forced banks to strengthen their risk management.have high bankruptcy rates. As Figure 2 showed, In particular, one of the challenges banks now facealthough small business represents 27% of retail NBI, is to continue assessing correctly the new creditit accounts for 46% of total retail risk-weighted assets. applications for underwriting. The traditional way of assessing creditworthiness is questioned in times ofYet small business is a complex market to deal with. crisis, because the analysis of most borrowers’ financialSpread across retailers, artisans, farmers, associations, statements or liquidity behaviours has deteriorated.liberal professions, and small enterprises, it features Faced with this reality, banks have to define a cost-behaviours and needs from both the mass and effective way to develop predictive or business planningcorporate markets. To handle this market, successful analyses adapted specifically to the small businessbankers will develop a mixed approach between market.standardisation and customisation in their offers. The drop in demand is mainly for credit, resultingThE EConoMiC AnD FinAnCiAl CRiSiShighlighTED RETAil BAnkS’ ChAllEngE from investment freezes and, to a lesser extent, fromoF MAnAging RiSk whilE ACCElERATing the use of such alternative financing as associativeDEvElopMEnT networks and public funds.The global financial and economic crisis stronglyaffected small businesses. They endured severe cuts in The global financial crisis has led to higher coststurnover and profit, and an increase in the number of of financing. As a result, for the first time sincedefaults, insolvencies, and bankruptcies. Considering 2005, European bankers expected a decline in theirthe high importance of small businesses in national revenues from the small business market in 2009 (seeeconomies, most governments and other public Figure 5).sectors have implemented measures to help themface the crisis, including supporting sales, cash flow, As a first reaction to the financial crisis, manyand working capital; enhancing access to finance; banks were forced to slow down their credit activitysupporting investment; strengthening capital; and in response to a peak in the cost of risk. This wasthe like. only temporary, however, as the double pressure of governments’ commands and banks’ own growthWith small business clients going through hard times, needs made development a top priority.bankers face two difficult threats: (1) a rise in the cost ofrisk; and (2) a drop in demand. According to the banks Banks have always faced the challenge ofwe surveyed, cost of risk is the first threat caused by managing risk while accelerating development.the crisis (51% of respondents), followed by the drop in In this time of crisis, however, the challenge hasdemand (31%), well ahead of pressure on prices (10%) dramatically increased.and better-armed competitors (8%) (see Figure 4).
  9. 9. INTRODUCTION 9Figure 4 Main threats caused by the crisis, according to bankers (% of banks interviewed) Increasing cost of risk 51% 35% 86% Decreasing demand 31% 37% 68% Pressure on prices 10% 35% 45% Better-armed competitors 8% 26% 34% I Most important threat I Quite important threatSource: Capgemini analysis from bank interviews, 2010.Figure 5 Five-year revenue growth for European small business banking 20% 18% 18% 14% 15% 11% 10% 10% 5% 4% 0% 2005–2006 2006–2007 2007–2008 2008–2009e -5% -7% -8% -10% Western Europe Central and Eastern EuropeSource: Efma/Finalta study, “Direct Channels for Small Business Banking”, January 2010.
  10. 10. 10 Small Business Banking and the Crisis: Managing Development and Risk
  11. 11. 11 Chapter 1 The winning Bank Model in the Small Business MarketBased on our own experience and on the bank ƒ To ensure the efficiency of these first twointerviews we conducted for this report, we are characteristics, banks also need to implement anconvinced that to perform well in risk management effective and complete credit risk managementand develop the small business market, and eventually system that meets the highly specific and complexbecome what we call here a “winning bank”, risk management needs of the small businesssuccessful retail banks will improve the role of their market. This system relies on fully integratedrelationship managers (RMs) and beef up their credit processes and an efficient supportingrisk management systems (see Figure 6). information system.This winning bank model has three primary This first chapter of the report will describe thesecharacteristics: three characteristics. Chapter 2 will highlight theƒ RMs with client relationships based on a deep benefits of the winning bank model. In Chapter 3, understanding of each client’s line of business, we will specify the possible paths to reach and needs, and expectations, as well as substantial implement this winning model. relationship strength.ƒ RMs empowered to act on risk management issues, in terms of both underwriting and active credit portfolio management, fully aligned with risk management department policies and supported by appropriate systems and organisation.Figure 6 Four models for retail banks operating in the small business market Complete and fully integrated processes and information system aligned with risk management needs “Top-Down, inTegraTeD bank” “winning bank” Credit risk management system “TraDiTional “branCh as a bank” bank” Incomplete and not fully integrated processes and information system relationship manager role Low level of empowerment on High level of empowerment on risk management and/or lack of risk management and close closeness in client relationships relationships with clientsSource: Capgemini analysis, 2010.
  12. 12. 12 Small Business Banking and the Crisis: Managing Development and RiskRMs nEED To DEvElop CloSE CliEnT As shown in Figure 7, we identified four RMRElATionShipS relational models that trade off differently betweenBy close client relationships we mean proximity, the three critical factors in solid relationshipavailability, and stability of the relationship, management: portfolio size, expertise level, and closealong with genuine concern for the success of the relationships. Two of them—B and D—favour closecustomer’s business. Moreover, deep knowledge client relationships.and understanding of each client’s line of business,needs, and expectations—and of the entrepreneurship Model B enables the RM to build strong clientissues behind them—are key success factors in the relationships, because the RM is fully availablesmall business market (unlike corporate banking, and deeply aware of each client’s business needs.where knowledge of the client’s industry is much These RMs are experts on most of the products andmore relevant). services small businesses need. Their client portfolios, however, must be limited.Among all distribution channels, RMs are—and will In model D, RMs also develop very close relationshipsremain—the linchpin of client relationships. For the with their clients while managing a larger number ofsurveyed banks, 93% of their small-sized clients will clients than in model B. As a consequence, however,be assigned to an RM portfolio in the near future, they are in a position to sell a smaller number ofversus 89% today. Several banks that have developed products and services unless they get help fromcall centres too far, disrupting the relationship between product experts offering technical sales support.clients and RMs, are now coming back to a moreRM-centric, multi-channel scheme, giving priorityto face-to-face interactions. (For micro-sized clients, These two models are used most by banks in thehowever—given their simpler needs—RMs can also small business market, especially for small-sizedinteract by telephone or through other direct channels.) clients who require more RM time to build close client relationships. For these clients, 66% of surveyedThis is one good reason why banks have to review banks are already operating one of these two modelsand strengthen the role and profile of their RMs. To or will implement one of them in the near futureenable such RM positioning, lengthening the RM’s job (versus 38% for micro-sized clients) (see Figure 8).duration is a key success factor. Ideally, RMs should stayfour or five years in their job. Today, based on what weobserved in the market, RMs average three years.Banks need to give their RMs the time they need tobuild very strong relationships. As a consequence,banks can limit the number of clients an RMmanages, or limit their assignment in terms ofexpertise with products and services so that RMs donot have to sell all products and services in the smallbusiness range.
  13. 13. THE WINNING BANK MODEL IN THE SMALL BUSINESS MARKET 13Figure 7 Four relationship manager models, with two models favouring close client relationships Model a PORTFOLIO SIzE Model b PORTFOLIO SIzE ExPERTISE CLOSE ExPERTISE CLOSE LEvEL RELATIONSHIPS LEvEL RELATIONSHIPS RMs manage a medium number of clients with whom they RMs build strong and close relationships with clients and are fully are fairly close. They have an average expertise on the available and aware of the clients’ needs. They manage a more limited majority of products and services. number of clients and are experts in most products and services. Model C PORTFOLIO SIzE Model D PORTFOLIO SIzE ExPERTISE CLOSE ExPERTISE CLOSE LEvEL RELATIONSHIPS LEvEL RELATIONSHIPS RMs manage a large number of clients and do not have time RMs build close and strong relationships with clients and manage to build close relationships with them. They have a more a large number of clients. As a consequence, they can sell only limited level of expertise on products and services. a few products and services without expert support.Source: Capgemini analysis, 2010.Figure 8 percentage of surveyed banks using model A, B, C, or D Small-sized clients 25% 9% 46% 20% I Model A I Model C I Model B I Model D Micro-sized clients 22% 40% 16% 22%Source: Capgemini analysis from bank interviews, 2010.
  14. 14. 14 Small Business Banking and the Crisis: Managing Development and RiskAccordingly, most banks interviewed intend to reduce surveyed, 40% intend to simplify their productthe size of their RMs’ client portfolio, as shown in range, while 20% intend to make it moreFigure 9, which is consistent with model B. sophisticated (40% will leave the situation as is). As an illustration of a reduced product range, a largeEspecially for banks implementing model D, technical European bank that formerly proposed 250 productssales support resources (such as product experts) can be for savings and deposits is working to reduce it toset up for the most complex and sophisticated products 15 key products.and services, such as electronic payments, trade ƒ Continuing to improve sales and after-salesfinance, internationalisation, and private banking. process efficiency.These product experts are used more and more byretail banks, and of banks we surveyed, 55% said they Banks will continue to encourage RMs to intensifywere already using them “today”, and 12% said they their relationships with clients, and adopt closerwould set them up “in the near future”. management of the client portfolio, by increasing the number of client meetings (taking care to improveBeyond the implementation of these two models— meeting quality to avoid being perceived as intrusive),with the reduction of client portfolio size or the and by integrating this dimension into their objectivescreation of technical sales experts—banks need to system.enhance supporting measures designed to free uptime for RMs, such as: Finally, banks can help their RMs develop theirƒ Reinforcing and professionalising middle-office skills and understanding of client needs by regularly positions (such as sales assistants) to support updating and enriching an intranet dedicated to the RMs, primarily by lightening RMs’ workload on small business market. The aim will be to capitalise administrative and non-commercial tasks. on the knowledge that banks are continuouslyƒ Simplifying the range of products and services developing about such important topics as markets, they offer to small business clients, along with business lines and professions, products, credit simplifying the process that helps RMs access policies, processes and tools, and the like. and choose the right products. Of the banks we Figure 9 Client portfolio size per relationship manager (average number of clients) 371 305 233 I Current 160 I Expected Small-sized clients Micro-sized clients Source: Capgemini analysis from bank interviews, 2010.
  15. 15. THE WINNING BANK MODEL IN THE SMALL BUSINESS MARKET 15RMs nEED A high lEvEl oF EMpowERMEnT level of the bank (local, regional, national; sales andon RiSk MAnAgEMEnT risk organisations). Strong RM training on decisionTwo opposite risk-empowerment profiles can be de- processes (credit scoring interpretation, decisionfined: RM as a sales manager and RM as a small banker. scheme, level of authorisation, scaling process) andHigh-performing banks will select the second profile. data management processes are also mandatory for this profile.The first profile, RM as a sales manager, emphasisesthe “four-eye” principle: most of the credit decisions, In the profile RM as a small banker, banks need to: (1)especially underwriting or loan rescheduling, must be strengthen the RMs’ risk management skills; (2) freedouble-checked by a risk analyst, or at least a regional up time for RMs, continuously improve the creditor national sales manager. The level of empowerment process, and provide dedicated coaching resourcesRMs have in this commonly found scenario is rather to help them manage sales and credit decisions; (3)limited, and these RMs are focused on sales and establish measures aimed at controlling the resultingcustomer service. risk of such a profile; and (4) create durable client relationships.The second profile, and the one that leads tothe winning bank model, is the RM as a small First, to ensure relevant and accurate decisions,banker. It gives RMs substantial responsibility and excellent RM training on risk management is requiredempowerment on risk management, as well as for in this profile, including credit scoring interpretation,credit underwriting, behavioural monitoring,1 and loan risk assessment, behavioural monitoring, and loanrescheduling. In this scenario, the RM is regarded the person playing the key role to make the rightdecision on credit underwriting or even rescheduling, Second and above all, because it is difficult for RMs tobecause he or she is responsible for the day-to-day deal with sales and credit risk issues at the same time,client relationship and has the best knowledge of a bank will have to free up RM time by reinforcingthe client’s needs and economic situation. In times support from middle-office resources, which willof crisis, this point is all the more important because relieve the RM of administrative credit tasks, andit becomes crucial to predict whether a client’s also improve credit process efficiency. (Banks mightdifficulties are temporary or structural. also extend an automated decision process to a wider micro-loan scope.) In addition, RMs will need to beDepending on the profile adopted, successful banks supported and coached by dedicated resources on allwill implement appropriate measures, tools, and these issues (we develop this good practice further inprocesses aimed at ensuring performance, controlling the next chapter).the resulting risk, and supporting RMs. Third, appropriate reporting, or more thoroughIn the profile RM as a sales manager, above all, a management by objectives (MBO) systems, arebank needs to invest in process efficiency, especially also necessary to highlight the cost-of-risk factoraimed at avoiding time-to-decision delays, since at the RM level. These systems allow banks tomore people are involved in the decision at different assess RMs’ risk management performance solevels and places in the company. Moreover, in this they can appropriately structure the RMs’ level ofprofile, efficient client data management (credit empowerment, their incentives, their training, andrelationship management tools, data knowledge even their career evolution. Such measures act as amanagement processes, and so on) is necessary to barrier against potentially bad assessments or, evenensure the availability of accurate information, both more critical, connivance with clients.qualitative and quantitative, at any time and at any1 “Behavioural monitoring” entails the RM reviewing (usually monthly) his or her credit portfolio, client by client, to catch early-warning signals of deterioration and decide what actions are needed for that particular client.
  16. 16. 16 Small Business Banking and the Crisis: Managing Development and RiskFinally, reduced sales force turnover to maintain ƒ Developing scenario analyses for the main riskdurable client relationships is also a key success factor. parameters, to accurately plan, budget, and forecastIt will strengthen RMs’ client knowledge for relevant loan-loss provisions, new non-performing loans,credit decisions, and ensure accurate cost-of-risk and expected losses.reporting at the portfolio level. The RM as a small ƒ Developing specific risk strategies and policiesbanker profile might help a bank lengthen the RM job in terms of risk appetite for each type of client,duration, as well, because it gives every RM the power product, risk class, industry, geography, andto better help their clients in their businesses, making distribution channel.the RM job more attractive. ƒ Monitoring the credit portfolio, producing a set ofFigure 10 summarises the key measures that ensure reports (tableau de board), analyses, studies, surveys,each model will be effective and support the RM, and simulations, and detailed forecasts, to measureSidebar 1 is a short case study of a large European credit risk, identify any anomalies or built-inbank using the RM as a small banker profile. problems to be communicated to the appropriate levels of management, and propose correctiveTop BAnkS will hAvE An EFFiCiEnT AnD actions aimed at constantly improving overall creditCoMplETE CREDiT RiSk MAnAgEMEnT quality.2SySTEM ƒ Arranging a constructive and regular dialogueThe winning bank model also relies on a bank’s between the sales and risk organisations.ability to implement a complete risk managementsystem closely fitting the highly specific and complex Second, the credit risk management system reliesneeds of managing small business credit risk. By risk on several key macro-processes in risk operationsmanagement system, we mean three major elements: (underwriting, behavioural monitoring, and credit(1) governance; (2) macro-processes; and (3) a collection) and in risk management (such as risksupporting information system. strategies, portfolio monitoring, credit policies, credit models, credit data management, regulatoryFirst, it is crucial to set up a clear and efficient and compliance, audit and control). They mustgovernance scheme aimed at ensuring the right be constantly improved by the risk managementdecisions are made on policies, processes, and tools department. (In Chapter 2, we will develop the threeby involving the appropriate level of management, main best practices at stake following the crisis: widerdepending on the financial stakes. Efficient usage and sophistication of rating-based scoring tools,governance relies on several key success factors: strengthened proactive management of performingƒ Setting up an appropriate committee scheme, credit portfolios, and an improved credit collection differentiating committees focusing on operations process with “soft collection”.) from committees dealing with credit policy issues.Figure 10 Appropriate measures for the two risk-empowerment relationship manager profiles process efficiency iT supporting tools Coaching, management rM training rM stability in the job by objectives Underwriting Decision process,rM as and rescheduling CRM tools, scoring scoring interpretation, Durable client MBO focusing mainly ona sales decision process, tools, early-warning client contacts and sales understanding risk relationships with lowmanager client data management indicators, etc by line of business or RM turnover, etc process, etc market, etc Underwriting Scoring interpretation,rM as and rescheduling CRM tools, scoring Reporting of cost of risk at understanding risk by line Durable clienta small decision process, tools, early-warning RM level, with integration of business or market, relationships with lowbanker client data management indicators, etc of this dimension in MBO behavioural monitoring RM turnover, etc process, etc and rescheduling, etc Strong need Significant needSource: Capgemini analysis, 2010.2 “Portfolio monitoring” is performed centrally by risk management analysts.
  17. 17. THE WINNING BANK MODEL IN THE SMALL BUSINESS MARKET 17 Sidebar 1 Illustration of a large European bank operating with the RM as a small banker profile for risk managementThis cooperative bank is one of the leaders in the small business market, with a 24% penetration rate. The bank delegates risk management decisions to the relationship managers, both for underwriting and for rescheduling, to ensure fast and accurate decisions.nEw loAn UnDERwRiTing: To EnSURE RiSk MAnAgEMEnT pERFoRMAnCE AnD ConTRol, ThE BAnk hAS SET Up SUChƒ Most of the decisions (85%) are made at the MEASURES AS: local level by RMs (or branch managers). ƒ Maintaining stringent reporting of cost of risk ƒ The other decisions (15%) are commonly at the RM portfolio level, integrated in the MBO made at the regional level by sales and risk system, to personalise the RM’s incentive and departments.   level of authorisation for underwriting and ƒ The bank does not use scoring tools, and the rescheduling. Recurrent or high cost of risk may only decisions that are made automatically (15% affect the RM’s career evolution. of the new loans) correspond to pre-approved ƒ Giving priority to sales force skills and client loans (RMs may contact some clients to offer a knowledge in underwriting (scoring system pre-defined credit line). improvement and process efficiency are not priorities).ExiSTing loAn MAnAgEMEnT AnD RESChEDUling: ƒ For existing portfolio management, ƒ RMs are fully involved in their loan portfolio tracking early-warning indicators (EWIs), such monitoring. They are directly responsible for as increasing past-due payments, decreasing managing (including restructuring) the 15% of the transactions or operations, increasing utilisation riskiest performing loans. of credit lines, etc.ƒ Collection is managed by a regional (or ƒ Inducing RMs to stay on the job at least five interregional) dedicated entity attached to the years; current average duration is four years, risk department. the range being three to eight.
  18. 18. 18 Small Business Banking and the Crisis: Managing Development and RiskThird, banks have to implement a complete and ƒ Wide and appropriate diffusion to guarantee fullfully integrated credit risk management information data accessibility by credit information systems andsystem, attuned with business needs through the specialists. This system also takes advantage of aentire credit risk management value chain, as shown service-oriented architecture (SOA) to perform thein Figure 11. seamless integration of datamarts and applications specific to the small business market, as well asThis system will leverage existing tools of other those shared with other markets. It provides finalmarkets as well as applications specifically developed users (such as sales forces, sales managers, riskfor the small business market. It will enable full analysts, and risk managers) with a comprehensiveintegration—along all stages of the credit sales and portal on their workstations that allows access to allrisk-management value chain (from underwriting to relevant tools and information with a user-friendlybehavioural monitoring and credit collection)—of Web 2.0 interface.all processes linked to client management, internaldecision-making, prudential reporting feeds, and Finally, by using collaborative tools, such as instantaudit trail constraints. messaging, forums, wikis, and peer-to-peer solutions, banks will be able to spread across the communitySuch a system will help banks cope with the primary of their small business specialists the best practicescredit data management challenges they are facing developed in their the small business market today (see challengesin Figure 12). It will ensure that several major By combining RM closeness to customers, high RMconsiderations are covered: empowerment on risk management, and an efficientƒ Relevancy and deepness of data gathered from and complete credit sales and risk-management internal and external sources (e.g. diversified data system, successful banks will be able to master risk for scorecards: financial data, predictive data, while maintaining high business development and qualitative information, and so on). outperform their competitors in the small business market. In the next chapter, we will develop theƒ Quality of data regularly validated and updated. benefits that implementing the winning bank modelƒ Integration of data to avoid redundancy or the can achieve. necessity to capture repeatedly the same data at different stages (e.g. the underwriting decision process, credit origination process, and regulatory compliance/Basel II process).ƒ Knowledge management over time to enable trend and historic analyses (e.g. follow-up of a loan from origination to servicing and recovery—especially efficient collection).
  19. 19. THE WINNING BANK MODEL IN THE SMALL BUSINESS MARKET 19Figure 11 Complete and fully integrated credit risk management information system for the small business market CREDIT RISK OPERATIONS AND RISK MANAGEMENT KEY MACRO-PROCESSES Credit Policies and Underwriting Behavioural and Credit Regulatory and Audit and Credit Risk Strategies and Pricing Portfolio Monitoring Collection Compliance Control (Dashboards and reporting, (Scorecards, RAROC [risk-adjusted (Performance reporting, (Performance reporting, (Internal rating, profitability analyses, etc) return on capital] pricing, sales EWIs, loan restructure loan life history, loan relevant PD and LGD reporting, process efficiency, etc) history, etc) restructure reporting, etc) reporting, etc) User-friendly workstations Sales force Risk analysts, Sales Risk customised for each actor involved collection (RMs, credit managers managers in small business marketing, experts, etc) staff, etc commercial, and risk departments Business process work ow management Service Integration and audit trail Client Needs service-oriented architecture (SOA) Risk scoring Portfolio Requesting and Seamless integration based on All relevant relationship analysis, product Sales monitoring and Prudential and risk-adjusted collaborative systems and management catalogue and reporting early-warning reporting feed pricing tools tools databases: (CRM) configuration tool indicators Specific to small business market Master Data Management Shared with retail, private, or corporate market Clients and other Risk-oriented Marketing information Small business Risk information counterparts general internal and and recommended specialists sharing a about economic information, including external information offerings based on data warehouse and sectors links to private data about borrower business lines knowledge databaseSource: Capgemini analysis, 2010.Figure 12 Credit data management challenges (% of banks interviewed) Issues with data quality 26% 39% 65%Lack of integration (work ow from origination and servicing to 25% 28% 53% close or recovery) Limited capability to compile 34% 15% 49% trends and history I Most important challenge I Quite important challenge Manual data gathering 30% 17% 47% Issues with data 35% 11% 46% accessibility and availabilityIsolated and redundant databases 20% 15% 35%Source: Capgemini analysis from bank interviews, 2010.
  20. 20. 20 Small Business Banking and the Crisis: Managing Development and Risk
  21. 21. 21 Chapter 2 key Benefits of the winning Bank ModelWe identified three major benefits of the winning client’s line of business and entrepreneurship issues, tobank model: the top of the small business client’s expectations list.1. It contributes to higher small business client satisfaction, especially since the crisis. As shown in Figure 13, 58% and 52% of our surveyed2. It better leverages a cross-selling strategy, which is banks put these expectations high on their list of at the heart of retail banks’ development efforts in most important expectations. Easy access to credit the small business market. and brand image and reputation are also important expectations for small business clients.3. It enhances a bank’s ability to develop and use risk management best practices. A highly empowered RM profile, furthermore, will help satisfy clients, who usually prefer to deal directlyThE winning BAnk MoDEl BETTER with a decision-maker rather than a messenger andSATiSFiES SMAll BUSinESS CliEnTS, appreciate receiving a quick answer concerning theirESpECiAlly SinCE ThE CRiSiS credit requests. Our winning bank model meets allThe global financial crisis has pushed closeness with of these expectations.customers (proximity, availability, stability of therelationship), along with an understanding of eachFigure 13 key small business client expectations, and impact of the crisis, according to bankers (% of banks interviewed) Close relationship (proximity, availability, stability) 29% 19% 10% 58% Understanding of customers’ line of 36% 6% 10% 52% business and entrepreneurship issues Easy access to credit (fast decisions, 10% 19% 18% 47% clear granting conditions) Reputation and brand image 16% 19% 8% 43% Service quality 6% 3% 23% 32% Pricing competitiveness (credit, operations and ow, etc) 9% 13% 22% Customisation of 16% 5% 21% products and services Pricing and billing 3% 8% 11% readability and simplicityCustomised multi-channel relationship 3% 5% 8% I 1st expectation I 2nd expectation I 3rd expectation Increasing importance due to the crisis Decreasing importance due to the crisisSource: Capgemini analysis from bank interviews, 2010.
  22. 22. 22 Small Business Banking and the Crisis: Managing Development and RiskThE winning BAnk MoDEl EnABlES A BAnk billing policies through such innovations as fixed-To lEvERAgE iTS CRoSS-SElling STRATEgy price contracts, to satisfy clients’ expectations forBecause it can make the most of a deep understanding more simplicity, clarity, and transparency.of client needs, the winning bank model fully supportscustomer-centric development strategies currently Another key success factor to help banks developfavoured by retail banks, aiming at becoming the business and make the most of cross-selling is the useclient’s principal bank in a win-win relationship. Of of relevant commercial/relational segmentation aimedthe banks we interviewed, 73% viewed cross-selling at designing the best commercial organisation toor up-selling as a priority, both on professional and serve various client categories (such as RM generalistsprivate offers, as shown in Figure 14. or specialists, professional or private relationships, or a multi-channel model). Almost 80% of theRMs are clearly at the forefront of cross-selling banks we interviewed said they use commercial/strategies. Among all marketing levers for cross- relational segmentation. To do so effectively requiresselling, sales action is the first to succeed in this availability and relevancy of client data. Generallystrategy, well ahead of product improvement or speaking, we found 40% of surveyed banks followedpricing innovation, as shown in Figure 15. a segmentation sophistication trend (versus 20% of banks intending to simplify their segmentation andAs an illustration of good practice in sales action for 40% expecting to keep it unchanged).credit, defining pre-approved credit lines for someclients can create demand. To develop sales in current As illustrated in Sidebar 2, banks are using differentaccount operations and transactions, many banks types of commercial/relational segmentation, built onare proposing unbundled offers, or simplifying their diverse criteria.Figure 14 Development strategies favoured by banks (% of banks interviewed) 20%* New products PRODUCT INNOvATION and services 68%* CROSS-SELLING ON PROFESSIONAL OFFERS 36%* 48%* Existing products CROSS-SELLING ON 73%** CONqUEST and services PRIvATE OFFERS 45%* UP-SELLING Existing clients New clientsSource: Capgemini analysis from bank interviews, 2010.* Percentage of banks that selected this strategy as a priority.** 73% of banks surveyed have selected at least one of the three cross-selling or up-selling strategies.Figure 15 Cross-selling marketing levers by category of product (% of banks interviewed) sales action product improvement billing or pricing innovation price reductionShort-term financing (working capital, factoring, etc) 75% 48% 20% 8%Current account operations and transactions 78% 43% 23% 3%Long-term financing and investment loans 80% 70% 15% 10%Insurance products 67% 61% 17% 0%Deposits and savings 68% 38% 16% 10% More than 75% of respondents 50–75% of respondents 25–49% of respondents Less than 25% of respondentsSource: Capgemini analysis, 2010.
  23. 23. KEY BENEFITS OF THE WINNING BANK MODEL 23 Sidebar 2 Illustrations of commercial/relational segmentationObjective: Commercial/relational segmentation aims at defining client clusters with homogeneous needs and expectations, allowing banks to design for each:ƒ An optimal commercial organisation (RM’s role and client portfolio size)ƒ An appropriate relational model and policies (e.g. development objectives, and frequency of contact, types of contact, and channels of contact) Criteria: Segmentation criteria differ greatly from bank to bank, and may include: ƒ Client’s line of business (e.g. farmer, retailer, liberal ƒ Nature of the relationship professional, small enterprise, association) and market (business or personal banking) segment (e.g. health, building, financial, food, trade) ƒ Client’s annual banking income or ƒ Client’s annual turnover profitability (current and potential)ƒ Client’s level of risk (e.g. credit rating) ƒ Seniority of the relationshipƒ Enterprise life cycle (creation, development, transmission) ƒ Complexity of the business cycleillUSTRATion 1: SEgMEnTATion AiMED AT DEFining DiFFEREnTiATED RElATionAl AnD CoMMERCiAl poliCiES segmentation associated Commercial policy sample actions Support client investments, create barriers preventing High banking income Maintain loyalty transfer of business to competitors, cross-sell value- and cash only or low credit risk added products and services Low banking income Support client investments, review when possible Raise profitability and cash only or low credit risk pricing for selected products, increase cross-selling Evaluate economic outlook, require more collateral, High credit risk Protect credit risk reduce exposure, review credit pricing very high credit risk Impose stricter credit conditions and require more Reduce exposure or exit or risk of payment default collateral, stop proactive commercial actionsillUSTRATion 2: SEgMEnTATion AiMED AT DEFining DiFFEREnTiATED RElATionAl/BUSinESS MoDElS segmentation associated relational/business Model High annual turnover and high total credit ƒ Face-to-face management outstanding with all banks ƒ One RM handles client’s business and personal banking Low annual turnover and high total credit ƒ Remote management: relationship almost entirely managed by phone and e-mail outstanding with all banks ƒ Two different RMs handle client’s business and personal banking ƒ Remote management: relationship almost entirely managed by phone and e-mail Low total credit outstanding with all banks ƒ One RM handles client’s business and personal bankingillUSTRATion 3: SEgMEnTATion BASED on CliEnT’S linE oF BUSinESS AnD AiMED AT oRgAniSing SAlES FoRCES segmentation associated Commercial organisation Farmers RM specialist* or RM generalist Liberal professionals RM specialist* or or branch manager (BM) Other micro-sized enterprises RM specialist* or Small-sized enterprises RM specialist* * For branches or business centres with large client portfolios.Source: Capgemini analysis, 2010; bank interviews by Capgemini, 2009; bank presentation at Efma SME Business Banking Conference (Amsterdam, October 2009).
  24. 24. 24 Small Business Banking and the Crisis: Managing Development and RiskThE winning BAnk MoDEl EnhAnCES A As shown in Figure 17, banks use three primaryBAnk’S ABiliTy To DEvElop AnD USE BEST types of information about the borrower and the loan:pRACTiCES in RiSk MAnAgEMEnT (A) external financial information (mainly basedWe identified the following best practices to perform on financial statements, rating when available, and,on risk management in the small business market: more rarely, business planning to integrate predictiveƒ Wider usage and sophistication of rating-based analysis); (B) external qualitative information about credit scorecards to support underwriting and the borrower (such as experience, competitive monitoring decisions. position, and the like); and (C) internal informationƒ Enhanced proactive management of the performing about the borrower’s relationship and behaviour credit portfolios. with the bank (liquidity analysis, revenues and profitability, proportion of past-due payments orƒ Improved collection policy, with development of NPL history, utilisation of credit lines, and so on). soft collection (or “amicable” collection). This last criterion (C) is considered a good indicator by which to assess a client’s situation, and 62% of theThanks to its strengthened RM role, the winning banks we surveyed see it as the most important sourcebank model raises the quality of gathered data for scoring.(producing more relevant credit scores and reporting)and improves the quality of solutions and negotiations With the crisis, however, the backward-lookingwith clients for proactive credit management and analysis of financial statements and the observationcollection. of clients’ behaviour and liquidity profile are less relevant. In times of crisis, most small businessThe effective credit risk management system of this clients’ financial statements and liquidity ratiosmodel makes the most of credit scorecards’ accuracy deteriorate. The problem for banks today is to decideand relevance, improves the quality of early-warning whether or not these difficulties are only temporary.indicators, and enables integrated loan follow-up for This is why banks will succeed only if they integrateefficient collection, throughout the loan’s life. The more predictive considerations into their decisionmodel also helps banks develop a set of analyses and process, such as business planning approaches.reporting that supports credit policy governance. However, it is quite difficult, costly, and time-Wider usage and sophistication of rating-based consuming to extend the use of business planning toscorecards to support the underwriting decision a lot of clients. This is why it is important to rely onHaving relevant scorecards is a key competitive RMs’ client knowledge and proximity to select clientsadvantage for underwriting, especially when it comes requiring a thorough business planning mass-market credit. In the small business market, Beyond that, banks should think about developingassembling sufficient statistics is all the more difficult innovative tools, processes, and RM training to use inbecause it is a fragmented market. This obviously business planning approaches in a cost-effective way.provides a big advantage to leading banks. Enhanced proactive management of performingSince the beginning of the crisis, most banks have credit portfoliosincreased their use of scoring tools; 69% of the banks By proactive management, we mean quicklywe surveyed told us that underwriting decisions are identifying loans showing the first signs ofnow or soon will be supported by new scoring tools, deterioration. Only in this way can a bank agreeversus 63% before the crisis (see Figure 16). with a client on a solution and prevent these loans from becoming non-performing. Today, proactiveTo increase the relevance of scoring tools, the management of a credit portfolio is becoming evenbest retail banks will continue to search for more more crucial, because the crisis has produced a largeaccurate and diversified data. Almost half of the increase in both the cost of risk and the number ofbanks we surveyed believe that scoring improvement non-performing loans in the small business among the most important factors to ensureunderwriting effectiveness, and 53% of surveyedbanks plan to strengthen the data underlying theirclients’ credit scores.
  25. 25. KEY BENEFITS OF THE WINNING BANK MODEL 25Figure 16 Use of scoring tools in underwriting decision-making (average % of loans of banks interviewed) 12% 13% 63% 69% 51% 56% 37% 31% Before the crisis Current or expected I Decision fully automated I Decision supported by rating and/or other scoring tools I Decision made manually (expert’s judgment)Source: Capgemini analysis from bank interviews, 2010.Figure 17 Most important criteria (among three types) used by surveyed banks to establish their borrowers’ credit scores (% of banks interviewed) External information about the borrower and the loan Internal and behavioural information about the borrower a. b. C. Financial information Qualitative information ƒ NBI and profitability ƒ Annual financial statements ƒ Line of business (P&L, balance sheet, etc) ƒ Past and current behaviour on lending (e.g. ƒ Business experience, payment defaults, past-due payments, NPL) and ƒ Business plan particularly on similar projects current account (e.g. increased use of credit lines) ƒ Credit bureau notations ƒ Competitive position C. Internal information (about borrower’s 62% relationship and behaviour with bank) A. External nancial information 53% B. External qualitative information 30%Source: Capgemini analysis from bank interviews, 2010.
  26. 26. 26 Small Business Banking and the Crisis: Managing Development and RiskWe believe all banks should proactively manage their the existing portfolio and coach the RMs. Evenportfolios, but 11% of the banks we surveyed still do further, 46% of interviewed banks are relying onnot, as shown in Figure 18. We think banks should proactive management indicators in the MBO andeven extend the scope of proactively managed loans. incentive systems to improve RM effectiveness.On average, the banks we surveyed are planning toproactively manage 43% of their total performing Improved collection policy with soft collectioncredit portfolios in the near future. (or amicable collection) Despite banks’ efforts to deal with deteriorating loansEfficient proactive management relies on having as early as possible through proactive managementmore accurate early-warning indicators that help the of a performing portfolio, the crisis has pushedbank quickly identify borrowers facing difficulties more and more small business clients, even the most(note the nature of EWIs used by banks in Figure valuable of them, towards insolvency difficulties.19). Because of the crisis, 55% of surveyed banks planto improve their EWIs. Traditional collection policies, usually focused on simply recovering money, have their limits and couldThe main challenge for banks is to identify whether break the client relationship. Soft collection is athe difficulties facing their clients are structural consistent answer to one of the key success factors forand long-term, or temporary. RMs are in the best small business banking—to care about the customer’sposition to assess their clients’ difficulties. Top banks business success—and also an answer to governments’will involve their RMs to manage their portfolios pressure on banks to support the economy.proactively through situation analysis, solutiondesign, and negotiation with the client. As a result, many banks have implemented soft collection processes, which aim at returning clientTo do so, it is essential that banks raise RMs’ relationships to “normal” without losing money whileability to proactively manage their portfolios. Here maintaining a trustful relationship. Since the crisisagain, they need to increase the number of contacts began, 43% of banks surveyed have softened theirwith clients and keep close tabs on their clients’ existing collection policies (see Figure 21).economic situations to detect quickly the first signsof difficulty. Most RMs must be trained on this Generally speaking, a soft collection process can beissue and have a clear understanding of the potential applied to all clients as an intermediate stage betweensolutions to suggest to clients, whether those solutions proactive management and collection. Yet 13% ofbe payments postponement or even loan rescheduling banks surveyed use soft collection only for their most(see used solutions in Figure 20). valuable clients.To help them succeed with deteriorating loans, manybanks have implemented dedicated resources—usually attached to a risk organisation—to monitor
  27. 27. KEY BENEFITS OF THE WINNING BANK MODEL 27Figure 18 Banks proactively managing their Figure 19 Types of early-warning indicators (Ewis) performing credit portfolios with small banks use or soon will use business, versus those that do not (% of banks interviewed) (% of banks interviewed) 11% Increasing past- 81% due payments Increasing use of 69% credit lines Decreasing number or amounts of transactions 48% 89% and operations I Banks with dedicated process to manage Other 29% loans showing rst signs of deterioration I Banks with no dedicated processSource: Capgemini analysis from bank interviews, 2010. Source: Capgemini analysis from bank interviews, 2010.Figure 20 Solutions to manage performing loans Figure 21 Extent of collection policy softening showing first signs of deterioration (% of banks interviewed) (% of banks interviewed) Additional 79% 14% collateral required Credit term extended 74% 29% 57% Non-payment 64% period granted Other 36% I Not at all I Slightly I Signi cantlySource: Capgemini analysis from bank interviews, 2010. Source: Capgemini analysis from bank interviews, 2010.
  28. 28. 28 Small Business Banking and the Crisis: Managing Development and RiskAccording to our experience, having a dedicated Even for a bank with an efficient and dedicated softorganisation in charge of soft collection is most collection organisation, it is important to maintain,efficient, and 60% of banks surveyed also consider as long as possible, the RM’s contact with the clientthis as an important factor in soft collection before transfer to a collection unit (according to 57%effectiveness (see Figure 22). Having a dedicated of banks interviewed).organisation lightens RMs’ workload, and it is doneby dedicated staff with specific empathy and listeningskills that are different from the skills required inthe traditional collection process. That is why somebanks choose former RMs to handle their softcollections. This dedicated organisation is most oftenattached either to the risk organisation (true for 56%of surveyed banks) or to the commercial organisation.Figure 22 key levers in soft collection (% of banks interviewed) Create a dedicated structure for “soft collection” (different from 27% 33% 60% “traditional” collection) Maintain as long as possible contact 30% 27% 57% with the relationship manager Develop relational skills (such as listening and empathy) of the collection staff 18% 30% 48% Slow down the transfer from one stage to another (delinquency to non- 6% 15% 21% performing loan, NPL to bad debt, etc) Other 12% I Most important lever I Quite important leverSource: Capgemini analysis from bank interviews, 2010.