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Socialstratification12 1

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THEORETICAL
PERSPECTIVES ON SOCIAL
STRATIFICATION
Functionalism
&
Marxism
The Functionalist Perspective
 Considers how stratification systems help to maintain
order and stability in society.
 Important Question: “How far does social stratification
meet the functional prerequisites?”
Talcott Parsons
 Believed order, stability, cooperation in society are based
on value consensus
 Stratification systems derive from common values
 Rank in society will be based on successful performance in
terms of society’s values
 Rewards based on such ranking
Parsons cont’d
 He suggested that stratification is an inevitable part of human
society
 General belief that stratification systems are just and right since
they are an expression of shared values
 He believed that Western Industrial societies will display
tendencies to arrogance on part of winners; resentment on part of
some losers
 Conflict kept in check by consensus value system that justifies
unequal distribution of rewards
Kingsley Davis & Wilbert Moore
 Advanced controversial argument on value of S.S.
 Perhaps most influential of functionalist paradigm seeing
social inequality as vital to operation of society
 Argued that SS has beneficial consequences for society
 all societies share certain functional prerequisites that
must be met if society is to survive
Kingsley Davis & Wilbert Moore
cont’d.
 Very imp. F P - effective role allocation & performance
 all roles must be filled by those best able to perform
them
 necessary training for jobs must be undertaken & roles
performed well
 positions of high day-to-day responsibility that demand
special abilities are most functionally significant

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Socialstratification12 1

  • 2. The Functionalist Perspective  Considers how stratification systems help to maintain order and stability in society.  Important Question: “How far does social stratification meet the functional prerequisites?”
  • 3. Talcott Parsons  Believed order, stability, cooperation in society are based on value consensus  Stratification systems derive from common values  Rank in society will be based on successful performance in terms of society’s values  Rewards based on such ranking
  • 4. Parsons cont’d  He suggested that stratification is an inevitable part of human society  General belief that stratification systems are just and right since they are an expression of shared values  He believed that Western Industrial societies will display tendencies to arrogance on part of winners; resentment on part of some losers  Conflict kept in check by consensus value system that justifies unequal distribution of rewards
  • 5. Kingsley Davis & Wilbert Moore  Advanced controversial argument on value of S.S.  Perhaps most influential of functionalist paradigm seeing social inequality as vital to operation of society  Argued that SS has beneficial consequences for society  all societies share certain functional prerequisites that must be met if society is to survive
  • 6. Kingsley Davis & Wilbert Moore cont’d.  Very imp. F P - effective role allocation & performance  all roles must be filled by those best able to perform them  necessary training for jobs must be undertaken & roles performed well  positions of high day-to-day responsibility that demand special abilities are most functionally significant
  • 7. Measurement of Importance of Positions  Degree to which position is functionally unique (no other position can perform function satisfactorily)  Degree to which other positions are dependent on particular position
  • 8. Education Systems  Ed. Systems stratifies by using meritocracy, reward talent and ability  Education is a means of role allocation  Important to process by which persons are selected and placed according to capacities/abilities  Reward most academically inclined with high qualifications/certification used to enter functionally most imp. occupations.
  • 9. Kingsley Davis & Wilbert Moore cont’d.  SS - the mechanism for insuring effective role allocation & performance  Unequal rewards & privileges had to be attached to different positions in society.  No need for SS if members of society did not differ in important respects  There is difference in abilities therefore talent and positions differ in importance for survival and maintenance of society
  • 10. Kingsley Davis & Wilbert Moore cont’d.  Some positions more functionally imp. than others, thus more rewards  One main function of stratification - to match most able people with functionally most important positions, by giving high rewards  encourages persons to aspire to these jobs  by distributing resources unequally, society motivates each person to aspire to more significant work, to work better, harder, longer, leading to more productive society
  • 11. What Does All of this Imply?  That a productive society is a meritocracy - a system of SS based on personal merit  Such societies use rewards to encourage effort and develop talents  In pursuit of meritocracy, society promotes equality of opportunity while mandating inequality of rewards  SS therefore “a device by which societies insure that the most important positions are conscientiously filled by the most qualified”  SS is a functional necessity for societies
  • 12. Marxist Perspective  Stratification :  a divisive structure;  mechanism by which some exploit others;  not a system that fosters integration & furthering of collective goals.
  • 13. Marxist Analysis  All stratified societies consist of 2 major social groups in which power of ruling class emanates from ownership & control of MOP  Such societies marked by oppression and exploitation (conflict of interest)  Legal and political systems instruments of ruling class domination
  • 14. Marxist Analysis cont’d.  Systems of Stratification originate from relationships of groups to MOP (class stratification)  Mutual dependency of 2 classes not an equal relationship - exploiter & exploited  Marxists question role allocation and meritocracy & challenge that all roles are performed by those best able to perform them
  • 15. Samuel Bowles & Herbert Gintis  Ask who are those persons who are sifted & sorted?  Ask who are these best qualified persons that school system produces to match most important jobs?  Question functionally most important jobs by asking who decides or by what criteria are some jobs deemed more important than others?