CAPE SOCIOLOGY Age and sex structure[1]

1,392 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, News & Politics
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,392
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
23
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

CAPE SOCIOLOGY Age and sex structure[1]

  1. 1. Section 3 • • • • • Presentation of data Sex ratios Son preference Dependency ratios Population aging
  2. 2. Age and sex structure • This is the distribution of the population by age and sex within a given year. • The structure of the population is worth studying because different groups in the population have different needs. • Different groups are more at risk of experiencing a particular demographic event. ( females 15-49 the risk of a maternal death) • Help us to identify and predict changes in the population over time. Provides us with a quantitative basis for policy analysis and formulation • Education, social security,health, employment, housing. •
  3. 3. • Age data is collected by single year of age • But present in 5 year cohorts to make analysis easier • • • • 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19
  4. 4. Groups in the population • • • • • • • • • • • <1 year infant 0-18 children 10-19 adolescents 15-24 youth 10-24 young people 0-14 dependent young 15-64 working age 65+ or 60+ elderly 60-74Young elderly 75+ Old elderly 80+ disabled elderly
  5. 5. Classification of populations • Populations may be classified based on the relative proportions in the young and elderly cohorts • Young population has 35% of its members under age 15 years • Old population has 10% of its members over 65 years. • Problem may arise when a population exhibits both characteristics. • The median age allows for a mutually exclusive classification.
  6. 6. Median age • The age that divides the population in half. • • • • Population with a median age < 20 years is a young population 20-29 is a population of intermediate ages 30+ is an old population
  7. 7. Sex ratio • This is the proportion of males in the population per every 100 females • Cal: males Females X 100 Barbados 1960 105519 X 100 126811 83.20 males per 100 females Barbados 1990 118556 X100 128730 92.0 males per 100 females
  8. 8. Patterns in sex ratio • Shows a constant pattern for most countries • Usually highest at birth, about 102-105 males per 100 females. • Although more male babies are born than female babies, the probability of dying at birth (< 1 year) is higher for male children • This causes the sex ratio to fall steadily with increasing age. The sex ratio is almost even in the early adult years and decreases further in old age. • During old age the ratio is at its lowest as life expectancy is on average 3-5 years higher for females • Men mature slower and die earlier than women
  9. 9. CHANGES IN THE SEX RATIO IN JA Age group Total 1943 1970 1991 2000 93.7 95.5 96.2 96.9 0-4 100.3 101.6 103.2 103.7 5-14 100.8 101.0 101.3 102.6 15-29 87.8 92.8 95.1 96.0 30-44 97.2 89.1 93.7 92.2 60+ 76.2 83.9 84.1 86.5
  10. 10. Determinants • • • • • Affected by relative patterns of Births Deaths Migration However, these patters must show greater selectivity of a given sex (biased towards M or F) • Major wars also lower the sex ratio
  11. 11. Son preference • The tendency for parents to prefer male children over female children • where son preference is strong, mortality for girls in the second to fifth year of life after birth is higher than that of boys • Where fertility is high couples may continue to have more children than they want as they attempt to get a son. • Where fertility is low selective abortions and female infanticide is common
  12. 12. Manifestations of son preference • • • • • Female infanticide Female neglect Boys being better fed Given earlier medical attention for illness Other favorable attention
  13. 13. Why are male children preferred over females? • Old age security • Needed to perform certain religious rituals • Status
  14. 14. Countries • In Eastern Asia, son preference is strong and fertility low. • In China and Republic of Korea 110 boys per 100 females. • At least 60 million girls who would otherwise be expected to live are missing due to selective abortions or relative neglect • Laws in India and China ban sex-determination testing . • Need to increase the status of women
  15. 15. Dependency ratio • This is a measure of the economic burden shared by the working age population. • the ratio gives us the number of persons in the population who are theoretically dependent on the working age population for economic and social support.
  16. 16. Population groups • youth dependents- persons 0-14 yrs • Old age dependents – persons 65+ yrs • Working age population – 15-64 yrs
  17. 17. Calculation • Total dependency ratio Population 0-14 + 65 and over X100 Population 15 – 64 Barbados 1980 78.0 dependents per 100 persons in the working age group
  18. 18. Youth dependency ratio • Youth dependency ratio Population 0 -14 X100 Population 15 – 64 Barbados 1980 52.6 youth dependents per 100 persons in the working age group
  19. 19. Aged dependency ratio • Aged dependency ratio Population 65 and over Population 15 – 64 X100 Barbados 1980 25.4 dependents per 100 persons in the working age group
  20. 20. Problems • Not all persons in the dependent age group are dependent • Some children are working • Elderly may still be employed or live on their savings. • Some persons in the working age group are not working
  21. 21. Advantages • Gives a rough estimate of the economic burden shared by the working age pop • compare changes in populations over time • Gives us an indication of how rapidly the population is aging • Young populations will have a high dependency ratio • A ratio of 1 means that the working age population is carrying a heavy load. Especially

×