Chapter 3: The Resolution of Disputes—The Courts and Alternatives to Litigation
The Courts  <ul><li>Criminal & Civil Functions </li></ul><ul><li>Trial & Appellate Functions </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Cou...
Criminal Function  <ul><li>In a criminal case, the state (crown) prosecutes the accused who is convicted only when state p...
Civil Function  <ul><li>Private individuals ask the court to adjudicate a dispute. </li></ul><ul><li>Court's decision is b...
Court Hierarchy  <ul><li>Supreme Court of Canada </li></ul>Provincial Courts Superior Trial Court of the Province Federal ...
Process of Civil Litigation  <ul><li>Pre-trial Proceedings </li></ul><ul><li>Pleadings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Writ of summo...
Pre-trial Proceedings/2  <ul><li>Discovery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Of documents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examination of wi...
Question for Discussion  <ul><li>The pre-trial process is long and involved and adds greatly to the expense of having a ma...
Trial  <ul><li>Plaintiff presents case </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Burden of proof rests with plaintiff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Judgment  <ul><li>Costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Party and party v. Solicitor/client costs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Remedies </...
Enforcement  <ul><li>Examination in aid of execution </li></ul><ul><li>Seizure of property </li></ul><ul><li>Garnishment o...
Question for Discussion  <ul><li>Consider the phrase, “justice delayed is justice denied,” and apply it to the process of ...
Regulatory Role of Government  <ul><li>Executive branch of government is responsible for regulatory bodies created by legi...
Administrative Law  <ul><li>Administrative tribunals include government regulatory bodies or their agents that make decisi...
Authority of Decision Maker  <ul><li>Rule of law - government officials must rely on legislation to authorize their acts. ...
Statutory Interpretation  <ul><li>Determination of whether a rule has been properly imposed is based on judicial interpret...
Statutory Interpretation/2  <ul><li>Rules of interpretation include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Golden rule - reasonable interp...
Rules of Natural Justice  <ul><li>Fair hearing - complainant must have notice and opportunity to be heard </li></ul><ul><l...
Judicial Review  <ul><li>Courts review - not the decision but the process by which it was made. </li></ul><ul><li>All othe...
Judicial Review/2  <ul><li>Hears challenges to authority of decision maker </li></ul><ul><li>Questions of procedural fairn...
Methods of Judicial Review  <ul><li>Prerogative Writs - available when a duty to act fairly has not been met </li></ul><ul...
Methods of Judicial Review/2  <ul><li>Declaratory Judgment - declaration of the law </li></ul><ul><li>After decision has b...
Methods of Judicial Review/3  <ul><li>Injunction - a court order to stop breaking the law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inappropri...
Privative Clauses <ul><li>Statutes contain provisions that make it difficult for courts to conduct reviews </li></ul><ul><...
Question for Discussion  <ul><li>Administrators who make decisions affecting individuals must follow minimum standards of ...
Alternative Dispute Resolution  <ul><li>Process for resolving disputes outside of the courts </li></ul><ul><li>Main method...
Alternative Dispute Resolution/2  <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parties of dispute maintain control of the solu...
Alternative Dispute Resolution/3  <ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Courts have more power to extract informatio...
Negotiation  <ul><li>Parties discuss the problem with each other in order to find a solution </li></ul><ul><li>Process req...
Mediation  <ul><li>Neutral outsider helps party settle the dispute </li></ul><ul><li>Communication facilitated by mediator...
Mediation/2  <ul><li>Not the process to use when there is an imbalance of power or where blame or liability for injury mus...
Arbitration  <ul><li>Parties agree on an independent third party to make a decision that will be binding on the disputants...
Arbitration/2  <ul><li>Decision of arbitrator is binding on the parties </li></ul><ul><li>Decision cannot be appealed alth...
Question for Discussion  <ul><li>Consider the advantages and disadvantages of alternative dispute resolution processes. </...
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The Resolution Of Disputes

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The Resolution Of Disputes

  1. 1. Chapter 3: The Resolution of Disputes—The Courts and Alternatives to Litigation
  2. 2. The Courts <ul><li>Criminal & Civil Functions </li></ul><ul><li>Trial & Appellate Functions </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Courts </li></ul><ul><li>Provincial Courts </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative Tribunals </li></ul>
  3. 3. Criminal Function <ul><li>In a criminal case, the state (crown) prosecutes the accused who is convicted only when state proves the case beyond a reasonable doubt </li></ul><ul><li>Victims are merely witnesses at the trial </li></ul><ul><li>The state assesses and enforces penalties </li></ul><ul><li>Victims are not compensated for their injuries </li></ul>
  4. 4. Civil Function <ul><li>Private individuals ask the court to adjudicate a dispute. </li></ul><ul><li>Court's decision is based on balance of probabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Court assesses liability and can enforce judgment </li></ul><ul><li>Compensation and remedies imposed on defendant </li></ul>
  5. 5. Court Hierarchy <ul><li>Supreme Court of Canada </li></ul>Provincial Courts Superior Trial Court of the Province Federal Trial Court Court of Appeal of the Province Federal Court of Appeal
  6. 6. Process of Civil Litigation <ul><li>Pre-trial Proceedings </li></ul><ul><li>Pleadings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Writ of summons (plaintiff) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appearance (defendant) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statement of claim / Statement of defence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Counterclaim </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chambers Applications </li></ul>
  7. 7. Pre-trial Proceedings/2 <ul><li>Discovery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Of documents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examination of witnesses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Payment into court </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose of Pre-trial Proceedings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To focus dispute and provide opportunity and encouragement to settle before trial </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Question for Discussion <ul><li>The pre-trial process is long and involved and adds greatly to the expense of having a matter decided by the court. </li></ul><ul><li>Consider the advantages and disadvantages of the various steps and suggest how they might be simplified. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Trial <ul><li>Plaintiff presents case </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Burden of proof rests with plaintiff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross examination </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rules of evidence must be followed </li></ul><ul><li>Defendant presents case </li></ul><ul><li>Jury decides on the facts </li></ul><ul><li>Judge determines the law </li></ul>
  10. 10. Judgment <ul><li>Costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Party and party v. Solicitor/client costs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Remedies </li></ul><ul><li>Damages (monetary compensation) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>General and special </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Punitive damages may also be awarded </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Accounting, injunction, specific performance </li></ul><ul><li>Declaration of the applicable law </li></ul>
  11. 11. Enforcement <ul><li>Examination in aid of execution </li></ul><ul><li>Seizure of property </li></ul><ul><li>Garnishment of wages </li></ul><ul><li>Attachment of debt </li></ul><ul><li>Prejudgment remedies </li></ul><ul><li>Injunction </li></ul><ul><li>Limitation periods </li></ul>
  12. 12. Question for Discussion <ul><li>Consider the phrase, “justice delayed is justice denied,” and apply it to the process of civil litigation in Canada. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex procedure of court adjudication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expense and delay because of an overburdened court system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do the process and the system serve or defeat the ends of justice? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Regulatory Role of Government <ul><li>Executive branch of government is responsible for regulatory bodies created by legislation. </li></ul><ul><li>Complaints against the actions of regulatory agencies are usually heard by administrative tribunals. </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative tribunals must function by the rules of natural justice </li></ul>
  14. 14. Administrative Law <ul><li>Administrative tribunals include government regulatory bodies or their agents that make decisions affecting the rights of others. </li></ul><ul><li>The rights of people facing an administrative tribunal are covered by administrative law </li></ul>
  15. 15. Authority of Decision Maker <ul><li>Rule of law - government officials must rely on legislation to authorize their acts. They cannot interfere with a person’s rights by virtue of their position. </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra vires v. Intra vires </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authority of decision maker may be challenged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Validity of statute or regulation can be determined by the courts </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Statutory Interpretation <ul><li>Determination of whether a rule has been properly imposed is based on judicial interpretation of the statute. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Statutory Interpretation/2 <ul><li>Rules of interpretation include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Golden rule - reasonable interpretation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mischief rule - specific purpose of rule identified </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strict interpretation - must be clear and unambiguous </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Rules of Natural Justice <ul><li>Fair hearing - complainant must have notice and opportunity to be heard </li></ul><ul><li>Heard by decision maker - the people making the decision must be the same ones hearing the evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Impartiality - no bias on part of decision makers </li></ul>
  19. 19. Judicial Review <ul><li>Courts review - not the decision but the process by which it was made. </li></ul><ul><li>All other remedies must be exhausted before courts will hear the case </li></ul>
  20. 20. Judicial Review/2 <ul><li>Hears challenges to authority of decision maker </li></ul><ul><li>Questions of procedural fairness </li></ul><ul><li>Decision and remedy go beyond power set out in legislation </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions that involve errors of law </li></ul>
  21. 21. Methods of Judicial Review <ul><li>Prerogative Writs - available when a duty to act fairly has not been met </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Certiorari nullifies administrator’s decision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prohibition - prevents a decision being made </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandamus - forces a decision </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Methods of Judicial Review/2 <ul><li>Declaratory Judgment - declaration of the law </li></ul><ul><li>After decision has been made, court may assess damages, grant compensation </li></ul>
  23. 23. Methods of Judicial Review/3 <ul><li>Injunction - a court order to stop breaking the law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inappropriate when damage has already occurred </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government officers may be immune from injunctions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Specific statute may modify rights. </li></ul><ul><li>Judicial review process may be streamlined by statute </li></ul>
  24. 24. Privative Clauses <ul><li>Statutes contain provisions that make it difficult for courts to conduct reviews </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Courts deem them not to apply when the board has gone beyond its jurisdiction or authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Court retains right to interpret statutory provisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject also to the Charter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Court will only interfere where serious problem </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Question for Discussion <ul><li>Administrators who make decisions affecting individuals must follow minimum standards of procedural fairness. </li></ul><ul><li>Is this appropriate or should administrators remain unfettered by these rules and procedures that are more akin to the courts? </li></ul>
  26. 26. Alternative Dispute Resolution <ul><li>Process for resolving disputes outside of the courts </li></ul><ul><li>Main methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mediation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arbitration </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Alternative Dispute Resolution/2 <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parties of dispute maintain control of the solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disputants determine and schedule resolution processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimal costs associated with process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Matters remain private </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preserves good will </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Alternative Dispute Resolution/3 <ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Courts have more power to extract information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fair process cannot be ensured </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decisions do not follow precedent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agreements may not be enforceable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No public record of dispute or decision </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Negotiation <ul><li>Parties discuss the problem with each other in order to find a solution </li></ul><ul><li>Process requires cooperation and compromise </li></ul><ul><li>Good communication skills </li></ul><ul><li>May be conducted through representatives </li></ul><ul><li>Process may enhance relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Agreement may not be legally binding </li></ul>
  30. 30. Mediation <ul><li>Neutral outsider helps party settle the dispute </li></ul><ul><li>Communication facilitated by mediator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Finds common ground </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourages concessions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mediator does not make decision </li></ul><ul><li>Mediation sometimes required before court will hear case </li></ul><ul><li>Court may affirm mediated resolution </li></ul>
  31. 31. Mediation/2 <ul><li>Not the process to use when there is an imbalance of power or where blame or liability for injury must be determined </li></ul><ul><li>Parties must be willing to disclose information </li></ul><ul><li>Forms of mediated process include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mini-trials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summary jury trials </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Arbitration <ul><li>Parties agree on an independent third party to make a decision that will be binding on the disputants </li></ul><ul><li>Often required in contract </li></ul><ul><li>Arbitrators are specialists in the matter under dispute </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure must be fair </li></ul>
  33. 33. Arbitration/2 <ul><li>Decision of arbitrator is binding on the parties </li></ul><ul><li>Decision cannot be appealed although procedure may be reviewed by the courts </li></ul><ul><li>Process is private, faster, less costly than litigation, but more formal and more adversarial than mediation </li></ul>
  34. 34. Question for Discussion <ul><li>Consider the advantages and disadvantages of alternative dispute resolution processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Would a businessperson benefit from using such a process in a dispute over the delayed delivery of material required in the manufacturing process? </li></ul>

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