Transformational generative grammar

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This is my presentation I used for my TG report in EDL 201. I hope you find it useful.

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Transformational generative grammar

  1. 1. Transformational-Generative Grammar
  2. 2. Transformational-Generative Grammar • Idealized representation of the knowledge possessed by a native speaker of a language(Thomas & Kintgen, 1974)
  3. 3. Transformational-Generative Grammar T GArrangement ElementsGrammatical Rules
  4. 4. The Farmer in the Dell
  5. 5. Any speaker of language can produce andunderstand an infinite number of sentences.(Fromkin, Rodman, & Hyams, 2003)
  6. 6. Featuresof Syntax (Payne, 2006)
  7. 7. Features of Syntax1. Constituency2. Hierarchical Structure3. Linear Word Order4. Syntactic Category
  8. 8. 1 Linear Word Order1. John saw the winners.2. The winners saw John.A. The 2012 OlympicsB. 2012 the OlympicsC. Olympics 2012 the
  9. 9. 2 Constituency1. [Good girls] and boys2. Good [girls and boys]
  10. 10. Constituency For Sale: An antique desk suitable for lady with thick legs and big drawers.(Fromkin, Rodman, & Hyams, 2003)
  11. 11. Memory Challenge1. 092141827892. 93206083. 11194. 97805216715075. EDL201
  12. 12. ConstituencyExample: NPSimple: the dogComplicated: the big black dog that always barks at me as I try to vainly sneak past the junkyard on my way home from piano lessons
  13. 13. Constituent Boundary Test Where does the click occur?RESULTS:• Easy = Constituent Boundary• Inside the Boundary = Thought of Boundary (Fromkin, Rodman, & Hyams, 2003)
  14. 14. 3 Hierarchical Structure
  15. 15. 4Syntactic Categories • NP • Adj • VP •N •S •P • AP • Adv • Det • Aux (Fromkin, Rodman, & Hyams 2003)
  16. 16. Phrase/Constituent Structure Tree or Phrase Marker• Graphic representation• Evaluated, Validated, and Sanctioned by PS rules (Payne, 2006)
  17. 17. Phrase Structure (PS) Rules• Ways of representing idealized patterns of constituent structure• Specify constituent arrangement• Recursive (Payne, 2006 & Rowe & Levine, 2009)
  18. 18. Recursion Repetition = Productivity (Rowe & Levine, 2009)
  19. 19. Phrase Structure (PS) RuleExample: LABEL → CONTENTS NP → Det N the dog → the dog (Fromkin, Rodman, & Hyams, 2003 & Payne, 2006)
  20. 20. 1. NP → Det (AP) N (PP)a small picture of Mary
  21. 21. Try this• the Olympic winners on the stage
  22. 22. 2. NP → NP Conj NPthe cat and the dog
  23. 23. 3. VP → V (NP) (PP) (Adv) (CP) believes that the student knows the answer
  24. 24. Try these• slept• smile shyly• fled from the house
  25. 25. 4. S → NP Aux VP The men fled from the house.
  26. 26. Try these• The boat sailed the river.• The wind swept the kite into the sky.
  27. 27. Transformational Rules (T-rules) • Derive a new structure • Can be optional or obligatory(Fromkin, Rodman, & Hyams, 2003 & Rowe and Levine, 2009)
  28. 28. T-rules1. Deletion2. Insertion3. Movement4. Substitution
  29. 29. 1 Movement Transformation• Particle –I took off my shoes. –I took my shoes off.• Topicalization –I love Kris. –Kris, I love.
  30. 30. 2 Deletion Transformation• Imperative – You come here. – Come here.• Verb Phrase – If he says he will study for the test, he will study for the test. – If he says he will study for the test, he will.
  31. 31. 3 Insertion Transformation• He knew she was here.• He knew that she was here.• *He won the race is history.• That he won the race is history.
  32. 32. 4 Substitution Transformation• Prominalization –Tony thought that Tony was the best. –Tony thought that he was the best.
  33. 33. TG and Teaching WritingNO to...• Mimicking textbook sentences• Teacher correctionYES to...• Student’s language creativity• Student’s judgment development (Cleary & Linn, 1993)
  34. 34. Chomsky’sLinguisticsContributions (Lester, 1973)
  35. 35. Habit Formation vs. Creativity
  36. 36. Knowledge of vs. Knowledge about
  37. 37. Universal Grammar (Fromkin, Rodman, & Hyams 2003)
  38. 38. Language Acquisition Device
  39. 39. BibliographyCleary, L. M., & Linn, M. D. (1993). Linguistics for teachers. New York: McGraw-Hill.Fromkin, V., Rodman, R., & Hyams, N. M. (2003). An introduction to language (7th ed.). Boston: Thomson, Heinle.Google Images. (n.d.). Google. Retrieved August 7, 2012, from http://www.google.com.ph/imghp?hl=fil&tab=wiLanguage Acquisition Device | TeachingEnglish | British Council | BBC. (n.d.). TeachingEnglish | British Council | BBC. Retrieved August 7, 2012, from http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/knowledge- database/language-acquisition-device
  40. 40. BibliographyLasnik, H., Depiante, M. A., & Stepanov, A. (2000). Syntactic structures revisited: contemporary lectures on classic transformational theory. Cambridge, Mass. [u.a.: MIT Press.Lester, M. (1973). Readings in applied transformational grammar (2nd ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Murcia, M., & Freeman, D. (1983). The grammar book: an ESL/EFL teachers course. Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House.Ouhalla, J. (1994). Introducing transformational grammar: from rules to principles and parameters. London: E. Arnold.
  41. 41. BibliographyPayne, T. E. (2006). Exploring language structure: a students guide. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Rowe, B. M., & Levine, D. P. (2009). A concise introduction to linguistics (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon.Thomas, O., & Kintgen, E. R. (1974). Transformational grammar and the teacher of English: theory and practice (2nd ed.). New York: Holt Rinehart and Winston.Widdowson, H. G. (1996). Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press."facebook.com." Facebook. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Aug. 2012. <https://www.facebook.com/photo.php? fbid=397305633656134&set=a.1640888 APA formatting by BibMe.org.

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