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Here is a step by step procedure in creating a research

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  1. 2. <ul><li>The students shall be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Listen to a song and relate its meaning to the topic . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use library materials effectively. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Submit a research paper </li></ul></ul>Bull’s Eye
  2. 3. Knowledge Scan Write ALBERT if the statement is TRUE. Write EINSTEIN if the statement is NOT TRUE. Write your answer on the space provided. __________1. The first step in conducting a research is gathering data. __________2. Outlining is one way of organizing data. __________3. Research papers do not include documentations of references. __________4. APA and MLA are styles in creating a bibliography. __________5. A researcher should choose a topic of his interest. __________6. A research paper is composed of an introduction, a body, and a conclusion. __________7. Data obtained from survey and interview are not acceptable research tools. __________8. A researcher should consider revisions in the completion of his paper. __________9. The library is the only source of information. __________10. Note taking skills should be considered in researching. If you are done, see next page for the correct answers.
  3. 4. Knowledge Scan : Key <ul><li>Einstein </li></ul><ul><li>Albert </li></ul><ul><li>Einstein </li></ul><ul><li>Albert </li></ul><ul><li>Albert </li></ul><ul><li>Albert </li></ul><ul><li>Einstein </li></ul><ul><li>Albert </li></ul><ul><li>Einstein </li></ul><ul><li>Albert </li></ul>How’s your score? Did you receive a high mark? If yes, congratulations! If not, I bet we have to review about research papers. Are you ready? If you are, see next page.
  4. 5. Hyper Link : Mast-EAR Piece <ul><li>Get the CD entitled “Heal the World” from your facilitator. </li></ul><ul><li>We will try to do three rounds of listening tasks for this song: </li></ul><ul><li>Listen to the song. If you know the lyrics of the song, you may sing with it. (Appreciative listening) </li></ul><ul><li>Try to fill in the gaps of the incomplete lyrics of the song. Get a copy of the worksheet from your facilitator. Once you are done ask your facilitator to check your work. (Informative Listening) </li></ul><ul><li>Listen to the song try to relate its message to our topic: research. (Evaluative Listening) </li></ul>
  5. 6. “ Heal the world Make it a better place For you and for me And the entire human race” According to the song, how can you help in the “healing” of the world? Do you need to spend a lot? Do you need to sacrifice your life? How will you use your research paper to “heal’ the world? Your answers are correct! With a research, you may help in the gradual healing of the world. Before you could heal the world, let us first talk about a research. Hyper Link : Mast-EAR Piece
  6. 7. Tab of Ideas : Research <ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A systematic study or investigation of something for the purpose of answering questions posed by the researcher </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The effort to find new information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process of knowing the known to the unknown </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Main Purpose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To discover the truth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Steps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selecting a topic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gathering data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizing data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Writing the paper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Documenting the paper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparing the copy </li></ul></ul>We are going to talk about the steps one a time. For the meantime, this is the overview of what are we going to talk about.
  7. 8. Tab of Ideas : Selecting a topic <ul><li>A topic must… </li></ul><ul><li>Examine a significant issue </li></ul><ul><li>Address an educated reader </li></ul><ul><li>Take a reader to another level of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Have a serious purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Seriousness requires analysis of issues, argues from a position, and explains significant details. </li></ul><ul><li>Do’s </li></ul><ul><li>Topic of your interest. </li></ul><ul><li>Choice: </li></ul><ul><li>A topic that you have little knowledge and that you want to know more. </li></ul><ul><li>A topic that is entirely new to you. </li></ul><ul><li>Topic with enough and easily available reference materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Topic that is worth investigating. </li></ul><ul><li>Topic that can be investigated within a given period of time. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Tab of Ideas : Selecting a topic <ul><li>Don'ts </li></ul><ul><li>Controversial topics (Should the Abu Sayyaf be considered as terrorist?) </li></ul><ul><li>Highly technical topics (Recent Development in Cancer) </li></ul><ul><li>Developed from a single source topics (How to make candles?) </li></ul><ul><li>Very recent topics (You will be faced with the dilemma of reference shortage) </li></ul><ul><li>Where to find topics </li></ul><ul><li>Select from these general areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Current events (Parliamentary system for the Philippines) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education (Additional year in high school) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social issues (Parents who work overseas) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Science (Cloning) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology (Cell phones) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use personal experiences (TV viewing) </li></ul><ul><li>Surf the internet </li></ul>
  9. 10. Practice : Topic Selection A. Below is a list of broad topics. Check the one in which you are interested. 20. Christianity 10. Child labor 19. Space exploration 9. Government 18. Motion pictures 8. Music 17. Mythology 7. Animals 16. Plastic Surgery 6. Politics 15. Journalism 5. Sports 14. Poetry 4. Computer 13. Television 3. Leadership 12. Novel 2. Religion 11. Folk songs 1. Languages
  10. 11. Practice : Topic Selection B. List ten topics that are suitable for a high school research paper. If you are done, ask your facilitator to check your work. Hooray for you!
  11. 12. Tab of Ideas : Narrowing down the topic Why narrow down a topic?  Broad subjects cannot be adequately discussed (Remember that you will only be given a specific period of time)  Broad subject equals cluttered paper (Keep in mind that a research paper must be a thorough discussion of essential aspects of a topic) Notice how a subject can be narrowed down by stages: 1. Poetry 2. Lyric Poetry (limitation by type) 3. Filipino Lyric Poetry (limitation by country) 4. Filipino Lyric Poetry in English (limitation by language) 5. Jose Garcia Villa’s Poems (limitation to a single writer) 6. Metaphors in Jose Garcia Villa’s Lyric Poems (limitation by particular aspect)
  12. 13. Practice : Narrowing down A. Narrow down the following topics: If you are done, ask your facilitator to check your work. Good! You are learning fast! 10. Dance 9. Hypnotism 8. Health 7. Astronomy 6. Movies 5. Pollution 4. Television 3. Music 2. Women 1. Government
  13. 14. Practice : Narrowing down B. Look at the Practice Exercise B (Topic Selection). Choose three topics from your list. Narrow down your chosen topics. Topic One Topic Two Topic Three If you are done, ask your facilitator to check your work. That’s better than ever!
  14. 15. Practice : Narrowing down C. Look at the Practice Exercise B (Narrowing down). Choose one from the three narrowed topics. Formulate five questions about the topic that you want to be answered at the end of your research. Example: Title: Hypnotism: Science or Magic? 1. What is hypnotism and how is it done? 2. Who can hypnotize? 3. How do scientists regard hypnotism? 4. What are the uses of hypnotism? 5. What are the effects of hypnotism? Title: _______________________ 1. _________________________ 2. _________________________ 3. _________________________ 4. _________________________ 5. _________________________ If you are done, ask your facilitator to check your work. Make a decision on which topic you would want to work on. Then, present your topic to your teacher for his or her approval.
  15. 16. Tab of Ideas : Gathering data Developing a Working Bibliography Make a list of sources that you plan to read before drafting the paper. This will help you: a. locate books and articles for note taking b. identify source of in-text citations c. write your final reference page Doing Preliminary Search Make a preliminary reading of your topic in an encyclopedia or another reference material. You may use your five questions from the Practice Exercise C (Narrowing down) as guide for your preliminary search. Remember that the encyclopedia serves as your preliminary source. You still need to consult other books for a more thorough study.
  16. 17. Practice : Preliminary Search You will have a field trip! Go to the library now. Look up your chosen topic in an encyclopedia and conduct a preliminary reading of your topic. You may use the five questions from Practice Exercise C (Narrowing Down) as guide for your preliminary search. If you are done, ask your facilitator to check your work. A job well done!
  17. 18. Tab of Ideas : Using tentative bibliography Now, let us focus on how you will make your tentative bibliography. These bibliographies will help you look for your reference materials easier. Creating a tentative list will also prepare you for the documentation. Here is how a tentative bibliography for a book looks like: NE 932 1 S 14 Zenaida, Miranda The Art of Teaching McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1998 pp. 109 - 111 Code Number Number Author Title Publication Data Location See next page for more examples
  18. 19. Here is how a tentative bibliography for an encyclopedia article looks like: Code Number Title of Article Title of the Book Publication Data Location See next page for more examples Code numbers will be useful to you when you start taking notes. Code numbers will save you the trouble of writing out the full title and author on your note cards. Tab of Ideas : Using tentative bibliography 2 “ Pottery” The World Book Encyclopedia World Book-Childcraft International, 1998 Vol. 15, pp. 508-508 f
  19. 20. Here is how a tentative bibliography for a magazine/newspaper article looks like: Canong, Katrina 3 “ Irony” Reader’s Digest , September 2000 pp. 105-109, 115-119 Code Number Title Magazine, date Location The same format is used for a newspaper magazine; however, for newspaper articles, it is not required to write the author’s name. Author Select reference materials that will be useful to you. Discard those that give insufficient, irrelevant, or duplicate information. Tab of Ideas : Using tentative bibliography
  20. 21. Practice : Tentative Bibliography You will have another round of field trip in the library! Skim each reference material. Make a tentative bibliography for each reference material you find informative and helpful for your research. Make five to ten tentative bibliographies. You may also visit libraries around the vicinity to accomplish this task. If you are done, ask your facilitator to check your work. Today we made great progress!
  21. 22. Tab of Ideas : Collecting Data Here are the best sources of data for your research. You may use any or all of the following sources. Data Sources Library Internet Interview Survey
  22. 23. Tab of Ideas : Survey Questionnaire Survey A list of planned written questions related to a specific topic, with space provided for the response to each question, intended for submission to a number of persons for reply Types of Questions 1. Multiple-choice 2. Scale A. Rating 1. Verbal 2. Ranking 3. Attitude 4. Checklist See next page for an example of each type
  23. 24. Tab of Ideas : Survey 1. Multiple-Choice Example: Which of these major newspapers use Developmental Journalism the most? a. Philippine Daily Inquirer b. Manila Bulletin c. Philippine Star d. Manila Standard 2. Scale-Rating-Verbal Example: Does your teacher come to class on time? Always Often Moderately Seldom Never
  24. 25. Tab of Ideas : Survey 3. Scale-Rating-Numerical Example: 4. Ranking Example: Rank-order the following reasons of student’s low grades. Use 1- most important; 2 - next most important; and so forth until 4 - least important. _____ Broken family _____ Financial problem _____ Drug addiction _____ Peer pressure Does your teacher come to class on time? 5 (Always) 4 (Often) 3 (Moderately) 2 (Seldom) 1 (Never)
  25. 26. Tab of Ideas : Survey 5. Attitude Example: 6. Checklist Example: What is the most interesting subject in school? (Check one). _____ English _____ Makabayan _____ Math _____ Filipino _____ Science _____ Elective Poor Fair Good Very Good Excellent 3. How will you rate your teacher’s performance? Never Rarely Sometimes Most of the time Always 2. How often does your teacher come late? Strongly Disagree Disagree Undecided Agree Strongly Agree 1. Reading is important
  26. 27. Tab of Ideas : Survey Considerations Avoid unfamiliar words: technical words, abbreviations, or acronyms. This is not acceptable: Is conflagration dangerous? Questions should be short and simple. This is not acceptable: Why do you prefer to be Alone at home than to be with other people like your family and friends? Include all possible alternatives on the issue. Example: Which university in the Philippines is the best? (You should include all Philippine universities). Avoid “2 in 1” questions. Ask one question at a time. This is not acceptable: Will you vote for Aquino or Escudero ? Yes or No Instructions should be clear Example: Choose the best answer. (Indicate what to do with the answer (e.g. encircle, underline))
  27. 28. Tab of Ideas : Sampling Simple Random Choose your respondents through draw lots. For instance, if there are 60 students in a class and you only need 20 Write the names of the students in pieces of papers and use draw lots. Cluster Choose your respondents through members of groups (cluster). For example, if you need first year students, you may choose ten students to represent each class. Systematic Choose your respondents through a rule. For instance, in a class, you will choose students whose student numbers are even numbers (rule). You may formulate your rule. Sampling is the means of selecting the right person to respond to your questions.
  28. 29. Practice : Survey Now that you are equipped with the knowledge about survey, you may now conduct a survey for your research topic. First, formulate ten questions. Second, ask your facilitator to check your survey questionnaire. Third, do the sampling. Last, conduct your survey. Good luck! Do not forget to smile while approaching your respondents. If you are done, see next page for instructions on what to do about your survey results.
  29. 30. Tab of Ideas : Tabulation of Data Steps in the Tabulation of Data 1. Make a table that looks like this: 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 D C B A
  30. 31. Tab of Ideas : Tabulation of Data 2. The numbers represent the question in your survey. The letters above are the choices. The data on the first row may vary depending on your choices. 3. Each answer of the respondent will be represented by a tally mark. 4. Tally all the answers and get the total per question. 5. Get the percentage of all the response. For example, in item 1, 3 out of 50 answered A. So, you will divide 3 by 50 times 100. The answer is 60%. Use the same equation for the other items. 6. You are now ready to present and analyze the results. See next page for data presentation
  31. 32. Tab of Ideas : Presentation of Data Graph - Most common method of presenting analyzed data Parts 1. Title of the graph - what is the graph or table about 2. Body - contains the graph itself 3. Analysis - brief explanation of the graph See next page for a sample The total number of graphs depends on the number of questions you have.
  32. 33. Table 1: Percentage of Respondent’s Time Using Computer This table shows that 26 out of 40 students or 65% of the students said that they sometimes use a computer in doing their English assignment; while 1 or 2.5% of the students said that he or she never use a computer in doing his or her English assignment. There is also one or 2.5% of the students who did not answer the question. Tab of Ideas : Presentation of Data
  33. 34. Practice : Presentation of Data Present your data using graphs. Use your survey questionnaires for this task. Follow the steps in the data tabulation and presentation. If you have questions, feel free to ask your facilitator. Good luck! If you are done, see next page for the tabulation of results. You certainly did well today!
  34. 35. Tab of Ideas : Interview Classification of an Interview 1. Closed or structured (there are prepared choices for each question) 2. open-ended or unstructured (the interviewee gives first-hand answers) Persons Involved 1. Interviewer (researcher) 2. Interviewee (source of information) Interview Conversation between two parties to gather valid and reliable information through the responses of the interviewee to a set of questions that are planned or arranged systematically
  35. 36. Tab of Ideas : Interview Steps in the Interview 1. Planning a. Selecting the venue *Interviewee should be comfortable of the chosen venue b. Selecting the respondents c. Selecting the type of question d. Preparing of the instrument Instrument – Guide questions e. Pre-testing of the instrument 2. Establishing rapport Rapport – friendly approach to the interviewee *The interviewee should be comfortable with you so that he will be comfortable of giving straight answers.
  36. 37. Tab of Ideas : Interview 3. Carrying out the interview *Do not expect that all questions will be answered. *Give the interviewee enough time to think. *Do not give answer for the interviewee. 4. Recording the interview *Seek the permission of the interviewee for the recording purpose. 5. Closing the interview *Say thank you. *Assure the interviewee that all data will be treated with confidentiality. 6. Analyzing and interpreting of the results *The results should be treated objectively. *Use the results that are helpful for the research and discard the results that are not useful.
  37. 38. Practice : Interview Interview two to three persons for your research. Formulate questions for each. Ask your facilitator to check your questions. Once your questions are approved, you may conduct your interview. Good luck! If you are done, ask your facilitator to check your work. You’ve got that down pat!
  38. 39. Tab of Ideas : Organizing Ideas Research paper should contain four essential elements: Purpose of the paper (discover, interpret, explain, analyze, argue) Intended audience (general or specific) Position as writer (informer or advocate) Preliminary thesis statement or opening hypothesis (may be revised or altered) Knowing these research ingredients will give direction to your investigation
  39. 40. Tab of Ideas : Making an Outline Pointers on making an outline 1. Place the title above the outline. Capitalize the first word and all other words except articles, prepositions, and conjunctions. 2. Use a numbering-lettering system consistently, following each number and letter with a word. Main Topics – Roman Numerals Chief Subtopics under each main topics – Capital Letters Details under subtopics – Arabic Numerals Subdivision of details – Small Letters 3. There must always be more than one subtopic because subtopics are divisions of the topic above them. When you divide you must have at least two resulting parts, because you cannot divide anything into less than two divisions.
  40. 41. Tab of Ideas : Making an Outline 4. Show the divisions of items through indentation. Indentations are made so that all letters or numbers of the same kind will come directly under one another in a vertical line. 5. Use either a topic outline or a sentence outline but not the two kinds together. 6. When an item is too long to be completed on a single line, begin the second line even with the first. Be consistent in preserving sharp levels of indentation. 7. Use parallel grammatical structure in parallel parts of the outline.
  41. 42. Tab of Ideas : Making an Outline Correct Outline Form I. First main topic A. Another detail about I B. Another detail about I 1. Detail about B 2. Another detail about B a. Minor detail about 2 b. Minor detail about 2 1. 2. II. Second main topic A. Important detail about II 1. Detail about A 2. Another detail about A B. Another important detail about II If the outline contains not only main topics and important details but not minor details as well, it is said to be a multi-level outline.
  42. 43. Tab of Ideas : Making an Outline I. First main topic II. Second main topic III. Third main topic IV. Fourth main topic When the outline contains main topics only it is said to be a mono-level or one level outline. I. First main topic A. B. II. Second main topic A. B. C. When it contains main topics and important details about the main topics it is said to be a bi-level or two level outline.
  43. 44. Tab of Ideas : Making an Outline An alternative form is the decimal outline which divides material by numerical divisions. 1. 1.1. 1.1.1. 1.1.2. 1.1.3. 1.2. 1.2.1. 1.2.2. 2. 2.1. 2.2. See next page for a sample outline of a research paper
  44. 45. Tab of Ideas : Making an Outline Teaching as a Career Thesis or main idea : Teaching is suitable career to those who like people and get satisfaction from helping them. I. Introduction II. Teacher qualifications A. Academic preparations 1. Education courses a. Bachelor of Science in Elementary Education b. Bachelor of Science in Education 2. Non-education courses 3. Graduate programs B. Eligibility C. Other qualifications Continue to next page
  45. 46. Tab of Ideas : Making an Outline III. Teacher’s duties A. Preparing for classes B. Guiding the learning of students C. Checking student progress D. Setting a good example for students E. Other duties IV. Job opportunities and employment practices A. Public schools B. Private schools V. Conclusion
  46. 47. Practice : Outline Prepare a topic outline for your research. If you have questions, feel free to ask your facilitator. Good luck! If you are done, ask your facilitator to check your work. You make it look easy!
  47. 48. Tab of Ideas : Taking Notes After organizing your ideas, you can now go into note-taking. How to Take Notes 1. Read the material through before writing. Take notes only after you have made up your mind what information you need. 2. Use 3”X5” or 4”X6” cards or small sheets of paper for your notes. 3. Write on one side only for easy reference. 4. Place the topic on the left hand corner. Write only facts related to this topic on the card. Include the pages where the information was taken. The topics on your cards will help you make an outline of your paper. 5. On the upper right hand corner, write the number of the source card that identifies the book or magazine in which you got your notes. (code number)
  48. 49. Tab of Ideas : Taking Notes 6. Do not copy sentences word for word. Say the ideas in your own words. 7. Use abbreviations, contractions, or symbols which are familiar to you, but avoid those which you do not use regularly. Do not, for instance, put down abbreviations such as sc. And then have to wonder when you read your notes whether you meant school or science. 8. Be sure to use quotation marks when copying the exact words of the author. Acknowledge all quotations by giving the name of the author in footnotes. 9. Copy names, places, and figures accurately and closely, so that you don’t have to look them up again, See next page for a sample
  49. 50. Tab of Ideas : Taking Notes Robots – Advantages 4 1. Substitution for a human being 2. Sleepless, operates 24/7 3. No absenteeism 4. No time lost for accidents 5. Cost unchanged at $25,000 while wages up by 13% a year 6. Can increase productivity 30% 7. Can lower defects from 5% rate 0.1% rate p. 123 Topic Code Number Location
  50. 51. Practice : Outline Start making note cards for your research. Keep note cards in a box or in your computer file. If you have questions, feel free to ask your facilitator. Good luck! If you are done, ask your facilitator to check your work. That’s a terrific output!
  51. 52. Tab of Ideas : Writing Here are the parts of a research paper: 1. Introduction The introduction establishes the nature of your paper. It contains the following: a. Subject - identified, defined, and limited to one issue b. Background - relevant historical data and few sources that touch the specific issue c. Problem - identified and explained d. Thesis statement - establishes the direction of the study Thesis Statement - expands your topic into a scholarly proposal, one that you will try to prove and defend in your paper - should provoke a response from the reader Example: Unconventional clothes and hairstyles show the youth’s defiance of standards set by society.
  52. 53. Tab of Ideas : Writing 2. Body - Contains pertinent information you want to put across to your reader - Includes facts you have discovered about your topic and the significance of these facts Elements of a Body a. Analysis - classify major issues and provide careful analysis of each in defense b. Presentation - provide sensible statements and support them with evidence c. Paragraphs - use a variety of paragraph development such as comparison and contrast, narration, cause and effect, process, analogy, etc. 3. Conclusion - Includes brief discussion of beliefs based on your reasoning and findings presented - Affirms or rejects hypothesis - Discusses and interprets findings - Gives answers to the problem - Offers recommendation for action or new research
  53. 54. Practice : Writing Write your introduction, body, and conclusion based on the tips given on the previous pages. If you have questions, feel free to ask your facilitator. Good luck! If you are done, ask your facilitator to check your work. Your output is good!
  54. 55. Tab of Ideas : Drafting A. Drafting the paper First draft - should be full and complete * You may add and delete details * Provide wider margins and line spacing for corrections and revisions B. Revising the draft 1. Forget your paper for a week. * Rest week will allow you to recharge and refresh your mind. 2. Resume. 3. Read the paper thoroughly and critically. 4. Pay attention to parts that need correction, modification, or addition.
  55. 56. Practice : Writing Revise your paper thoroughly and critically. Also, revise your work based on the corrections that your facilitator gave. If you have questions, feel free to ask your facilitator. Good luck! If you are done, ask your facilitator to check your work. Your output is getting better!
  56. 57. Tab of Ideas : Documenting Bibliography - list of the references you used in preparing the research paper, arranged alphabetically by author’s name Various forms of APA bibliographic entries could be found at . Various forms of MLA bibliographic entries could be found at Choose the bibliographic style that you are more comfortable in using. Remember to use one style for all bibliographic entries
  57. 58. Practice : Documenting Write a bibliography for your research paper. If you have questions, feel free to ask your facilitator. Good luck! If you are done, ask your facilitator to check your work. You did a great job!
  58. 59. Tab of Ideas : Preparing the copy Be sure that your final copy contains the following parts: 1. Title page 2. Body or text 3. Bibliography Guidelines in preparing the final copy 1. Use standard 8 1/2” X 11” bond paper. 2. Type on only one side of the paper. 3. Use double space in the text. 4. Leave a margin of 1 ½ inches on the left side and 1 inch from the top edge of the paper. The last line on any page should be 1 inch from the bottom edge. 5. Do not put a page number on the first page. 6. Begin numbering on page 2. Place the Arabic number at the upper right hand corner of the page, 1 inch from the top edge. See next page for a sample title page
  59. 60. Tab of Ideas : Preparing the copy Teaching as a Career A Research Paper Presented to The Class of Miss Zenaida Taruc-Miranda National College of Business and Arts In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Subject English II by Katrina Tejero Canong October 16, 2009
  60. 61. <ul><li>Prepare the final copy of your research paper. </li></ul><ul><li>Submit it on the day set by your teacher. </li></ul>Mind Check If you are done, ask your facilitator to check your work.
  61. 62. The Best Research AwarD Goes to you! Congratulations!