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Complete guide to f1 2011 world championship


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The most complete off-line guide to 2011 Formula One world championship; circuits, teams, drivers, regulations, statistics, tips to understand the fastest sports car ever.

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Complete guide to f1 2011 world championship

  2. 2. CONTENTS4 - FIA Formula One World Championship - Calendar and event time start information5 - 2011 Circuits Albert park melbourne Sepang international circuit kuala lumpur Shanghai international circuit Istambul park Circuit de catalunya barcelona Circuit de monaco monte-carlo Circuit gilles villeneuve montreal Valencia street circuit Silverstone grand prix circuit Nurburgring Circuit Hungaroring sport rt budapest Circuit de spa francorchamps Autodromo nazionale di monza Singapore street circuit Suzuka international racing course Korean international circuit yeongam Jaypee circuit Yas Marina circuit Autodromo jose’ carlos pace interlagos44 - 2011 Teams Red Bull Racing McLaren International Ltd Scuderia Ferrari Mercedes Grand prix Lotus Renault GP Williams F1 Force India F1 Sauber Motorsport Scuderia Toro Rosso Lotus F1 Racing Hispania Racing F1 Team Virgin Racing76 - 2011 Drivers Sebastian Vettel Mark Webber Jenson Button Lewis Hamilton Fernando Alonso Felipe Massa Niko Rosberg Michael Schumacher Nicklaus Heidfeld Vitaly Pagina 2
  3. 3. Rubens Barrichello Pastor Maldonado Adrian Sutil Paul Di Resta Kamui Kobayashi Sergio Perez Sebastien Buemi Jaime Alguersari Heikki Kovalainen Jarno Trulli Narain Karthikeyan Tonio Liuzzi Timo Glock Jerome D’Ambrosio122 - 2011 season changes124 – 2011 Main Rules and regulations127 - Understand Formula one Aerodynamics Brakes Cornering Driver fitness Engine / Gearbox Flags Fuel Kers Logistics Overtaking Pit stops Race control Race strategy Steering wheel Suspension Testing The race start Tyres147 - Statistics153 - GlossaryTHANKS TO MAIN SOURCESwww.fia.com Pagina 3
  4. 4. FIA Formula One World ChampionshipCalendar and event time start Pagina 4
  5. 5. 2011 Pagina 5
  6. 6. ALBERT PARK MELBOURNECircuit 5.303 kmLaps Pagina 6
  7. 7. Circuit InfoThe Albert Park circuit is a temporary track which is only used once a year to host the AustralianGrand Prix - typically the opening round of the season.The track made up of sections of the public road that circles the man-made Albert Park lake. Thesections of road used were completely rebuilt in 1996 to ensure consistency and smoothness ofthe surface. As a result the circuit is considered the smoothest of the road circuits currently inuse.Although fast, the track is thought of as to be easy to drive, however the flat terrain around thelake combined with the design means the circuit has very few proper straights making overtakingparticularly hard.Despite talks of a night race to make viewing easier for Europeans, a compromise was reachedbetween the FIA and the race organisers and the 2009 race started at 5pm local time and proveda great success. As a result the contract was extended, meaning Albert Park will host theAustralian Grand Prix until Pagina 7
  9. 9. Circuit InfoIn the 1990s Dr Mahathir Mohamad, Malaysias prime minister, declared that by 2020 the countryshould be a fully industrialised nation. Part of this plan involved the construction of a race circuit -the result was the Sepang International Circuit.Designed by "the architect of F1", Hermann Tilke, Sepang is considered one of the most technicalcircuits on the calendar and is a firm favourite with the drivers. The combination of long, high-speed, straights and tight corner complexes were designed with overtaking in mind.Situated 60km from the Malaysian capital of Kuala Lumpur and close to the citys internationalairport, the circuit also hosts the Malaysian Motorcycle Grand Prix as well as the A1 GP race.But the governments early enthusiasm waned and little money was pumped into the venue. Norhas the racing ever attracted more than passing interest from the locals.Shortly before the 2007 grand prix, Bernie Ecclestone hit out at the facility saying it had become"shabby" and describing it as "an old house that needs a bit of redecorating". Circuit bossesadmitted it was in need of $60 million to bring it up to scratch.The circuit currently has a contract to host the race until 2011 and although the organisers hadexpressed an interest in making the event a night race, plans have since been Pagina 9
  10. 10. SHANGHAI INTERNATIONAL CIRCUITCircuit 5.451 kmLaps Pagina 10
  11. 11. Circuit InfoThe new circuit in China was designed by Hermann Tilke to be a circuit for the new millennium,with impressive spectator facilities and a media centre which spans the start finish straight - onopening it was billed as the venue all others should aspire to. It features Tilkes trademark longstraight followed by a tight hairpin.When it opened it was the most expensive F1 circuit costing around US$459million, funded by agovernment-backed joint-venture company. In September 2007, the former manager of the circuitYu Zhifei was convicted of embezzlement in a corruption scandal which included several seniorcommunist party officials who also lost their jobs.The shape of the circuit is designed to look like the Chinese character Shang which means highor above, and there are also other echoes of traditional Chinese architecture, including the teambuildings set on stilts in the lake.The land that the circuit sits on was formally swampland and had to be reclaimed before anybuilding could begin; despite this the circuit was constructed in just 18months with a team of3000 engineers. The inaugural race in 2004 was won by Rubens Barrichello driving a Ferrari, andin 2006 the circuit saw Michael Schumachers final grand prix victory before his retirement at theend of the Pagina 11
  12. 12. ISTAMBUL PARKISTAMBULCircuit 5.388 kmLaps Pagina 12
  13. 13. Circuit InfoOne of a batch a modern-day circuits designed by Hermann Tilke, Istanbul Park is a high speedtrack where F1 cars can reach speeds of over 205mph. Istanbul is one of only four current F1circuits that runs anti-clockwise, the others being Singapore, Brazil and the new track in AbuDhabi.Although the circuit does not feature Tilkes trademark long straight followed by a hairpin toencourage overtaking there are still numerous opportunities throughout the lap. The mostchallenging corner on the track is the multi-apex turn eight where drivers experience a load of 5G.The circuit offers excellent spectator facilities with a capacity of 130,000 people; the race howeveris often badly supported by spectators. Felipe Massa is the most successful driver in the shorthistory of the circuit, winning three consecutive races between 2006 and Pagina 13
  14. 14. CIRCUIT DE CATALUNYA BARCELONACircuit 4.655 kmLaps Pagina 14
  15. 15. Circuit InfoThe circuit was originally intended to host its first grand prix in 1992 to coincide with BarcelonasOlympic Games, but it was ready a year ahead of schedule. The track is a favourite for out-of-season F1 tests as well as hosting the annual Spanish Grand Prix.When the circuit was first used overtaking was rife as cars were able to get very close through thelast two corners and make use of the slipstream on the straight. Since the changes to theaerodynamics of the cars, however, the turbulence caused from the rear wings has spoiled thisopportunity. In 2007 the second to last corner was replaced with a slow chicane in an effort toimprove overtaking, but it doesnt seem to have been successful.Although the circuit has received criticism for lack of race action over the years, there have been anumber of memorable moments at the track. In 1991, Ayrton Senna and Nigel Mansell werefighting tooth and nail for second place, racing side by side down the front straight in amemorable image. It was Mansell who eventually triumphed, winning the inaugural Catalunyarace, while Senna finished fifth. In 2006 Fernando Alonso became the first Spanish F1 driver towin at his home Pagina 15
  16. 16. CIRCUIT DE MONACO MONTE-CARLOCircuit 3.340 kmLaps Pagina 16
  17. 17. Circuit InfoProbably the most famous and recognisable circuit on the F1 Calendar, racing has taken place inthe principality since 1929, it was included in the first Formula One world championship season in1950 and has been an ever-present feature on the calendar since 1955.The race is considered as a must win race for drivers, as the race is not only technically difficultbut also extremely glamorous and high profile. The circuit is one of the most demanding on thecalendar with no margin for error as the Armco barriers that line the track are at some points justinches from the cars. Triple world champion Nelson Piquet described the race as similar to tryingto cycle round your living room.The circuit itself has remained virtually unchanged from its original, the Rascasse turn was slightlyaltered for the 2003 race but the major change was in 2004 when the formerly cramped pitcomplex was replaced and spectator capacity was increased.Prior to the race, construction of the circuit takes around six weeks, dismantling takes just three.Monaco is the only race on the calendar not to have a podium; the traditional winners celebrationtakes place on the steps of the royal box.Despite the dangerous nature of the circuit and although there have been numerous seriousaccidents there has to date only been one death, 1967 when Lorenzo Bandini died as result ofburns suffered. The most famous accident must be that of Alberto Ascari, one of only two peopleto end up in the harbour.Graham Hill was often referred to as Mr Monaco as he won five races in the 1960s; this recordwas beaten by Ayrton Senna who holds the record of six wins at the Pagina 17
  18. 18. CIRCUIT GILLES VILLENEUVE MONTREALCircuit 4.361 kmLaps Pagina 18
  19. 19. Circuit InfoFormerly called the Ile Notre-Dame Circuit, the first Canadian Grand Prix was held at its currentlocation, a partly man-made island in the Saint-Lawrence River, in 1967. The track was renamedin 1982 to honour the late French-Canadian driver Gilles Villeneuve who claimed his maidenFormula One victory at the venues inaugural F1 race in 1978.Known for its tricky hairpin bends and the kilometre-long straight, the circuit is also famous for its"Wall of Champions". Situated at the end of the very long high-speed straight, the chicane hascaught out many drivers over the years, notably in 1999 when three world champions, MichaelSchumacher, Jacques Villeneuve and Damon Hill all fell foul of the tricky chicane.The first lap is notorious for accidents, the cars are funnelled from the grid into the tight Sennacurves, and so frequent is the safety car deployed that teams actually prepare strategies with oneor two safety car periods in mind.The 2009 Canadian Grand Prix was dropped from the calendar following the failure to reach adeal with F1 CEO Bernie Ecclestone. The government refused to pay the increased fee that theywere faced with on renewal of the contract. However, after further discussions a deal wasbrokered that saw the popular event making a return to the 2010 Pagina 19
  20. 20. VALENCIA STREET CIRCUITCircuit 3.376 kmLaps Pagina 20
  21. 21. Circuit InfoThe deal to bring the European Grand Prix to Valencia was signed in 2007 between BernieEcclestone and promoters Valmor Sport Group, headed by ex-motorcyclist Jorge Martinez Aspar.The deal will see the race in Valencia for seven years, despite Ecclestone previously insisting noEuropean country should host more than one grand prix a season, with Barcelona hosting theSpanish race.The new road circuit is based in Valencias harbour area which was heavily rebuilt as a home forthe Americas Cup Yacht race which was hosted by the city in 2007 and 2009.There seems to be an unwritten rule in modern F1 that you cant design a new circuit without theexpertise of Herman Tilke, and Valencia is no exception. He designed infrastructure and buildingsincluding a 140-metre long swing bridge that links the two sides of the harbour and allows thetrack to make the best use of the natural features. Although essentially a road course, thedesigners have tried to incorporate all the safety features of a permanent circuit.The circuit was tested for F1 by running a meeting at the end of July 2008 which featured SpanishF3 and International GTs; the F3 race was won by new local F1 hero Jamie Alguersuari. The firstgrand prix was held nearly a month later, and was won by Ferraris Felipe Massa from pole, whowas later fined 10,000 euros for nearly colliding with Adrian Sutils car in the pit lane but retainedhis victory.Ticket sales for the race were sluggish for the second race in 2009 but were stimulated on thenews that Michael Schumacher would return to F1 to deputise for the injured Massa. Theorganisers refused to refund tickets after he cancelled his Pagina 21
  22. 22. SILVERSTONE GRAND PRIX CIRCUITCircuit 5.141 kmLaps Pagina 22
  23. 23. Circuit InfoLike many UK historic tracks, Silverstone was built on the site of an old RAF airfield with theoriginal circuit making use of the three runways in a triangle formation, so common to World WarTwo airfields.The first race at the circuit is reported to have taken place in September 1947 between localresident Maurice Geoghegan and 11 friends who raced on a two-mile ad-hoc circuit. The racewas plagued by sheep wandering onto the circuit; the event was nicknamed the Mutton GrandPrix after Geoghegan hit one of the unfortunate creatures, signalling the end for both car andsheep.The following year the Royal Automobile Club (RAC) took a lease on the airfield and set out amore formal circuit marked by hay bales. The layout still retained use of the original runways andled to a circuit consisting of long straights joined by hairpin corners. In 1949 the layout wasrevised to use the perimeter track and this layout formed the circuit for the first Grand Prix heldthere in 1950.In the presence of King George VI, the race was won by Nino Farino in his Alfa Romeo, finishingtwo laps ahead of team-mate Luigi Faglioli.The start-line was moved from Farm straight to the current location for the 1952 Grand Prix andthe layout remained largely unaltered for the next 35 years. The circuit continued to host grandprix events but shared hosting duties with Brands Hatch and Aintree up to 1986. As the speeds ofthe cars began to rise, a chicane was introduced in order to slow the competitors throughWoodcote corner, Bridge was also subtly altered in 1987, also for safety reasons.After the 1990 Grand Prix, Silverstone underwent a major redesign in time for the 1991 race whichproved popular with fans. The circuits cause was no doubt helped when local hero Nigel Mansellwon the race. At the end of the race Mansell stopped to give stranded Ayrton Senna a lift back tothe pits on the side pod of his car, a now iconic F1 image.Following the death of Senna at Imola in 1994, many F1 tracks were modified in a bid todrastically reduced speeds and increase safety. For Silverstone this meant modification to Stowecorner and the flat-out Abbey kink converted to a chicane. Having hosted the British Grand Prixpermanently since 1987, rifts began to show between the British Racing Drivers Club (BRDC),who now owned the facility, and the FIA. It came to a head when in September 2004 BRDCpresident Sir Jackie Stewart announced that Silverstone would not feature in the 2005 provisionalF1 calendar. A last-minute agreement was reached in December, securing the races future atSilverstone until 2009.The circuits future post-2009 looked rocky when Bernie Ecclestone said that he no longerwanted to deal with the BRDC and instead wanted an official promoter appointed. He also saidmajor redevelopment was required for them to regain the race, including a new pit and paddockcomplex. In August 2007 Silverstone got the go-ahead to start renovations; however on July 4,2008 Ecclestone dropped the axe on the Northamptonshire venue by announcing the event wouldmove to Donington Park in 2010.As Doningtons plan appeared more and more shaky Ecclestone softened his "Donington ornothing" policy and admitted that Silverstone may get a chance to host the event. WhenDonington failed to raise the £135million it required for renovations Ecclestone once again openeddiscussions with Silverstone.In December 2009 British Racing Drivers Club (BRDC) president Damon Hill announced that theyhad agreed a 17-year deal to keep the race at Pagina 23
  24. 24. NURBURGRINGCircuit 5.148 kmLaps Pagina 24
  25. 25. Circuit InfoThe original Nurburgring, the Nordschleife, ran for an awe-inspiring 22.5 kilometres (14 miles). Itwas so long and so complicated that drivers simply could not remember a racing line. TheNurburgring was, in fact, two circuits: the Nordschleife and the Sudschleife. In total they had anamazing 172 corners.It was safety which sealed the demise of the legendary track. Following Niki Laudas terrifyingaccident there in 1976 in which he suffered horrendous burns, the Nurburgrings license to holdFormula One events was withdrawn.The track underwent huge redevelopment to create a new circuit and in the spring of 1984 a racewas held featuring 20 identical Mercedes 190Es and a grid composed of some of the best-everFormula One drivers. Niki Lauda, Carlos Reutemann, Keke Rosberg, Alain Prost, Ayrton Senna,James Hunt, Stirling Moss, Jack Brabham, Phil Hill, John Surtees and Denny Hulme were just afew of the names to take part. Senna, then a relative youngster, won from Lauda and Reutemann.The European Grand Prix was held at the new track later that year, and again in 1985, but itdisappeared again after commercial difficulties. With the ascendancy of Michael Schumacher,from nearby Kerpen, the track was once again back in Formula One in 1995. Posing as theLuxembourg Grand Prix for 1997 and 1998, it then once more became the home of the EuropeanGrand Prix until 2006. From 2007 it has played host to the German Grand Prix every other year inan agreement which sees the race alternate between there and Hockenheim.The track may not be as challenging as the old circuit, but it is still possible to take a trip downmemory lane - literally. For just a few euros one can take a car onto the old track and soak upwhat was one of the most feared and yet respected circuits in the history of Pagina 25
  26. 26. HUNGARORING SPORT RT BUDAPESTCircuit 4.381 kmLaps Pagina 26
  27. 27. Circuit InfoAlthough Hungary first hosted a grand prix in the 1930s, the Second World War and the advent ofthe Iron Curtain meant motor racing in Eastern Europe was seriously limited until the late 60s.In the 1980s Bernie Ecclestone looked to introduce a race behind the Iron Curtain, looking initiallyat Moscow before turning to Budapest, with a plan to run a race on a temporary road circuit in thecity centre.Organisers made the bold move to build a completely new circuit in a valley 12 miles fromBudapest; the circuit was completed in just eight months and the landscape offering amazingspectators facilities with around 80% of the circuit visible from any vantage point.The circuit held its first race in August 1986; it was a huge success attracting a crowd of nearly200,000. The tight and twisty track has offered some excellent close races over the years, notablythe 1990 race when Thierry Boutson won the race by less than 0.3 of a second from AyrtonSenna. The circuit is loved by some and considered twisty, hot and dusty by Pagina 27
  28. 28. CIRCUIT DE SPA FRANCORCHAMPSCircuit 7.004 kmLaps Pagina 28
  29. 29. Circuit InfoBelgiums Spa Francorchamps circuit is one of the oldest on the current F1 calendar; with recordsshowing that it hosted its first non-championship grand prix in 1924.The original circuit made up of narrow roads was 9.3miles long (14.9km) and was notoriouslydangerous. Despite this only two people have died at the circuit, Chris Bristow and Alan Staceyduring the 1960 grand prix. The old track hosted its final race in 1970, when it was deemed toodangerous for F1.Spa was missing from the F1 calendar until 1983 when it returned with a drastically reducedcircuit of almost 4.5miles. Despite the cuts in length the circuit still managed to retain its magic.The mix of long straights and fast corners, combined with a picturesque setting and notoriouslychangeable weather keeps it at the top of both drivers and spectators favourite circuits.Part of the magic of Spa is that it is known and respected as one of the most challenging in theworld, and to prove that fact only six drivers have managed to win the Belgian Grand Prix at Spamore than twice: Juan Manual Fangio and Damon Hill both have three wins to their name, JimClark and Kimi Raikkonen managed one better with four wins and Ayrton Senna won the race fivetimes. The undisputed Spa master though, is Michael Schumacher who has won a record Pagina 29
  30. 30. AUTODROMO NAZIONALE DI MONZACircuit 5.793 kmLaps Pagina 30
  31. 31. Circuit InfoOne of the old-school of grand prix circuits Monza has a very special atmosphere; the Italiansoften refer to it as "La Pista Magica" or the magic track. It is set in a royal park and has playedhost to motorsport since 1922. After Brooklands and Indianapolis, Monza was the thirdpermanent racing circuit in the world, and like many circuits of that era, the lap was over six miles.The remains of the old banked track can still be found in the park grounds.The high-speed nature of the track means it has had more than its fair share of serious accidentsand fatalities. Monza has claimed the lives of high profile drivers including F1s only posthumousworld champion Jochen Rindt in 1970. Despite numerous modifications over the years to improvesafety for both drivers and spectators, the circuit faces criticism for its lack of run-off especially atthe Variante della Roggia corner.Despite the ongoing safety debate the circuit is still a firm favourite with fans who can alwaysexpect an action-packed high-speed race. Legendary Ferrari fans, known as the Tifosi, turn thestands to a sea of red on race day, as they cheer on their team at their local Pagina 31
  32. 32. SINGAPORE STREET CIRCUITCircuit 5.067 kmLaps Pagina 32
  33. 33. Circuit InfoAlthough Singapore hosted numerous non-championship races in the late 60s and early 70s,there was not a race after 1974. The announcement of the new event came at the end of 2007and was met with mixed reaction from fans. Excitement began to build when the FIA announcedthat to ensure prime-time viewing for the European market the Marina Bay circuit would host F1sfirst ever night race.The non-permanent road circuit brought in innovative lighting techniques to ensure daylightconditions for the drivers and those working in the pits, while still offering spectators theatmospheric conditions of a night race. The first race in 2008 was won by Renaults FernandoAlonso, it was a complete sell-out, but will always be marred by the crashgate scandal. It lateremerged that Renault asked driver Nelson Piquet Jnr to deliberately crash his car, in order to helphis team-mate Alonso win the race.For the 2009 race the circuit was modified through the first three turns to encourage moreovertaking, modifications were also made to the high kerbs at turn ten that had caused so manyaccidents the previous Pagina 33
  35. 35. Circuit InfoAlthough unique is a much over-used word in F1, it can rightly be referred to Suzuka. Not only isthe Japanese circuit the only one that crosses over itself, in a figure of eight format, but this factmeans that it is also the only circuit that runs both clockwise and anti-clockwise. The groundsplay host to a huge funfair, and the big wheel is prominent on the skyline.Designed as a test track for the Honda Motor Company in 1962 by Dutchman John Hugenholtz, itwas mainly used for vehicle development. After hosting numerous races in lower formulae Suzukabegan its quest to host the Japanese Grand Prix, a feat it managed in 1987, when it took thehonour away from Fuji, Toyotas test track. Although the grand prix returned to Fuji for 2007 and2008 the race is now confirmed to take place at Suzuka till 2011.An extremely fast and technical circuit, Suzuka is popular with drivers and spectators alike andhas some notorious corners including Spoon Curve and 130R. The circuit closed for a year in2008 in order to make revisions necessary for F1, it re-opened on April 12, Pagina 35
  36. 36. KOREAN INTERNATIONAL CIRCUIT YEONGAMCircuit 5.621 kmLaps Pagina 36
  37. 37. Circuit InfoA brand new venue for 2010 is the Korean International Circuit in South Korea. This $264milliondollar project, situated in Yeongam County is being supervised by F1s new circuit guru HermannTilke.The project is a joint venture between private firm M-Bridge Holdings and South Jeolla provincialgovernment known as Korea Auto Valley Operation (KAVO). Work is apparently well underway atthe site 320km south of the capital Seoul, but information and pictures have so far been limited.Organisers say the 3.5-mile circuit which is being built on 425 acres of reclaimed land beside anartificial seaside lake. The anti-clockwise track will feature Asias longest straight, allowing forspeeds of up to 320km per hour. The grandstands will accommodate up to 135,000 people.KAVO have a seven-year deal to host the race, with an option to renew for a further five-yearterm. The organisers are happy with the progress of the facility and confidently predict that it willbe ready in time for their debut race in October Pagina 37
  38. 38. JAYPEE CIRCUITNEW DELHI, INDIACircuit 5.137 kmLaps Pagina 38
  39. 39. Circuit InfoFormula One racing is forever on the move and in 2011 ventures east yet again for the inauguralIndian Grand Prix. In light of recent F1 successes in Korea and Singapore, India - and morespecifically its capital city New Delhi - is the latest Eastern powerhouse to welcome the paddockwith open arms. After learning plenty of lessons from hosting the 2010 Commonwealth Games,New Delhi plans to wow the international sporting stage once more with its first race in October.A brand new circuit has been built to the south of the city in the suburb of Noida. The track,designed by renowned circuit architect Hermann Tilke, stretches to 5.141-kilometres and isexpected to seat up to 150,000 spectators. Two sizeable straights and an interesting mix ofcorners should guarantee a track full of challenges for drivers and engineers alike.In an interesting move, organisers also consulted several of the Formula One teams beforeconstruction began in earnest. The track design was run in various factory simulators and as aresult several amendments were made in an effort to boost overtaking for the drivers - andexcitement for the fans.Four million cubic tons of earth was moved to give the track plenty of undulation, and it rises 14metres between Turns One and Three alone. Inspiration has also been drawn from rival venuesbest features, with Turkeys infamous Turn Eight inspiring a double-apex corner, slightly banked,which forms part of a mini-arena which alone will accommodate 13,000 spectators.The earthworks for the circuit were finished ahead of Indias 2010 monsoon season andeverything is on course for the track to be completed well ahead of its October Pagina 39
  40. 40. YAS MARINA CIRCUITABU DHABICircuit 5.550 kmLaps Pagina 40
  41. 41. Circuit InfoThe circuit is one of very few on the F1 calendar to run in an anti-clockwise direction, and it is alsounique as the only track with an underground pit lane. Leaving the track on the right, it crossesunderneath and rejoins on the left. Concerns were raised that the tunnel was too narrow anddangerous, and any accidents would be difficult to clear quickly.Granted the final go-ahead by the FIA in 2009, Bruno Senna was the first driver to complete a testlap during the GP2 testing. When the teams arrived in Abu Dhabi for the season finale in October2009, not a single driver had driven the track.Much more spectator-friendly than soulless near-neighbour Bahrain, some drivers havecomplained the circuit is too safe. "The car can go everywhere, cutting off corners, and you dontever lose time," moaned Adrian Sutil after the 2009 grand prix. "That can make racing very boring.Theres no real flow." Purists also lamented the need to build chicanes on a new track given theironly purpose was to slow down cars on existing circuits.Yas Marina made history when the 2009 Abu Dhabi Grand Prix hosted F1s first day-night race,starting at twilight with the race finishing in the dark. Floodlights were used from the start of theevent to illuminate the circuit and ensure a seamless transition from light to dark. Lewis Hamiltonstarted the race on pole but was forced to retire with brake problems. Sebastian Vettel won therace, the fifth victory of his F1 career, beating team-mate Mark Webber and 2009 championJenson Button to seal second place in the Pagina 41
  42. 42. AUTODROMO JOSE’ CARLOS PACE INTERLAGOSCircuit 4.309 kmLaps Pagina 42
  43. 43. Circuit InfoInterlagos literally means between the lakes referring to two large manmade lakes built in theearly 20th century to supply the city with water and electricity. The land on which the circuitstands was originally bought in 1938 by two property developers who intended to build houses onthe site. When they discovered that the site was not suitable they decided to build a circuitinstead, and as Sao Paulo continued to grow at an astounding rate it was not long before thetrack was surrounded by houses.Owing to the success of Emerson Fittipaldi, the country expressed an interest in hosting a race.Interlagos held two non-championship races in 1971 and 72 before joining the full championshipcalendar in 1973, and the circuit proved to be a lucky one for the local racers Fittipaldi, CarlosPace and Carlos Reutemann who all won races there. In fact, it was the scene of Paces only F1win, and following his death in a plane crash in 1977 the circuit was renamed in his honour.In 1978 the Brazilian Grand Prix moved to the Jacarepagua circuit in Rio de Janeiro, but itreturned to Interlagos the following year. In 1981 it was moved to Rio permanently as theorganisers felt the slums of Sao Paulo were at odds with the glamour of F1. It would take apromise of a US$15million redevelopment programme to bring the race back in 1990.The circuit itself is one of the very few circuits on the calendar that runs anti-clockwise, and this,combined with its bumpy surface means it is considered hard on cars and drivers alike. Theresurfacing of the track in 2007 ironed out most of the worst bumps but the circuit still retains thecharacter as it follows the lands contours making it an interesting circuit to drive.Despite the lack of a real Brazilian hero since Sennas death the passion of the local fans has notdiminished and the race continues to draw good Pagina 43
  44. 44. 2011 Pagina 44
  45. 45. Red Bull RacingBased in: Milton Keynes, UKFounded: 2005 (active since 2005)Website: www.redbullracing.comSporting director: Christian Horner (2005-...)Technical director: Mark Smith (2006), Geoff Willis (2007)Chief technical officer: Adrian Newey (2006-...)Chief designer: Rob Taylor (2006), Rob Marshall (2007-...)Chief aerodynamics: Ben Agathangelou (2005-2006), Petr Prodromou (2006-...)After several poor years for Jaguar in F1, Ford sold the team to Austrian drink company Red Bull.Ford had been cutting jobs all over the world and did not find it responsible to keep pumpingmoney in a non performing F1 project.Red Bull owner Mateschitz had all his reasons to buy a Formula One team. At first there havebeen many drivers sponsored by Red Bull who eventually aim to go to Formula One. The drinkcompany could however not promise anything of that, but with the purchase of a team they areoffering young drivers a path from the very beginning to the top of motorsport.After some discussions between the former management of Jaguar (which had been retained),Mateschitz fired both Purnell and Pitchforth and assigned Arden International Formula 3000 teamboss Christian Horner to run the F1 show. RBR started its first season with David Coulthard and arotating second racing seat shared by Klien and Liuzzi, both Red Bull backed drivers. Shod onMichelin tires and powered by a Cosworth engine, the team put down a better result (by gettingmore points) in its maiden year than Jaguar was able to in all its years it had been in Formula One.The second year proved a little troublesome as the Red Bull RB2 was not quite as good as the carfrom 2005. Although the Ferrari engines were powerful the car seemingly could not extract its fullpotential. The beginning of the season proved especially difficult as the car suffered coolingissues. As development fell behind, the team were always running after the facts in 2006.2007 was destined to be a major improvement for the team, and in fact it was performance wise.The Adrian Newey designed RB3 suffered a serious lack of reliability despite the extremelyreliable Renault engine. More specifically, the Red Bull RB3 was one of the least reliable cars of2007 and managed to complete only 74% of the seasons race distance.With again Webber and Coulthard behind the wheel, the Red Bull RB4 failed to improve much in2008, despite a good first half of the season. While Webber was the more constant driver, it wasCoulthard who put in the first podium of the year at the Canadian GP. Although the reliabilityproblems had been resolved, the Renault engine seriously lacked power, leading to Red Bullbeing unable to keep up with Scuderia Toro Rosso, running the same chassis from Red BullTechnology, but powered by a much better Ferrari engine. Along with Honda, Renault was lateron granted to upgrade its engines to equalize the Pagina 45
  46. 46. After David Coulthard announced his retirement from F1 racing, RBR decided to hire SebastianVettel who shined all through 2008. Before, the FIA set up the overtaking working group (OWG),which decided a list of major regulation changes that put down the ideal mix for Adrian Neweyteam to flourish. Had it not been for the diffuser row, the Red Bull RB5 would have been simplyunbeatable all the way through the season. However, it turned out differently, and by the time RedBull designed an effective double deck diffuser, Brawn GP had a massive lead in thechampionship which was never closed. RBR came in second in the championship easily, andSebastian Vettel was second in the drivers standings.In 2010 the team kept its driver lineup, and early test pace quickly showed that the new Red BullRB6 was the car to beat. Throughout the year, Vettel and Webber fought closely, and eventuallythrew away many points, some by technical issues, others by driver mistakes or even collisionsbetween the team mates. Vettel hitting Webber at Turkey pushed matters on the edge, with MarkWebber especially getting frustrated that he felt Vettel was favored over him within the team.Despite Vettel having difficulty mid-season, he came back on top towards the end of the year,and the teams fourth 1-2, at Brazil, secured Red Bull Racings first ever Pagina 46
  47. 47. RED BULL RB7 RENAULT Specifications Chassis: Composite monocoque structure, designed and built in-house, carrying its engine as fully stressed component Transmission: Seven-speed gearbox, longitudinally mounted with hydraulic system for power shift and clutch operation. Clutch: AP Racing Wheels: OZ Racing (front: 12.0in x 13in / rear: 13.7in x 13in) Tyres: Pirelli PZero Front suspension: Aluminium alloy uprights, carbon composite, double wishbone with springsand anti-roll bar, push rod actuatedRear suspension: Aluminium alloy uprights, carboncomposite double wishbone with springs andanti-roll bar, pull rod actuatedDampers: MultimaticBrakes: Brembo calipers, Brembo carbon discs and padsElectronics: FIA (MESL) Standard control unitFuel: Total GroupEngineDesignation: Renault engine RS27-2011Configuration: V8 in 90° bank with 32 valves in totalCapacity: 2400ccMax. RPM: 18,000RPM (as limited by regulations)Construction: Cylinder block in cast aluminionEngine management: FIA (MESL) Standard control unit TAG310BOil: Total GroupWeight: FIA minimum weight of Pagina 47
  48. 48. McLaren International LtdBased in: Woking, SurreyFounded: 1963 (active since 1966)Website: www.mclaren.comTeam principal: Ron Dennis (1980-2009), Martin Whitmarsh (2009-...)Director of Engineering: Neil Oatley, Paddy Lowe (since 2005)Technical Director: Adrian Newey (1997-2007)Chief Designer of engines: Mario Illien (1995-2005)Chief Designer of chassis: Mike Coughlan (2002-2007)Chief engineer: Tim Goss (since 2001), Pat Fry (since 2002)Formed initially for Tasman racing, the team built its first sports cars in 1964 and 1965 beforeBruce McLaren, inspired by the efforts of Jack Brabham, left Cooper in order to tackle F1 on hisown. His first effort was the M2B, penned by Robin Herd and built in 1966. Unfortunately, it wasthe first year of the 3.0 litre era and reliable engines were difficult to come by. Bruce had to opt foran underpowered Serenissima unit, although McLaren did manage to sneak into the points at theBritish Grand Prix. Herds next effort was the M7, which he designed before leaving for Cosworth.Fitted with the new DFV engine the beast proved a worthy contender in both F1 and Cam-Amcircles. It was while testing the latest Can-Am car that Bruce was killed in a crash at Goodwood in1970. With the help of Denny Hulme the team struggled on and established itself at the top duringthe mid 1970s clinching the constructors title in 1974 with Emerson Fittipaldi also bagging thedrivers title.That was the highpoint and a steady decline, interrupted by Hunts 1976 title, left the teamfloundering as the decade came to a close and sponsors Marlboro instigated a merger with RonDenniss Project Four F2 operation. Teddy Mayer left soon after, whilst with the help of JohnBarnards revolutionary carbon- fibre monocoque, McLaren took consecutive world titles in 1984,85 and 86.Then came the era of Senna, Prost and Honda. Three more titles went into the trophy cabinetdespite the constant infighting between the drivers. Honda withdrew from the sport in 1992, Prostwent to Williams and then at the end of 1993 Senna left the team. Young Finnish charger MikaHakkinen was recruited to fill the gap but despite his quick and spectacular driving style he simplydid not have the experience or racecraft to keep the silverware cupboard stocked. Adisappointing Peugeot engine did not help matters so when Mercedes approached with a worksengine deal Ron Dennis snatched it with both hands. Since 1995 the Woking-Stuttgartpartnership has grown in stature and competence, and the Mercedes engine was probably thebest part of the car for most of 1997. Hakkinen and Coulthard continued to perfect their art with abrace of wins and a few near misses suggested that they really do have the ability to win races.All that is missing is a chassis capable of matching the best Williams can offer. Enter AdrianNewey, former Williams aerodynamicist and a man who can get downforces out of a packet ofpeanuts.Neweys first car was the McLaren MP4-13 and it was immediately a full hit. While 1997 showedpromise with a win in the final race of the season, the new car was immediately the class of thefield. A major change in the chassis regulations and an early switch to Bridgestone tyres provedbeneficial. On top of that, the team was helped by the retirement of Renault as an engine supplierand have a top line Mercedes engine available. Mika Häkkinen opened the season with twoconsecutive wins and confirmed the domination of the new Pagina 48
  49. 49. In fact, at the season opener in Melbourne, both drivers were able to lap the entire field before thehalf-way stage. A handful of mechanical breakdowns mid-season meant that by Austria thechampionship battle was heating up, as Ferrari and Michael Schumacher won three races on thetrot. McLaren always had the better chassis, and Mika Hakkinen made few mistakes, but the carwas unreliable in comparison with the Ferrari. Following the Italian Grand Prix, Mika Häkkinen andSchumachers Ferrari were tied on 80 points each. The championship was won at the final race asa blown tyre put Ferrari out of contention. Häkkinen took the drivers title while McLaren easilywon the constructors championship.In 1999, the team was still ahead of Ferrari, but this time only by a very small margin. Ferrari hadbeen upping its game after Schumacher joined in 1996. The McLaren MP4-14 was a developmentof the winning MP4-13 but still suffered a lack of reliability. The season was coloured by a spin atMonza after which Häkkinen cried aside of the track and Schumacher getting injured atSilverstone after a failed brake. Although the Finn clinched his second consecutive championship,Ferrari as a team proved too strong.The year after proved to be the beginning of 4 years of Ferrari domination. Although Häkkinen andCoulthard both stayed close to Schumacher, the latters final 4 race wins in the season confirmedFerraris rise.2001 proved to be even more difficult for anyone not in a red Italian car. Häkkinen had troublefinding motivation due to several retirements, mostly from point scoring or race winning positions.He later announced he would take a sabbatical in 2002 which turned out to be his retirement.Ron Dennis quickly signed Saubers promising youngster Kimi Räikkönen. The car did howevernot permit many successes and the result was only a single win, marked by David Coulthard atMonaco.2003 started with great promise as Räikkönen and Coulthard could each win one of the first tworaces of the season. McLaren at the time was however intensively developing the very anticipatedMcLaren MP4-18 which marked a change of concept and was a very revolutionary design. Due toreliability problems involving that design, McLaren had to continue the season with the MP4-17D,basically a year-old design which was adapted for the modified regulations. Despite the setbacks,Räikkönen finished in the points consistently and challenged Michael Schumacher for thechampionship all the way up to the very last race, eventually losing the title by only two points.The team began the 2004 Formula One season with the McLaren MP4-19, which technicaldirector Adrian Newey described as a "debugged version of the MP4-18." This proved to beanything but the case, and a new car was required by mid-season. The McLaren MP4-19B wasbasically an all new car with a radically redesigned aerodynamic package. Coulthard immediatelyqualified third in the cars first race while Kimi Räikkönen won the 2004 Belgian Grand Prix,salvaging McLarens dismal season.At the beginning of 2005, daredevil Juan Pablo Montoya was appointed to fill in David Coulthardseat who left to join Red Bull Racing. The new McLaren MP4-20 was a thorough evolution of itspredecessor but was still lacking pace in the first races. At Imola however, the team had thefastest car. As it later emerged, it was partly thanks to the addition of an inerter (or J-damper) tothe rear suspension. Räikkönen however abandoned the race from the lead, due to a reporteddriveshaft failure, although it is believed it may well have been a failure of their new damper.Apart from the first four races, the McLaren was, along with the Renault R25 the fastest car ontrack, but suffered too many reliability problems which basically cost Kimi Räikkönen a chance towin the world Pagina 49
  50. 50. The speed of the car could however not be repeated in 2006. Neither driver managed to win asingle race. JP Montoya meanwhile ran his last F1 race at the American GP, after which hesustained a fracture in his shoulder and was replaced by De La Rosa for the rest of the season.2007 was a crucial season for McLaren. It started the season with Vodafone as its new titlesponsor, hired double world champion Fernando Alonso on a 3-year contract and brought inLewis Hamilton, a rookie who won the GP2 series in 2006. As the car proved competitive, thesituation heated up early on in the season as it became apparent that Alonso was not getting thebenefits he was promised upon contract signing. On and off the track, both drivers were razorsharp against each other, and the team did not want to choose a first driver. In the end it costthem all the championship, as both ended the season on equal points, one short of KimiRäikkönens Ferrari.Amidst the driver tension, a spy scandal came to light in June when an employee in a copycenterin Woking noticed Mike Coughlans wife copying confidential documents of Ferrari. The Italianteam was promptly notified and an investigation started up. McLaren immediately suspended andlater sacked its chief designer of chassis and on July 16 published a bulletin, claiming he hadhandled on his own. The latter quickly proved untrue from email evidence. On September 13, theworld motor sport council decided to penalise McLaren with a $100 million fine, a furtherconditional sentence and the removal of all its constructors points the team scored in 2007.Alonso, completely disillusioned by the situation at McLaren promptly decided to leave at the endof the season and rejoined Renault, the team run by his long time friend and business partnerFlavio Briatore.On December 17, 2008, the team confirmed that Heikki Kovalainen would come from Renault torun for McLaren for the next two years. Kovalainen immediately found himself in a competitive carbut was never a match to Lewis Hamilton who eventually clinched the championship at theBrazilian GP thanks to a last corner overtake on Timo Glock. He thereby became the youngestever, first black world champion in Formula One.At the launch of the 2009 contender, the McLaren MP4-24, Ron Dennis announced that he wouldretire from Formula One and instead focus on the sports car division of McLaren. MartinWhitmarsh was promoted to replace Dennis at the helm of the F1 team.The new McLaren made a troublesome start to the season. McLaren found itself struggling withthe heavily changed aerodynamic regulations and was a massive 2s per lap slower than theBrawnGP car at the first races of the year. McLaren was later on also handed a suspended 3-raceban after Hamilton was found guilty of deliberate lying to the stewards after the Australian GP.Fortunes shifted however later on in the season when McLaren found the ideal weight distributionon its car in addition to a string of new aerodynamic improvements. Hamilton won the Hungarianand Singapore GPs and the team eventually ended 3rd in the championship.After the season ending, rumours began to surface that Mercedes would go its own ways afterbeing unhappy with McLarens own sports car division, competing with Mercedes own SLRproject. On November 16, 2009, Mercedes announced its acquisition of Brawn GP and its sale ofshares from Pagina 50
  51. 51. MC LAREN MP4-26 Specifications Monocoque: McLaren-moulded carbonfibre composite incorporating front and side impact structures Front suspension: Inboard torsion bar/damper system operated by pushrod and bell crank with a double wishbone arrangement Rear suspension: Inboard torsion bar/damper system operated by pullrod and bell crank with a double wishbone arrangement Electronics: McLaren Electronic Systems. Including chassis control, engine control, data acquisition, dashboard, alternator, sensors, dataanalysis and telemetry. (standardised by the FIA)Bodywork: Carbon-fibre composite. Separate engine cover, sidepods and floor. Structural nosewith intergral front wingTyres: Pirelli P ZeroRadio: KenwoodRace wheels: EnkeiBrake callipers: AkebonoMaster cylinders: AkebonoBatteries: GS Yuasa CorporationSteering: McLaren power-assistedInstruments: McLaren Electronic SystemsPaint solutions: AkzoNobel Car Refinishes using Sikkens ProductsKERS: Mercedes-Benz, Engine-mounted electrical motor/generator with integrated energystorage cells and power electronics. 60kW power.TransmissionGearbox: McLaren-moulded carbon-fibre composite. Integral rear impact structure. Sevenforward and one reverse gear.Gear selection: McLaren seamless shift, hand-operatedClutch: Carbon/carbon, hand-operatedLubricants: MobilEngineDesignation: Mercedes-Benz FO 108YConfiguration: V8 in 90° bank angleCapacity: 2.4 litresMaximum rpm: 18,000Piston bore maximum: 98mmNumber of valves: 32Fuel: ExxonMobil High Performance Unleaded (5.75% bio fuel)Spark plugs: NGK racing spark plugs specially designed for Mercedes-Benz F1 engineLubricants: Mobil 1 combining greater performance, protection and cooling with increasedeconomy and lower emissionsWeight: 95kg (minimum FIA regulation weight) Pagina 51
  52. 52. Scuderia FerrariBased in: Maranello, ItalyFounded: 1946 (active since 1950)Website: Luca Di MontezemoloTeam principal: Stefano DomenicaliTechnical Chief: Aldo CostaChief designer: Giancarlo Colombo (1950-1951), Aurelio Lampredi (1952-1956), Vittorio Jano(1952-1959), Carlo Chiti (1960-1964), Mauro Forghieri (1965-1981), Antonio Tomaini (1981),Harvey Postlethwaite (1982-1987), John Barnard (1988-1990, 1993-1996), Steve Nichols (1991-1992), Rory Byrne (1997-2005), Aldo Costa (2005-..)The most evocative name in Grand Prix, and the only team to have contested every year of thechampionship, always in their traditional red livery.For several yeas now Ferrari have been losing the race when it comes to keeping apace with thetechnological advances being made within Formula 1, however with the arrival of Ross Brawn,Rory Byrne and of course Michael Schumacher, the Prancing Horse now seems to have got itsact together once more and for the first time in many years the team looks like it could actuallylive up to its glorious past.The team was founded by Enzo Ferrari, a former racer and manager of Alfa Romeos racing teamfrom 1930-37 but a disagreement saw him leave in 1938. Although he built his first car in 1940,this wasnt known as a Ferrari, as Enzo had agreed not to race under his own name for a furtherfive years, so the first true Ferrari didnt appear until 1946. Early models were known by thedisplacement size of each cylinder and it is fair to say that Ferraris priority lay with engine firstand chassis second.Over the years a total of eight drivers titles have made their way to Maranello but the last was in1979. Between then and the arrival of Luca di Montezemolo in 1992 Ferrari were in a real mess.The route from that sorry state to a team that could challenge for the 1997 title has rarely been aneasy one, but among the changes that have worked three factors stand out. Firstly the team hiredJean Todt as team manager. Todt was known as the man that could over at Peugeot where heran their racing team. He joined Ferrari in 1993 bringing with him a formidable reputation fororganisational efficiency.Next the engine department was persuaded to move away from traditional thirsty V12s to themore efficient and lighter V10 engine. The final piece in the puzzle was the hiring, with a reputedfee of $25 million, of twice world champion Michael Schumacher. Schumacher brought more thanjust driving ability. He joined the team with his own ideas and his own agenda. His aim was tomould the team around him with one aim in mind; to return the Scuderia to the top of the Formula1 tree. To that end he arranged for Brawn and Byrne to join him from Benetton and these three,guided tactically by Todt, with Montezemolo controlling the strategic flow, lie at the core of a teamthat can once more reach for the Pagina 52
  53. 53. 1998 began with Ferrari announcing that this was their year. Schumacher remained with the teamwith Eddie Irvine as team-mate for the third year running. The all new Ross Brawn designed F300was great - for a Ferrari - but it wasnt a real match to the McLaren and once more the PrancingHorse was left struggling, although they did get very close. Ferraris title race was lost early in theseason with several retirements and a lack of pace compared to the McLaren. Flying finn MikaHakkinen won the championship while Ferrari were clearly upping their game. In 1999, the newByrne-designed Ferrari was a lot better and Schumacher looked set to stroll on to his 3rd worldchampionship until he broke his leg in a Silverstone crash. A Ferrari brake failed because of anengineers error. Hakkinen won his second championship while Schumachers teammate Irvinebecame vice champion.Having forgotten the problems of 1999, the F2000 was a dominant car and started a new F1 era.Michael Schumacher easily won the first of his Ferrari powered World Championships. He and hisnew team mateRubens Barrichello won Ferrari the Constructors title in 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003and 2004. Michael won five consecutive Drivers titles pulverising most of the F1 records. Thedominance and the attitudes it engendered meant that the teams tactics became very unpopular,the first backlash coming in Austria in 2002 when team orders dictated the result. The fansrebelled. By the end of 2004 the team was politically isolated in F1 and in 2005 was unable tocompete with Renault and McLaren.Halfway through the season the developments were halted in order to be back on top in 2006,and although they werent quite yet at the beginning of the season, Michael Schumacher cameclose to an 8th world title before retiring from F1 at the end of the season. Felipe Massa proved inthe second half of the year that he is an excellent racer and is joined by Kimi Raikkonen for 2007,an extremely promising driver pairing.Raikkonen immediately proved his worth, and with a car that was considerably more reliable thanthe McLaren he had in the years before, he won the championship in his first season with Ferrari.Overall it was an extremely closely matched season with both McLaren drivers, but their inabilityto choose a first driver and Hamiltons rookie mistakes benefited Ferrari. The team did secure theconstructors title due to McLarens disqualification in spy-gate, the spy scandal involving NigelStepney and Mike Coughlan.2008 was bound to become the same story, but this time around Massa proved to be the betterdriver, but Hamilton secured the world title in the last race, leaving Ferrari with only theconstructors title.One year later, Ferrari misjudged the massive aerodynamic regulation changes and foundthemselves playing cath-up for the first half of the season. This improved at Silverstone, but atHungary 3 races later Massa, the better driver at the time, was out for the remainder of theseason. During qualifying, the Brazilian was hit by a flying heave spring that came off of RubensBarrichellos car.Only days after the Hungarian GP weekend, Ferrari chairman Luca Di Montezemolo askedMichael Schumacher if he was interested in a comeback. The seven time world champion quicklyaccepted the challenge but had to cancel weeks later after it was found his neck problems wouldnot allow him to race. Luca Badoer initially took the wheel for the next two races but was last allthe way through each weekend and then replaced by Fisichella. The Italian chased his dream andleft the improving Force India F1 team but also failed to get to grips with the KERS enabled FerrariF60.The team quickly realised that 2009 was not going to be great and halted the development of theF60 after the Silverstone updates. It later also managed to get Fernando Alonso to join the teamfor 2010, while a contract was only signed for the Spaniard to join 2011. Alonso was howevereagar to join the Scuderia after Briatore was ousted from Renault in the followings of the racefixing at Singapore Pagina 53
  54. 54. FERRARI F150 ITALIA Specification Chassis Chassis: Monocoque, carbon-fibre and honeycomb composite structure Gearbox: Ferrari, semiautomatic sequential longitudinal 7-speed quick-shift gearbox. Electronically controlled Differential: Limited-slip Brakes: Brembo ventilated carbon-fibre disc brakes Suspension: Independent suspension, push-rod activated torsion springs front and rear Weight: 640 kg (incl water, lubricants and driver)Wheels:EngineDesignation: Ferrari type 056Cylinder configuration: Naturally espirated 90° V8Cylinder block: and cast aluminium V 90°Valvetrain: 32 valves with pneumatic distributionDisplacement: 2398 cm³Piston bore: 98 mmWeight: > 95 kgInjection: Electronic injection and ignitionFuel: Shell V-PowerLubricant: Shell Helix Pagina 54
  55. 55. Mercedes Grand PrixBased in: Brackley, Northamptonshire, United KingdomFounded: 2009 (active since 2010)Website: Ross BrawnChief Executive Officer: Nick FryHead of Aerodynamics: Loic BigoisSporting Director: Ron MeadowsOn 16 November 2009, Mercedes bought a majority stake of 75.1% in the championship winningBrawn GP team of Ross Brawn. The German car maker swiftly decided to rename the team toMercedes GP, seeing it return as an entity of its own, after the Mercedes Benz team competeduntil 1956 and after Mercedes was in F1 together with McLaren.The team is essentially the same as Brawn GP, with Ross Brawn being the team principal andNick Fry the CEO since the team was still the Honda Racing F1 works team. The new Germanownership meanwhile meant that German talent Nico Rosberg was contracted, and when JensonButton decided to move to McLaren, the team lured Michael Schumacher away from Ferrari. TheScuderia had no car available and Schumacher was eager to make a racing comeback, especiallywhen paired to Ross Brawn, an ever successful Pagina 55
  56. 56. MERCEDES GP W02 Specifications Construction: Moulded carbon fibre and honeycomb composite structure Front suspension: Wishbone and pushrod activated torsion springs and rockers Rear suspension: Wishbone and pullrod activated torsion springs and rockers Dampers: Penske Wheels: BBS forged magnesium Tyres: Pirelli Brakes: Brembo calipers Brake: discs/pads Carbon/Carbon Steering: Power assisted rack and pinionSteering wheel: Carbon fibre constructionElectronics: FIA standard ECU and FIA homologated electronic and electrical systemTransmissionGearbox: Seven speed unit with cast aluminium maincaseGear selection: Sequential, semi-automatic, hydraulic activationClutch: Carbon plateDimensionsOverall length: 4800mmOverall height: 950mmOverall width: 1800mmEngineType: Mercedes-Benz FO108YCapacity: 2.4 litresConfiguration: V8 in 90° bank angleMaximum rpm: 18,000 (maximum FIA regulation)Piston bore: 98mm (maximum FIA regulation)No of valves: 32Weight: 95kg (minimum FIA regulation weight) Pagina 56
  57. 57. Lotus Renault GPBased in: Viry-Chatillon (engines) / Enstone (chassis)Founded: 1898 (active 1977-1985, 2001-...)Website: President: Bernard Dudot (1998-2003), Patrick Faure (2004-Sep 2007), Bernard Rey (Sep2007-...)Managing Director: Flavio Briatore (1998-Sep 2009), Bob Bell (Sep 2009-Oct 2010), Eric Bouiller(Oct 2010-...)Technical Director: Andre de Cortanze (1977-1978), Michel Tetu (1979-1984), Bernard Touret(1985), Mike Gascoyne (2001-2003), Bob Bell (Oct 2003-Sep 2009)Engineering Director: Pat Symonds (1998-Sep 2009); James Allison (2010- )Technical Director Engine: Rob White (Apr 2005-...)Renault began manufacturing racing cars back in 1899 and went on to win the first Grand Prix in1906. After establishing itself as Frances leading motor manufacturer a sporting division wascreated for sports car racing with the Alpine-Renault.Many observers were surprised by Renaults decision to enter the Formula arena because of therisks involved in failure. Their choice of engine was also surprising. At the time of Renaults arrivalon the scene the sport was run under the 3-litre formula. However an alternative of a 1.5 litresupercharged engine had never been removed from the rulebook and this was the option Renaulttook, based on their experiences with turbos from their sports car operation.The first car, the Renault RS01, arrived for the 1977 British Grand Prix with Jean-Pierre Jabouilleat the wheel. Success was limited mainly due the fact that much of the vast resources of Renault-Sport were devoted to winning the Le Mans 24 Hour race. Once that aim had been achieved, in1978, attention switched to the Formula 1 project.In 1979 the team fielded the Renault RS10 ground effect car at Monte Carlo and Jabouille scoredan emotive first win at the French Grand Prix in Dijon, although the race is best remembered forthe last lap battle between Gilles Villeneuves Ferrari and the second Renault, driven by ReneArnoux. The turbo engines proved dominant at the high altitude circuits where normally-aspiratedcars struggled for breath. Arnoux won in South Africa and Brazil and that alerted the competitionthat all their futures would be turbocharged.For 1981 Renault signed Alain Prost and he nearly clinched the title in his first season with theteam. By 1982 the team was losing its advantage in turbo technology as BMW and Ferrari wereclosing the gap. Ferrari looked certain to take the title until Villeneuve was killed and Pironiseriously injured. Keke Rosberg eventually won the title for Williams despite one securing a singlewin all season. For 1983 Prost led the charge again and many expected the title to go to Renault.He was again pipped to the post after going out early from the South African race. Piquet took thetitle for Brabham. Prost blamed the team for falling behind on development and was given hismarching orders. He moved to McLaren where, ironically, he was to enjoy the best years of hiscareer.1984 saw only limited success for Renault as all of the competition had finally cracked the art ofturbo-driving. The team lasted for just one more year before withdrawing the works team toconcentrate on supplying engines to Williams with whom they won five constructors titles andfour driver championships. 1998 sees the Renault name missing from the Formula 1 programmewith subsidary Mechachrome providing the engines for Williams and Benetton (under the oddlynamed Playlife badge) Pagina 57
  58. 58. In 2001 full works support returned for the Benetton outfit, in advance of a complete rebrandingfor 2002. Renault then had its own Formula 1 team for the first time in seventeen years and, withseveral fourth places scored throughout the season, its potential was obvious. With the attractionof team manager Flavio Briatore who had won 2 championships with Benetton in 1994 and 1995,the team was ready for a new challenge. In 2002 the team also added Spanish driver Alonso tothe list a promising people.Where they were still fighting with backmarkers Minardi in 2001, the team steadily progressedduring the following years. The team entered 2002 with Jenson Button and Jarno Trulli as regulardrivers, while Alonso did the testing. Renault F1 also posessed the only 111° V10 engine of thefield. The power plant proved revolutionary, yet problems with vibrations and stiffness caused it tobe less reliable and powerful than normal 72° and 90° V10s.The team continued on their progress in 2003 with again an evolution of the previous car. MikeGascoyne has led the team that once again improved the performance of Renault while Alonsopairing up with Trulli proved to be a successful driver duo. Alonso became the youngest driverever to win a Formula One pole position at the 2003 Malaysian Grand Prix; he also became theyoungest driver ever to win a Formula One race at the 2003 Hungarian Grand Prix. At seasonsend, he was a solid sixth in the championship, with 55 points and four podiums while Trulligrabbed 33 points and one podium.2004 saw the abandon of the 111° engine concept as the team designed a 72° V10. Immediatelyshowing better power than the predecessor it allowed Jarno Trulli to take his first career win atMonaco 2004. The Italian however later fell in disgrace of Briatore because of several errors andletting go a podium place in the last last in Magny-Cours. He was replaced by Jacques Villeneuvefor the last 3 races of that year. The 1997 champion could not prevent Renault to lose 2nd placein the constructors championship.As Renault had given up early on the development of their Renault R24, the team was completelyready for 2005. The engine had become on of the best of the field, Alonso more mature andFisichella joined the team as his team-mate. Mike Gascoyne however went to Toyota and BobBell was assigned the new technical director. With Fernando Alonso and Giancarlo Fisichelladriving for the team in 2005, the season started very well for Renault, as Fisichella won theAustralian Grand Prix. Alonso then won five Grand Prix to catapult himself and the team into thelead of their respective World Championships. The Alliance strolled on to win the Constructorsand Drivers title in F1, making Alonso the youngest champion ever and Renault the mostsuccessful car maker in the world.The next year proved equally successful as the Renault R26 was again the car to beat. The teamdid however have a harder time. Part of that was caused with dubious decisions against the team,including the ban of the previously allowed mass damper, and a 5-place grid penalty for Alonso atMonza for alleged blocking of Ferraris Massa during qualifying. During the race, the Renaultmechanics even displayed their redesign of the FIA logo, now claiming "Ferrari InternationalAssistance". Additionally, Michael Schumacher was desperate to end his career with a WorldChampionship win, but saw that go up in smoke due to an engine failure at Suzuka. Renault againtook both titles, effectively making it a "double double". Alonso then left the team on a high as healready signed for McLaren in December 2005.Together with Alonso, long-time sponsor Mild Seven left the team because of tobaccoregulations. After the signing of ING, the team was officially renamed ING Renault F1. It wasmeant to be a new era, but it turned out to be a less than successful one. Fisichella andKovalainen struggled with the new Renault, mostly because the teams engineers had not found adefinite solution to the switch of tyre suppliers. As Michelin left, Bridgestone was the onlyremaining supplier, but the Japanese tyres proved very different, especially the fronts were stifferand posed problems. The team ended the season with 51 points and was third in the standings,after McLaren was removed from the standings due to a spy scandal triggered by Nigel Pagina 58
  59. 59. Alonsos troubled year at McLaren pushed him back to Renault where he "always felt home". Heteamed up with Nelson Piquet Jr. who was promoted from his test driver status in 2007.While the year started off badly for the French team with a car that clearly lacked performance,gradually there was improvement, especially in the hands of Alonso. At his home Grand Prix atBarcelona, he ran in third place until the engine gave up. It wasnt however until the first night raceat Singapore that they were back in the spotlights. Thanks to Piquet Jr. crashing out of the raceon lap 12, Alonso could profit from the safety car to eventually win the race. One race later, theSpaniard repeated the same feat, although he beat everyone there on raw pace, rather than with"luck" involved.2009 was to be Renaults step up to the front, but due to the massive regulation changes, they fellshort - just like McLaren and Ferrari - on BrawnGP and Red Bull Racing. The team only reallydrew some attention when Flavio Briatore sacked Nelson Piquet Jr. after scoring zero points sofar in 2009. He was replaced by Romain Grosjean as of the Belgian GP.Three weeks later though, Briatore and Symonds were up in front of the WMSC after the FIAfound out that Piquet Jr. crashed on purpose in Singapore 2008. Piquet Jrs statement eventuallycaused crash-gate, a scandal that saw Briatore and Symonds banned from Formula One. AsRenault pulled their hands off of the people responsible, the team itself was handed a two-yearprovisional race ban.Since that decision, Renault is thought to have been actively seeking to reduce its stake in the F1team which it eventually did by selling 75% of the shares to GenII capital. Meanwhile, RobertKubica was signed as the teams new lead driver after Fernando Alonso decided to move toFerrari as of 2010.By December, Eric Bouiller was announced as the new team principal. Later towards the start ofthe season, Vitaly Petrov signed as second driver, reportedly because of the marketing potentialas a Russian driver.Despite the winter uncertainties and even the hindsight of Kubica leaving due to the teamsuncertain future, Renault brought a surprisingly good car on track. The Renault R30 allowedKubica to fight for the podium at several tracks, mixing in between McLaren and Ferrari.Later on in the year, Renault also announced the arrival of Daniele Casanova, joining the vehicleperformance team after leaving Red Bull. That same week however, Bob Bell, after working hisway up through Renault left the team, reportedly due to political issues within the team. EricBouiller took over his role at Managing Pagina 59
  60. 60. LOTUS RENAULT R31 Specifications Chassis: Moulded carbon fibre and aluminium honeycomb composite monocoque, manufactured by Lotus Renault GP and designed for maximum strength with minimum weight. RS27-2011 V8 engine installed as a fully-stressed member. Front suspension: Carbon fibre top and bottom wishbones operate an inboard rocker via a pushrod system. This is connected to a torsion bar and damper units which are mounted inside the front of the monocoque. Aluminium uprights and OZ machined magnesium wheels.Rear suspension: Carbon fibre top and bottom wishbones with pull rod operated torsion springsand transverse-mounted damper units mounted in the top of the gearbox casing. Aluminiumuprights and OZ machined magnesium wheels.Transmission: Seven-speed semi-automatic titanium gearbox with reverse gear.system in operation to maximise speed of gearshifts.Fuel system: Kevlar-reinforced rubber fuel cell by ATL.Cooling system: .Electrical: MES-Microsoft Standard Electronic Control Unit.Braking system: Carbon discs and pads, calipers by AP Racing, master cylinders by AP racingand Brembo.Cockpit: -pointharness seat belt by OMP Racing. Steering wheel integrates gear change and clutch paddles, andrear wing adjuster.KERS: Motor generator unit driving into front of engine with batteries as an energy store. MotorGenerator supplied by Renault Sport F1. Electronic control unit by Magneti-Marelli.DimensionsFront track: 1450 mmRear track: 1400 mmOverall length: 5100 mmOverall height: 950 mmOverall width: 1800 mmTotal weight: 640 kg, including driver, cameras and ballastEngineDesignation: Renault RS27-2011Capacity: 2400 ccArchitecture: 90° V8Weight: 95 kgMax rpm: 18,000 rpmECU: MES SECUFuel: TOTALOil: Elf (a brand of TOTAL)Oil tank: Lotus Renault GPBattery: Lotus Renault Pagina 60
  61. 61. Williams F1Based in: Grove, OxonFounded: 1968 (active since 1973)Website: director & Team principal: Frank WilliamsTechnical director: Patrick Head (1977-2004), Sam Micheal (2004-...)Chief designer: Gavin Fisher (1997-...)Chief aerodynamicist: Adrian Newey (1991-1997), Geoff Willis (1998-2004), Loic Bigois (2004..)Team manager: Dickie StanfordDirector of engineering: Patrick Head (2004-...)Williams are the masters of motor racing technology. For the last seven straight years the Williamscar has been regarded as the fastest in the business Four drivers and five constructors titleshave come their way since 1991, but fortunes were not always so good.Frank Williams entered Formula 1 as a private entrant in 1969 but it was not until 1977 that thecurrent team began to take shape. Things really got moving when Frank joined forces withtalented designer Patrick Head and managed to secure major backing from Saudia airlines. Theduo set up a factory in Didcot where Head penned the stunning Williams FW07. Clay Regazzoniscored the teams first win, fittingly on home soil. Four further wins from Australian Alan Jonescompleted a successful year that left the team second in the constructors championship.Jones clinched the top spot in 1980 and then in 1982 Keke Rosberg gave the team a seconddrivers title. This was the dying days of the kit car operation where most teams simply bought aFord Cosworth and plugged it into the back of a car. Stakes were being raised and to give histeam the best chance in the forthcoming turbo age Frank opted for Honda power. Therelationship took some time to gel, but in 1986 Nigel Mansell and Nelson Piquet dominated untiltyre problems allowed McLarens Alain Prost to slip through at the final round. The teamssupremacy was doubly surprising after Frank was paralysed in a road accident while at a testsession at the Paul Ricard circuit in March 1986.The Honda partnership ended in 1987, but in their final year together, Nelson Piquet clinched thedrivers championship and the team took their fourth constructors cup. 1988 was a difficult year,the team failing to win a race with their normally-aspirated Judds in a final year of turbodomination.Renault re-entered Formula One in 1989, and opted for Williams. Theirs was to be a partnershipmade in heaven as Williams began a period of total domination of the racing scene. Williamschallenged strongly for the championship in 1991, but had to wait for 1992 for a dominant double.Three-times world champion Alain Prost took Mansells seat for 1993, and added a fourth title tohis tally. With the assistance of test-graduate Damon Hill, the team took their sixth constructorstitle.When Prost retired at the end of the season, Ayrton Senna took the lead seat and was expectedto dominate. After a troubled start of the season, the great Brazilian fell victim of a tragic accidentat Imola, leaving Hill in charge of the team. Together with rookie David Coulthard, the teammanaged to secure its seventh constructors championship.Despite a superb handling car for 1995 the team failed to clinch either championship, but 1996and 1997 saw them back at the top with another pair of titles for Damon Hill and JacquesVilleneuve. Despite the twin victories many observers began to see cracks in the teams ability tocontain the rapidly improving Pagina 61
  62. 62. When Renault left Formula 1 at the end of the 97 season, the teams dominance was leftseriously in doubt. Despite setting some impressive times in testing, both Villeneuve and Frentzenstruggled to match the pace of the McLarens and as a result they spent 1998 battling to get intothe points. As a result the team suffered from their most uncompetitive season for a decade andfailed to win a single race. For champion Villeneuve, this was a very bitter pill to swallow - scoringjust 20 championship points and two podium placings. By the end of the season, both drivers hadhad enough and announced their departure from the team.The next year wasnt much of an improvement to 1998. The dominant red on the car and awoodpecker on the nose did not help the team much further. Ralf Schumacher who came overfrom Jordan practically saved the season for Williams as CART champion Alessandro Zanardi hada hard time adopting to F1.In year 2000 the Williams Team changed to the blue and white colours of BMW and used the newBMW engine. While the first year was a little bit too early to shine for Ralf Schmacher andyounster Jenson Button, it only went better and better with extremely powerful BMW engines. Theteam hired Juan Pablo Montoya as a replacement for Jenson Button and saw the ColumbianCART champion do by far much better than Zanardi in 1999. 2003 was the highpoint of the BMWalliance. Montoya had the upper hand in the team and drove from one pole position to anotherwhile proving the BMW engines strenght by driving the (at that time) fastest lap ever in F1 duringMonza qualifying.One year after the successes, the Williams team hired Antonia Terzi from Ferrari as head ofaerodynamics and came up with the tusk nosed Williams FW26. The car proved to be a troublechild and the team fired Terzi and reverted to a conventional nose. More and more problemsarose between the management and BMW for not allowing BMW to buy a majority stake in theteam. Montoya on the other hand was unsatisfied by the treatment he got at the team anddecided to leave for McLaren in 2005. Although he managed to win the last race of 2004, the nextseason, McLaren proved to be the right choice for Juan Pablo.As also Ralf Schumacher left to Toyota, Frank Williams hired the services of Mark Webber andNick Heidfeld, only to drive halfway the pack during 2005. The only really good result came inMonaco where the two Williams F1 cars finished on the podium behind winner Kimi Raikkonen ina McLaren MP4-20.2006 introduces a new era for Williams as BMW decided to start their own team by buying theSwiss Sauber team. Williams runs 2006 with a V8 Cosworth engine driven by Webber and GP2winner Nico Rosberg, son of Keke Rosberg who won the championship with Williams in 1982. Theteam had a hard time during the season and eventually ended up 8th in the constructors title, theworst result since their debut. For 2007, AT&T was signed as a sponsor while the cars will bedriven by Wurz and Rosberg. Mark Webber left the team for Red Bull Racing after twodissappointing years.Both drivers had a better Williams FW29 at their possession, powered by a Toyota RVX-07engine. The team decided to buy a manufacturers engine as Cosworth, as a private companywas having trouble keeping up with the development at the price Williams was willing to pay.Eventually Cosworth left Formula One as no other team was interested in its engines. Thecombination proved to be better than 2006, putting the team in 5th in the constructors standingsof 2007.A year later, Wurz decided to quit racing and joined Honda as a test driver. Nico Rosberg wasthen joined by Kazuki Nakajima, a promising Japanese youngster. In the course of the year,Williams also bought AHP to form Williams Hybrid Power, aiming to prepare an optimum KERSsystem for 2009.All in all, it proved to be a slightly disappointing season, although Rosbergs second place finishat the Singapore night race was the best result for the team since Juan Pablo Montoyas win atthe Brazilian GP of Pagina 62
  63. 63. WILLIAMS FW33 Specifications Chassis construction: Monocoque construction fabricated from carbon epoxy and honeycomb composite structure, surpassing FIA impact and strength requirements Front suspension: Carbon fibre double wishbone arrangement, with composite toelink and pushrod activated springs and anti-roll bar Rear suspension: Double wishbone and pullrod activated springs and anti-roll bar Transmission: Williams F1 seven speed seamless sequential semi-automatic shift plus reverse gear.Gear selection: electro-hydraulically actuatedClutch: Carbon multi-plateDampers: Williams F1Wheels: RAYS forged magnesiumTyres: Pirelli, Fronts: 325mm wide, Rears: 375mm wideBrake: system 6 piston callipers all round, carbon discs and padsSteering: Williams F1 power assisted rack and pinionFuel system: Kevlar-reinforced rubber bladderElectronic systems: FIA standard electronic control unitCooling system: Aluminium oil, water, and gearbox radiatorsCockpit: Driver six point safety harness with 75mm shoulder straps & HANS system, removableanatomically formed carbon fibre seat covered in AlcantaraDimensions & weightWeight: 640kg with driver, camera and ballastWheelbase: 3300mmOverall length: 5000mmOverall height: 950mmOverall width: 1800mmEngineDesignation: Cosworth 2.4L V8, 90° V angle engine, pneumatic valve train.Fuel management and ignition systems: Cosworth.Materials: Block and pistons in aluminium, crankshaft in steel billet, connecting rods in Pagina 63
  64. 64. Force India F1Based in: Dadford Road, Silverstone, Northamptonshire, UKFounded: 2007 (active since 2008)Website: principal: Colin Kolles (2008); Vijai MallyaCEO: Otmar SzafnauerTechnical director: J. Key (until Nov 2009), Mark Smith (Nov 2009 - May 2010); Andrew GreenChief Technical Officer: Mike Gascoyne (2008)Design Director: Mark Smith (until Nov 2009)Head of Aerodynamics: Simon PhilipsHead of R&D: Simon GardnerDr. Vijay Mallya together with the Mol family (headed by Michiel Mol) has established a joint-venture company called Orange India Holdings (OIH). The deal was reported to be worth around . OIH acquired Spyker Cars N.V formerly Midland F1 Racing and before that JordanGrand Prix in Ocober 2007.Under impulse of the new money, the team was quickly restructured. Over the winter, severaldrivers were also allowed to test while the name was officially changed to Force India F1. It waseventually decided that Adrian Sutil and F1 veteran Giancarlo Fisichella would run the cars in whatproved to be a hard fought 2008. Even though the team introduced several aerodynamicupgrades and developed its own seamless shift gearbox, they were consistently at the back ofthe grid.By the end of a pointless 2008, Mallya grew tired of the situation and again decided to restructurethe team, attempting to improve its performance and overcome the regulation changes for 2009.Therefore, the team ended the engine contract with Ferrari and agreed a deal with McLaren for anengine, transmission and KERS system. At the same time it was announced that Kolles andGascoyne would leave the team, in favour of McLaren technical support.Despite some ambitious announcements, the team was unable to meet its own expectations inthe early part of the season. But when the team introduced several major updates and decidednot to use KERS - and hence make better use of the space available for it - the car startedworking well for Fisichella and Sutil. Things turned out brilliantly at the Belgian GP whereFisichella was on pole and finished the race in second place.After that race, Fisichella was picked up by Ferrari to replace Massa, and Tonio Liuzzi, the teamstest driver, took his place. In the last 5 races of the year, neither driver managed to get any morepoints.In 2010 the team continues with its proven partnership with McLaren but early on sees moretechnical staff leave its team. James Key was the first to leave during the winter, while during theseason, the replacing technical director Mark Smith left for Lotus, together with several othermembers of the Pagina 64
  65. 65. FORCE INDIA WJM04 Specifications Chassis: Carbon fibre composite monocoque with Zylon legality side anti-intrusion panels. Front suspension: Aluminium uprights with carbon fibre composite wishbones, trackrod and pushrod. Inboard chassis mounted torsion springs, dampers and anti-roll bar assembly. Rear suspension: Aluminium uprights with carbon fibre composite wishbones, trackrod and pullrod. Inboard gearbox mounted torsion springs, dampers and anti-roll bar assembly. Clutch: AP Racing carbon clutch Tyres: PirelliBrake system: AP RacingBrake material: Carbone IndustrieDampers: PenskeWheels: BBS forged wheels to Force India specificationKERS: Mercedes-Benz, Engine-mounted electrical motor/generator with integrated energystorage cells and power electronics. 60kW power.DimensionsWheel base: 3500mmFront track: 1480mmRear track: 1440mmOverall height: 950mmOverall length: 5100mmOverall weight: 640kg (with driver, by regulations) Pagina 65
  66. 66. Sauber MotorsportBased in: Hinwil, SwitzerlandFounded: 2005 (active since 2006)Website: Peter SauberTechnical Director: James KeyTechnical director chassis: Willy RampfTechnicala director engine: Heinz PaschenMunich. It was set in concrete as the day dawned on 22nd June 2005: BMW would for the firsttime be running its own team in the FIA Formula One World Championship, starting the very nextseasonwas announced to the public at large.With only 262 days to go until the 2006 season, the Munich based car manufacturer bought theSwiss Sauber team, taking over all its team members and facilities, including the high tech windtunnel. BMW immediately started hiring extra people and made plans for the expansion of thefacilities. While the Sauber team did a good job with its team, BMW had much more money tospend in F1 and aims for the top spot in the FIA championship.The team started off slowly but aerodynamic development work, which increased dramatically assecond and later a third shift were added at the windtunnel at Hinwil, and the car became quickerand quicker. The first car with BMW livery was dubbed the BMW Sauber F1.06. The team ended2006 with 36 points and 5th in the constructors standings. One year later, the points tally rose to101 points with the BMW Sauber F1.07. Thanks to the FIA that stripped McLaren of all its pointsfollowing the "stepneygate" spy case, BMW ended up second behind world champions Ferrari.2009 turned out to be a massive disappointment for BMW at a time they were hoping to fight forthe title after improving 3 years in a row. Despite massive investments in their KERS system, theteam hardly found a good balance for the car, and when after the first 6 races there were only 6points in the bad, a major aerodynamic development program was started up, including ditchingthe KERS, even though updates to the system had already been introduced.The team steadily improved, but just like Renault never managed to get back on top. It ended theseason 6th in the standings with only 36 points after securing 135 the year before.The disappointing results and massive investments led to BMWs withdrawal from Formula One.The Formula One Team Association swiftly replied with a statement, supporting the possibilitiesfor the team to stay in F1.Team founder Peter Sauber immediately stepped in to attempt to buy the team back from Sauberbut failed to secure a deal. On 15 September 2009 it was announced that BMW had secured abuyer, Qadbak Investments Limited, but as the 13th and last entry into 2010, the deal fell apart.As BMW then saw no other options, it finally agreed to sell the team back to Peter Sauber formuch less than it initially intended to. The team was subsequently granted an entry on Pagina 66