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Revoluciones Liberales Y Nacionalismo

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Revoluciones Liberales Y Nacionalismo

  1. 1. Liberalismo y nacionalismo (1789-1870) Fuentes : http://profesorfrancisco.es.tl/Revoluciones-liberales.htm http://historiacontemporanea-tomperez.blogspot.com/ http://www.slideshare.net/juandi/europa-1814-1870 SM © Alfredo Rivero Rodríguez. IES Juan Sebastián Elcano. (Cartagena, España)
  2. 2. ÍNDICE <ul><li>Independencia de EEUU </li></ul><ul><li>La Revolución francesa y el Imperio Napoleónico. </li></ul><ul><li>La Restauración </li></ul><ul><li>Las revoluciones de 1820,1830 y1848. </li></ul><ul><li>Independencia de la América Hispana. </li></ul><ul><li>El nacionalismo. </li></ul><ul><li>Las unificaciones de Italia y Alemania . </li></ul>
  3. 3. Independencia de EEUU
  4. 8. LA REVOLUCIÓN FRANCESA Y EL IMPERIO NAPOLEÓNICO
  5. 9. Crisis del Antiguo Régimen
  6. 10. Nobleza: contraria a la revolución en su mayoría. Dentro de Francia y fuera (emigrados). Crisis financiera del Estado francés (por ayudar a Estados Unidos), la nobleza se niega a pagar y exige a Luis XVI que se convoquen los Estados Generales (5 de mayo de 1789) Se vota por estamentos clero, nobleza y Tercer Estado (95% ) por lo que los representantes del Tercer Estado, se revelan y se constituyen en Asamblea Nacional (16 de junio de 1789) juran no disolverse hasta elaborar una constitución Levantamiento de París en apoyo de los representantes del Tercer Estado: Toma de la Bastilla (14 de julio de 1789) La revolución se extiende por Francia PROTAGONISTAS Sans-culottes: capas populares urbanas (pequeños comerciantes, artesanos...) apoyan la revolución. Campesinos: 1º favorables a la revolución, se sintieron defraudados por no acceder a la propiedad de la tierra Burguesía: apoyan la revolución para terminar con el Antiguo Régimen. Clero: dividido ante la revolución. Buena parte del clero aceptará la Constitución de 1791 Los Estados Generales Juramento del juego de la pelota Toma de la Bastilla (fuente: editorial SM) ESTALLIDO DE LA REVOLUCIÓN
  7. 18. IMPERIO Estados Generales Asamblea Nacional Convención girondina Convención jacobina Convención termidoriana Directorio Mayo 1789 Junio 1789 Sept. 1792 Junio 1793 Julio 1794 Sept. 1795 Nov. 1799 FASES Monarquía República <ul><li>Abolición jurídica del antiguo régimen </li></ul><ul><li>Declaración de Derechos del Hombre </li></ul><ul><li>Separación Estado-Iglesia </li></ul><ul><li>Constitución de 1791. Monarquía constitucional con sufragio censitario </li></ul><ul><li>Luis XVI se opone e intenta huir a Austria, se le juzga y se le ejecuta. </li></ul><ul><li>Se le declara la guerra a Austria y se le vence en la batalla de Valmy </li></ul><ul><li>Rebelión de campesinos pro monárquicos en la Vendée, poder para los jacobinos </li></ul><ul><li>El Terror de Robespierre </li></ul><ul><li>Constitución republicana 1793 no nata; soberanía popular, sufragio universal, educación universal, reformas sociales </li></ul><ul><li>Constitución de 1795: Sufragio censitario, recorta reformas sociales, poder en un directorio de 5 personas </li></ul>Golpe de Estado de Napoleón (18 de Brumario) Danton: <ul><li>Constitución de 1799: Napoleón cónsul, en1804 Emperador. </li></ul><ul><li>Mantiene muchos avances de la revolución y hace el Código Civil </li></ul><ul><li>Política expansionista, Imperio </li></ul>1804-1815 Sieyés (fuente: editorial SM)
  8. 20. <ul><li>&quot;1. Todos los hombres son por naturaleza igualmente libres e independientes, y poseen ciertos derechos inherentes a su persona. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Todo el poder reside en el pueblo y, por consiguientes, deriva de él; los magistrados son sus delegados y sirvientes, y en cualquier ocasión son responsables ante aquel. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Los poderes legislativo y ejecutivo del Estado deben separarse y distinguirse del judicial. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Las elecciones de miembros que actúan como representantes del pueblo en la Asamblea deben ser libres; todos los hombres que tengan evidencia suficiente del común interés tienen derecho al sufragio, y no se les pueden imponer impuestos o expropiar su propiedad sin su consentimiento o el de sus representantes así elegidos.&quot; Declaración de Derechos de Virginia. 1776. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Los representantes del pueblo francés, constituidos en Asamblea Nacional, considerando que la ignorancia, el olvido o el desprecio de los derechos del hombre son las únicas causas de las desgracias públicas y de la corrupción de los gobiernos, han resuelto exponer, en una declaración solemne, los derechos naturales, inalienables y sagradas del hombre (...). Artículo 1.  Los hombres nacen y permanecen libres e iguales en derechos, las distinciones sociales no pueden fundarse más que sobre la utilidad común. Artículo 2.  El objeto de toda asociación política es la conservación de los derechos naturales e imprescriptibles del hombre. Estos derechos son la libertad, la propiedad, la seguridad y la resistencia a la opresión. Artículo 3 . El principio de toda soberanía reside esencialmente en la Nación. Ningún cuerpo ni individuo puede ejercer autoridad que no emane expresamente de ella.&quot; La Declaración de Derechos del Hombre y del Ciudadano. 26 de Agosto de 1789. </li></ul>
  9. 25. Interpretaciones de la Revolución Francesa Tendencia Conservadora Tendencia Liberal Interpretación Marxista Interpretación Estructuralista Destruye los cimientos de la soc. religiosa y obediente del rey Coloca en el poder a los burgueses antirreligiosos y populistas Valora el origen de la época del ciudadano Valora el fin del dominio monárquico Revolución burguesa capitalista Permite consolidar el ascenso social de la burguesía Surge como una revolución burguesa Mov. Dirigido contra todo tipo de privilegios.
  10. 26. Significado de la Revolución Francesa 1. Fue la primera revolución política burguesa del continente europeo. Sus precedentes hay que buscarlos en la Revolución Inglesa del siglo XVII y en la Independencia de los Estados Unidos . 2. Supuso la implantación del liberalismo Asestó un golpe decisivo al absolutismo monárquico que fue reemplazado por la soberanía nacional, el reparto de poderes y el reconocimiento de las libertades individuales. 3. Dotó a Francia de una nueva estructura de la propiedad agrícola. Aunque pervivieron las grandes propiedades agrarias (en manos de la burguesía), nació un nuevo tipo de explotación de tamaño medio en sustitución de los antiguos latifundios pertenecientes a la nobleza y al clero . 4. Constituyó un referente político e ideológico. Las futuras revoluciones burguesas que se desarrollan a lo largo del siglo XIX volverán sus ojos hacia ella. Sucedió así en las oleadas de 1820 , 1830 y 1848 y en los procesos de independencia colonial que dieron origen a nuevos estados, como los de la América hispana. Fuente: http://www.claseshistoria.com/revolucionesburguesas/revolucionfrancesasignificado.htm
  11. 31. LA RESTAURACIÓN
  12. 36. LAS REVOLUCIONES DE 1820, 30 Y 1848
  13. 43. LA PRIMAVERA DE LOS PUEBLOS “Las  revoluciones de 1848 , pues, requerirían un estudio detallado por estados, pueblos y regiones. No obstante, cabe decir que tuvieron muchos  aspectos en común , como que ocurrieron simultáneamente, que sus destinos estaban unidos y que todas ellas tenían un carácter y estilo comunes, una curiosa  atmósfera romántica y utópica , y una retórica similar, para la que los franceses inventaron la palabra  qurante-huitard (*cuarentayochista). Cualquier historiador lo reconoce de inmediato: las barbas, los chales, los sombreros de ala ancha de los militantes, las banderas tricolores, las barricadas,  el sentido inicial de liberación, de enorme esperanza y de confusión optimista .  Era la primavera de los pueblos  y, como ocurre con la estación, no perduró (...). Todas ellas se desarrollaron y languidecieron rápidamente, y en la mayoría de los casos de manera total.” Eric J. Hobsbawn. La era del capitalismo.
  14. 44. INDEPENDENCIA DE LA AMÉRICA ESPAÑOLA
  15. 50. LAS UNIFICACIONES DE ITALIA Y ALEMANIA
  16. 54. Unificación italiana (fuente: editorial Santillana)

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