Assessment

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Assessment

  1. 1. <ul><li>Arceli Gaza Tejada </li></ul>Assessment
  2. 2. Assessment of students receiving special education is based on the same principles as assessment of students in general education. Is a key element of any special education program. It is the process of gathering data for the purposes of making decisions about students (Taylor, 1989). It gives educational portrait of the child that serves as basis for determining the appropriate educational services and instructional program.
  3. 3. <ul><li>Why do we assess? </li></ul><ul><li>Initial identification </li></ul><ul><li>Who has a problem or at risk? </li></ul><ul><li>Determination and evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>of teaching programs and </li></ul><ul><li>strategies </li></ul><ul><li>What to teach and what strategies? </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Determination of current performance level and education needs- </li></ul><ul><li>Classification </li></ul><ul><li>Placement decision </li></ul><ul><li>Development of Individual Education Program </li></ul><ul><li>When to assess? </li></ul><ul><li>Scheduling </li></ul><ul><li>After instructional time </li></ul><ul><li>Pull out during, before or after instruction </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Who will assess? </li></ul><ul><li>Regular-education teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Sped teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Specialists </li></ul><ul><li>Therapists </li></ul><ul><li>School psychologists </li></ul><ul><li>Parents </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Legal and Philosophical Considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Public Law 94-142: Education for All Handicapped Children Act 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zero Reject </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nondiscriminatory evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IEP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Least Restrictive Environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The child should be mainstreamed but if the disability precludes child’s performance in the program it is not encouraged. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Due Process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fairness of decision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parental Participation </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>B. PL 99-457: Education of Handicapped Act Amendments of 1986 </li></ul><ul><li>Need to identify and establish programs for handicapped infants and toddlers. </li></ul><ul><li>C. Philosophical Movements- </li></ul><ul><li>The Regular Education Initiative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Implement Intervention Strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent identification of a child as handicapped </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give curriculum based assessment for instruction rather than labeling </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Areas for Assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Academic problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical problems including sensory disabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Categories of disabilities </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Types of Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Formal Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Norm-referenced/standardized tests-designed to yield average performance scores and may be used for comparing individual student performances. </li></ul><ul><li>Achievement tests measures-student’s accomplishment or performance resulting from instruction and learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence test-measures ability or potential to a large degree w/o reference of child’s learning </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnostic Test </li></ul><ul><li>Aptitude Test-measures specific ability </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Informal Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum-based assessment (CBA)-mastery of the curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Criterion-referenced test-comparison of student’s performance to a given criterion </li></ul><ul><li>Performance assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Authentic Assessment-worthwhile, significant and meaningful </li></ul><ul><li>Portfolio Assessment </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Informal Assessment of Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anecdotal recording </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Event recording </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Checklist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rating Scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Questionnaires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sociograms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecological Assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sentence completion test </li></ul><ul><li>Drawing test </li></ul><ul><li>Apperception Test-student’s feelings </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Assessment of Reading </li></ul><ul><li>A. Word recognition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contextual Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phonological analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structural Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>B. Comprehension </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Assessment in Mathematics </li></ul><ul><li>Disorder: </li></ul><ul><li>Gerstmann Syndrome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>*Bilateral agnosia-inability to identify one’s fingers by touch alone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*Right-left confusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*Agraphia-difficulty in writing numbers and symbols </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acalculla-inability to manipulate arithmetic symbols and calculations </li></ul><ul><li>Dyscalculla-inability to memorize, algn numbers, sequencing and operational symbols </li></ul><ul><li>Congenital arithmetic disorder </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Assessment in Auditory Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral Hearing Test </li></ul><ul><li>Rattle Test </li></ul><ul><li>Pointing or giving the object by just telling the name of the object </li></ul><ul><li>Whisper Test </li></ul><ul><li>Ballpen click Test </li></ul><ul><li>Conversation Voice Test </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment in Spelling </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Assessment in Handwriting </li></ul><ul><li>Activities in teaching handwriting </li></ul><ul><li>Chalkboard aactivities </li></ul><ul><li>Other materials for writing </li></ul><ul><li>Position </li></ul><ul><li>Paper </li></ul><ul><li>Holding the Pen </li></ul><ul><li>Stencils and Templates </li></ul><ul><li>Tracing </li></ul><ul><li>drawing between the lines </li></ul><ul><li>dot-dot </li></ul><ul><li>Tracing with reducing cues </li></ul><ul><li>Lined paper </li></ul><ul><li>Template lines </li></ul><ul><li>Letter difficulty </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Words and sentences </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><ul><li>Perceptual Motor Skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gross motor development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>are the abilities required in order to control large muscles of the body for walking, running, sitting, crawling,etc . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eye-foot coordination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eye-hand combination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body Awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Balance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fine Motor development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>skills involving control of the fingers hands and arms </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Thank You. . . Arceli Gaza Tejada

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