Part IV Middle Childhood: Psychosocial Development Chapter Thirteen <ul><li>The Nature of the Child </li></ul><ul><li>Fami...
<ul><li>Industry versus inferiority </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Erikson’s fourth developmental crisis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>nature of school-age children: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>social comparison  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>effortful contr...
<ul><li>resilience: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>capacity to develop optimally by adapting positively to significant adversity </...
<ul><li>Social Support and Religious Faith </li></ul><ul><ul><li>strong bond with loving, firm parent can help with diffic...
<ul><li>Faith can be psychologically protective. </li></ul><ul><li>Parents can provide religious guidance. </li></ul><ul><...
Families and Children <ul><li>Genes affect temperament as well as ability. </li></ul><ul><li>Peers are vital. </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>shared environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>household influences same for two people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>c...
<ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>legal and genetic relationship among relatives in the same home </li></ul></ul><ul...
<ul><li>Children need family to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>provide basic material necessities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>enco...
<ul><li>Blended family </li></ul><ul><ul><li>family that consists of two adults and children of the prior relationships of...
<ul><li>Family Trouble </li></ul><ul><ul><li>low income and high conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>financial stress and ...
<ul><li>Ideally parents should form an alliance. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>learn to cooperate and protect the children </li></...
The Peer Group <ul><li>getting along with peers crucial </li></ul><ul><li>difficulties can cause serous problems </li></ul...
<ul><li>social comparison </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tendency to assess one’s:  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>abilities </li><...
<ul><li>culture of children: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Particular habits, styles, and values that reflect the set of rules and...
<ul><li>Friendship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Friendship leads to psychosocial growth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer acceptan...
<ul><li>Social Acceptance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>aggressive-rejected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>rejected by peers becau...
<ul><li>Social Awareness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>social cognition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ability to understand socia...
<ul><li>bullying </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeated, systematic efforts to inflict harm through physical, verbal, or social at...
<ul><li>Can bulling be stopped?  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>most children find ways to halt ongoing victimization by: </li></ul...
Children’s Moral Codes <ul><li>Moral Questioning in Middle Childhood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>School-age children are more li...
<ul><li>Stages of Moral Reasoning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kohlberg’s described three levels of moral reasoning: </li></ul></...
<ul><li>Moral specifics vary. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>between and within nations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>within one ethni...
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EDU 145 Ch 13

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EDU 145 Ch 13

  1. 1. Part IV Middle Childhood: Psychosocial Development Chapter Thirteen <ul><li>The Nature of the Child </li></ul><ul><li>Families and Children </li></ul><ul><li>The Peer Group </li></ul><ul><li>Children’s Moral Codes </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Industry versus inferiority </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Erikson’s fourth developmental crisis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>master many skills, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sense of themselves as either: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>industrious or inferior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>competent or incompetent </li></ul></ul></ul>The Nature of the Child
  3. 3. <ul><li>nature of school-age children: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>social comparison </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>effortful control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>loyalty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>appreciation of peers and parents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>from ages 6 to12: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>self-criticism and self-consciousness rises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>self-esteem dips for stressed children </li></ul></ul>Self-Concept
  4. 4. <ul><li>resilience: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>capacity to develop optimally by adapting positively to significant adversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>dynamic, stable trait </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>positive adaptation to stress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>adversity must be significant </li></ul></ul></ul>Resilience and Stress
  5. 5. <ul><li>Social Support and Religious Faith </li></ul><ul><ul><li>strong bond with loving, firm parent can help with difficulties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>social world allows new possibilities for social support </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Faith can be psychologically protective. </li></ul><ul><li>Parents can provide religious guidance. </li></ul><ul><li>Religious beliefs useful as school-age children cope with problems. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Families and Children <ul><li>Genes affect temperament as well as ability. </li></ul><ul><li>Peers are vital. </li></ul><ul><li>Schools and cultures influence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>what, and how much, children learn. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>shared environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>household influences same for two people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>children reared together </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>nonshared environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>siblings with different friends and different teachers </li></ul></ul>Shared and Nonshared Environments
  9. 9. <ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>legal and genetic relationship among relatives in the same home </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>nuclear, extended, step </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>how family works to meet needs of its members </li></ul></ul>Family Function and Structure
  10. 10. <ul><li>Children need family to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>provide basic material necessities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>encourage learning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>develop self-respect. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nurture peer relationships. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ensure harmony and stability. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Blended family </li></ul><ul><ul><li>family that consists of two adults and children of the prior relationships of one or both parents and/or the new partnership </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Family Trouble </li></ul><ul><ul><li>low income and high conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>financial stress and family fighting often feed on each other </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Family Income </li></ul><ul><ul><li>correlates with function and structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>crucial question to ask about any risk factor is how does : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>low income </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>divorce </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>unemployment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… increase the stress on families? </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Ideally parents should form an alliance. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>learn to cooperate and protect the children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Child’s well-being can decline if: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>family members fight. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>physically or verbally abusive. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No structure inevitably either harms children or guarantees good family function. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. The Peer Group <ul><li>getting along with peers crucial </li></ul><ul><li>difficulties can cause serous problems </li></ul><ul><li>developmental progression in peer relationships </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>social comparison </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tendency to assess one’s: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>abilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>achievements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>social status </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… by measuring them against those of other people </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>culture of children: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Particular habits, styles, and values that reflect the set of rules and rituals that characterize children as distinct from adult society. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>deviancy training : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children taught by their peers to avoid restrictions imposed by adults. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Friendship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Friendship leads to psychosocial growth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer acceptance (popularity) and close friendship (mutual loyalty) both affect social interaction and emotional health. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Becomes more intense and intimate as children grow older. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Social Acceptance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>aggressive-rejected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>rejected by peers because of antagonistic, confrontational behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>withdrawn-rejected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>rejected by peers because of timid, withdrawn, anxious behavior </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Social Awareness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>social cognition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ability to understand social interaction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>effortful control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ability to regulate one’s emotions and actions through effort, not simply through natural inclination </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>bullying </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeated, systematic efforts to inflict harm through physical, verbal, or social attack on weaker person. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>bully-victim </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Someone who attacks others, and who is attacked as well. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>also called provocative victims </li></ul></ul></ul>Bullies and Victims
  21. 21. <ul><li>Can bulling be stopped? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>most children find ways to halt ongoing victimization by: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ignoring </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>retaliating </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>defusing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>avoiding </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Children’s Moral Codes <ul><li>Moral Questioning in Middle Childhood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>School-age children are more likely to behave prosocially than are younger children. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>social efficacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People come to believe that they can affect their circumstances. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leads to action that changes the social context. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Stages of Moral Reasoning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kohlberg’s described three levels of moral reasoning: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>preconventional moral reasoning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>rewards and punishments </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>conventional moral reasoning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>social rules </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>postconventional moral reasoning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>moral principles </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Moral specifics vary. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>between and within nations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>within one ethnic group in one region </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Children seek respect from each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Children’s moral precepts are not necessarily the ones that adults endorse. </li></ul>What Children Value

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