Chapter 2<br />Creating Curriculum<br />
Overview<br />Curriculum is child-centered/child-initiated<br />Provides for all child’s development<br />Encourages learn...
Multilevel Process<br />Goals<br />Objectives<br />
Process of Curriculum Development<br />Ongoing<br />Both planned and unplanned<br />Based on child developmental theories<...
Curriculum Models and Programs<br />Head <br />Start<br />Bank<br />Street<br />Montessori<br />High/<br />Scope<br />Regg...
Montessori<br />“Absorbent minds”<br />Hands-on activities<br />Self-correcting materials<br />Didactic materials<br />Foc...
Head Start<br /><ul><li>Publicly funded
Aimed at low-income, at-risk children and families
Comprehensive services
Low child-staff ratio
Ten percent of enrollment available for children with special needs
Performance standards
Involvement of families
Early Head Start to promote infant and toddler development</li></li></ul><li>Bank Street<br /><ul><li>Founded by Lucy Spra...
Child-centered learning
Emphasizes the interaction between the child and the environment and interaction between the cognitive and affective  (dev...
Synonymous with “open education”</li></li></ul><li>High/Scope<br /><ul><li>Created under the leadership of David Weikert
Began as an intervention program for low-income, at-risk children
High/Scope Perry Preschool Study
Active learning
Plan-do-review sequence</li></li></ul><li>Reggio Emilia<br /><ul><li>Founded by Loris Malaguzzi</li></ul>Image of a strong...
Relationships central in learning
The hundred languages of children</li></li></ul><li>Multicultural/Anti-Bias Considerations<br />Changing demographics<br /...
Anti-Bias Curriculum<br />Louise Derman-Sparks<br />More children are bicultural and bilingual<br />Culture is learned<br ...
Special Needs Considerations<br />Public Law 94–142<br />Least restrictive environment<br />Individuals with Disabilities ...
Managing the Environment with Appropriate Guidance<br />Appropriate verbal guidance and guidance techniques<br />Set clear...
Indoor Environment<br /><ul><li>Should welcome everyone in
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Chapter 02

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Chapter 02

  1. 1. Chapter 2<br />Creating Curriculum<br />
  2. 2. Overview<br />Curriculum is child-centered/child-initiated<br />Provides for all child’s development<br />Encourages learning by doing<br />Is inclusive<br />Invites creativity<br />Facilitates physical activity and play<br />Involves families<br />
  3. 3. Multilevel Process<br />Goals<br />Objectives<br />
  4. 4. Process of Curriculum Development<br />Ongoing<br />Both planned and unplanned<br />Based on child developmental theories<br />Child-centered, child-directed<br />Provides for effective use of personnel, time, space, equipment, and materials<br />Inclusive, integrated, emergent<br />
  5. 5. Curriculum Models and Programs<br />Head <br />Start<br />Bank<br />Street<br />Montessori<br />High/<br />Scope<br />Reggio<br />Emilia<br />
  6. 6. Montessori<br />“Absorbent minds”<br />Hands-on activities<br />Self-correcting materials<br />Didactic materials<br />Focus on daily living tasks<br />Sensorial and conceptual materials<br />
  7. 7. Head Start<br /><ul><li>Publicly funded
  8. 8. Aimed at low-income, at-risk children and families
  9. 9. Comprehensive services
  10. 10. Low child-staff ratio
  11. 11. Ten percent of enrollment available for children with special needs
  12. 12. Performance standards
  13. 13. Involvement of families
  14. 14. Early Head Start to promote infant and toddler development</li></li></ul><li>Bank Street<br /><ul><li>Founded by Lucy Sprague Mitchell
  15. 15. Child-centered learning
  16. 16. Emphasizes the interaction between the child and the environment and interaction between the cognitive and affective (developmental interaction)
  17. 17. Synonymous with “open education”</li></li></ul><li>High/Scope<br /><ul><li>Created under the leadership of David Weikert
  18. 18. Began as an intervention program for low-income, at-risk children
  19. 19. High/Scope Perry Preschool Study
  20. 20. Active learning
  21. 21. Plan-do-review sequence</li></li></ul><li>Reggio Emilia<br /><ul><li>Founded by Loris Malaguzzi</li></ul>Image of a strong child central to philosophy<br /><ul><li>Environment is a “third teacher”
  22. 22. Relationships central in learning
  23. 23. The hundred languages of children</li></li></ul><li>Multicultural/Anti-Bias Considerations<br />Changing demographics<br />Discover your own cultural uniqueness<br />Explore your feelings about people who differ from you culturally, racially, or because of special needs<br />
  24. 24. Anti-Bias Curriculum<br />Louise Derman-Sparks<br />More children are bicultural and bilingual<br />Culture is learned<br />Establish an anti-bias curriculum<br />Combat prejudices, stereotypes<br />The development of each child to full potential<br />Explicit and implicit communication<br />
  25. 25. Special Needs Considerations<br />Public Law 94–142<br />Least restrictive environment<br />Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)<br />Individualized family services plan (IFSP) for children from birth through age three<br />Eligibility<br />Assessment<br />Development<br />Implementation and monitoring<br />Support the transition<br />Individualized education plan (IEP) for children older than three<br />
  26. 26. Managing the Environment with Appropriate Guidance<br />Appropriate verbal guidance and guidance techniques<br />Set clear, consistent, and appropriate goals<br />Address behavior, not child<br />Focus on developing responsibility and independence<br />Self-regulation<br />Positive techniques versus negative techniques<br />A problem-solving approach<br />
  27. 27. Indoor Environment<br /><ul><li>Should welcome everyone in
  28. 28. Should be an aesthetic experience
  29. 29. Organizing learning centers
  30. 30. Adaptations for children with special needs</li></li></ul><li>Call for Action<br />Obesity issues<br />Increasing numbers<br />Possible causes<br />Responsibility<br />
  31. 31. Outdoor Environment<br /><ul><li>Should welcome everyone out</li></ul>Parallels what the class does indoors<br />Maintains safety as the first priority<br />Plans for children’s emerging developmental interests and skills<br />Sets reasonable and appropriate rules that are consistently enforced<br />
  32. 32. Criteria for Selecting Equipment, Materials, and Supplies<br />Developmentally appropriate<br />Safety<br />Durability<br />Age appropriate<br />
  33. 33. Technology and Curriculum<br />Choose software carefully <br />Connect with families<br />Balance between computer time and other types of learning experiences<br />
  34. 34. Curriculum Development<br />Themes and units<br />Projects<br />Child<br />Lesson<br />plans<br />Webs<br />
  35. 35. Themes and Units<br />A theme is a broad concept or topic<br />A unit is a section of the curriculum<br />Basic concepts for developing thematic curriculum<br />Merge play with child-directed and teacher-initiated experiences<br />Should be developmentally appropriate<br />Support a positive self-esteem<br />Activities should be adaptable<br />
  36. 36. Projects<br />A project is an in-depth investigation<br />Choose a topic<br />Investigate the topic<br />Co-learning<br />Review and reflect about what you have learned<br />
  37. 37. Curriculum Webs<br />Graphic representation<br />Integrate various learning activities<br />Develop the scope and content of the theme<br />
  38. 38. Lesson Plans<br />Involves making series of choices<br />Specific planning time<br />Planning form <br />“Things to remember” form<br />Activity plan<br />Step-by-step procedures<br />Writing measurable objectives<br />Key words<br />
  39. 39. Transitions<br />Move children from one activity to another<br />Help children adjust to arriving and separating from parents<br />Examples of transition activities<br />
  40. 40. Observation <br />Objective<br />Data collection tools<br />Anecdotal record<br />Checklist<br />Reflective log or diary<br />Case study<br />Portfolio assessment<br />Guidelines<br />
  41. 41. Assessment and Evaluation<br />Assessment<br />Refers to the data-collection process<br />Methods should be developmentally appropriate<br />Should be done for specific purposes<br />Aid in decision-making process<br />Evaluation<br />A continuous process<br />

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