Chapter 01

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Chapter 01

  1. 1.
  2. 2. Chapter 1<br />Starting the Process<br />
  3. 3. Early Childhood Education<br />Birth through age eight<br />Child-centered curriculum and environment<br />Has a rich history<br />
  4. 4. Developmental Theorists<br />Erik Erikson<br />Jean Piaget<br />Lev Vygotsky<br />Howard Gardner<br />
  5. 5. Psychosocial Theory<br />Eight stages<br />First four stages most relevant to ECE<br />Trust versus mistrust<br />Autonomy versus shame and doubt <br />Initiative versus guilt<br />Industry versus inferiority<br />
  6. 6. Cognitive Theory<br />Learning<br />Assimilation<br />Schema/schemata<br />Accommodation<br />Equilibrium<br />Constructivism<br />
  7. 7. Cognitive Theory(continued)<br />Stages<br />Sensorimotor (birth to about 2 years)<br />Object permanence<br />Preoperational (about 2 to 7 years)<br />Egocentric<br />Concrete operations (7 to 12 years)<br />Formal operations (12 through adulthood)<br />
  8. 8. Sociocultural Theory<br />Learning is socially constructed<br />Zone of proximal development<br />Scaffolding<br />
  9. 9. Multiple Intelligences<br />Cross-cultural approach<br />All eight types of intelligences are equal<br />Verbal linguistic and logical-mathematical<br />Well known and valued<br />Other six types must be addressed and celebrated<br />
  10. 10. Developmentally Appropriate Practices<br />Age appropriate<br />Infants, toddlers, preschoolers, primary<br />Individually appropriate<br />Every child is unique<br />Culturally and linguistically appropriate<br />Inclusiveness<br />
  11. 11. Child Development and Learning<br />
  12. 12. Child Development and Learning(continued)<br />
  13. 13. Child Development and Learning(continued)<br />
  14. 14. Individual Appropriateness<br />Child’s needs<br />Child’s strengths<br />Child’s interests<br />Data are collected through observation and documentation<br />Information helps to create a child-centered curriculum<br />Put yourself in the child’s place<br />
  15. 15. Social and Cultural Appropriateness<br />Eliminate bias<br />Reject beliefs or feelings that result in unfair treatment<br />Create anti-bias<br />Challenge prejudices and stereotypes<br />Create an inclusive classroom<br />
  16. 16. Creative Appropriateness<br />Creativity is an integral part of the play environment<br />The process is more important than the product<br />The atmosphere should be relaxed, self-directed, and individually-paced<br />Eliminate conditions that provoke stressors and are time-limited<br />
  17. 17. Play<br />Play is the core of developmentally appropriate practice<br />Play is the foundation for the curriculum<br />Threats to play<br />Teachers, administrators, policy-makers, and families who do not understand the importance<br />Social and economic factors<br />Lack of time and opportunity<br />Electronic competition<br />
  18. 18. Parten’s Developmental Stages of Play<br /><ul><li>Unoccupied behavior
  19. 19. Onlooker play
  20. 20. Solitary play
  21. 21. Parallel play
  22. 22. Associative play
  23. 23. Cooperative play</li></li></ul><li>Theorists and Play<br />Erickson<br />Play helps develop cooperative relationships<br />Piaget<br />Practice play<br />Symbolic play<br />Games with rules<br />Lev Vygotsky<br />Social play helps child “interpret the world”<br />
  24. 24. Some Tips for Teachers<br />Create a positive place for play<br />Introduce age-appropriate play activities and materials<br />Provide time for play<br />Respect individual differences in play<br />Respect and provide for cultural diversity in play<br />
  25. 25. Why Play Is Important<br />Play enhances all developmental domains—physical, social, cognitive, emotional, creative<br />Play inspires imagination, creativity, exploration, self-confidence, more play<br />Play enhances problem solving, new skills, self-esteem, and sense of security<br />
  26. 26. Planning and Scheduling<br />Goals<br />Objectives<br />Both should be developmentally appropriate<br />Routines<br />Schedule<br />Both create a framework for security<br />
  27. 27. Daily Schedule<br />A schedule is a framework of basic time lines, curricula, and activities<br />
  28. 28. Communication with Families<br />Build a collaborative partnership<br />Establish positive communication between home and school<br />Be responsive to the cultural and linguistic differences of children and their families<br />Share goals<br />Use a variety of methods to communicate with and involve families in programs<br />

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