behavioral theory


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behavioral theory

  1. 1. MODULE 15 Behavioral Theory Outline Learning Goals A Behavioral Definition of Motivation ■ Defining Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation ■ Factors Influencing Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation 1. Explain how motivation changes from elementary through middle school, and discuss what factors might account for this trend. Rewarding Students for Learning ■ Advantages and Disadvantages of Rewards ■ Applications: Using Rewards Effectively 2. Explain why task-contingent rewards tend to diminish intrinsic motivation and performance-contingent rewards tend to enhance intrinsic motivation. Praising Students for Learning ■ Advantages and Disadvantages of Praise ■ Applications: Using Praise Effectively 3. Discuss the conditions under which praise can enhance or diminish intrinsic motivation, and explain individual and developmental differences in the effectiveness of praise. When the Reward Is the Activity Itself ■ Flow Theory ■ Applications: Creating an Intrinsically Motivating Learning Environment 4. Discuss methods teachers can use to create an intrinsically motivating learning environment. Summary Key Concepts Case Studies: Reflect and Evaluate boh7850x_CL5Mod15.p266-277.indd 266 10/9/08 8:52:40 AM
  2. 2. module fifteen behavioral theory 267 A BEHAVIORAL DEFINITION OF MOTIVATION Defining Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation Most early research on motivation was rooted in the study of behavioral learning theory, specifically the theory of operant conditioning. According to operant conditioning, an individual who receives reinforcement, a positive consequence for a behavior, would be likely to perform the behavior again under similar circumstances (Skinner, 1953). Reinforcement, in other words, can motivate behavior. Early researchers called this extrinsic motivation, meaning it is “external” to the behavior, and defined this type of motivation as engaging in an activity to obtain an outcome that is distinct from the activity itself (deCharms, 1968; Lepper & Greene, 1978). Of course, individuals do not always need external incentives. For some activities, such as watching TV or playing video games, the reward is an intrinsic part of the activity. Intrinsic motivation relates to engaging in an activity when the reward is the activity itself. Humans and many animals engage in exploratory and curiosity-driven behaviors in the absence of reinforcement (White, 1959). For example, young children build towers of blocks, color, and play dress-up with no need for extrinsic rewards. Elementary-school children who enjoy recreational reading, adolescents who blog or listen to music, and adults who have hobbies are all intrinsically motivated to engage in these activities. In school, teachers strive to encourage academic intrinsic motivation, which is an orientation toward learning characterized by curiosity; persistence; learning of challenging, novel tasks; and a focus on mastery of knowledge and skills (Gottfried, Fleming, & Gottfried, 1994; Gottfried & Gottfried, 1996). Module 15: Behavioral Theory Many students pursue careers in teaching because they were once inspired by a teacher. For teachers, can anything be more gratifying than sparking students’ interest in school subjects and fostering a love of learning in young minds? The importance of motivation to student success begins early and remains significant through adolescence. Children who begin schooling with lower levels of motivation are at a greater academic disadvantage from elementary school through high school (Gottfried, Fleming, & Gottfried, 2001). >><< Operant conditioning: See page 163. Think of some ways in which you are intrinsically and extrinsically motivated. For example, list three activities you do now that you wouldn’t do without some external reward. Factors Influencing Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation Researchers now believe that this division—a dichotomy between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation—may be too simplistic. Many learning activities are both intrinsically and extrinsically motivating. Students reading this textbook might work hard in their course because they enjoy learning about educational psychology and because they want to get a good grade. The issue may not be whether a student is extrinsically or intrinsically motivated, but rather under what conditions and to what degree the student is extrinsically and/or intrinsically motivated. Students’ upbringing and cultural background can significantly influence their motivation. ■ ■ Academic intrinsic motivation. Young children who are intrinsically motivated experience academic benefits throughout their schooling. Children’s early experiences at home may affect their motivation. Cognitively stimulating home environments, regardless of the family’s socioeconomic level, encourage academic intrinsic motivation through early adolescence, while parental reliance on extrinsic motivational practices to promote achievement is associated with lower academic intrinsic motivation (Gottfried et al., 1994; Gottfried, Fleming, & Gottfried, 1998). Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation may be more interrelated in cultures that emphasize interdependence. In contrast to Caucasian children, who tend to view external pressures from adults and intrinsic motivation as distinct forces, Asian-American children view the desire to please adults and intrinsic motivation as interrelated (Lepper, Corpus, & Iyengar, 2005). boh7850x_CL5Mod15.p266-277.indd 267 10/9/08 8:52:57 AM
  3. 3. 268 cluster five motivation Competition and extrinsic motivation. This boy looking up his semester grade point average illustrates the increased academic competition in middle school and high school that can lead to greater extrinsic motivation. Extrinsic rewards may not be necessary in early childhood because children at this developmental level generally are curious, inquisitive, and motivated to learn new things (Harter, 1978). Students tend to become less intrinsically motivated as they move from upper elementary grades through middle and high school (Lepper et al., 2005; Lepper, Sethi, Dialdin, & Drake, 1997). They prefer less challenging tasks and show less interest in and curiosity about learning (Harter, 1992; Harter & Jackson, 1992). Students also tend to like reading, math, and science less as they move up in grade level (Anderman & Maehr, 1994; Gottfried et al., 2001). The structure and climate of classrooms and schools in middle and high school may help explain the developmental trend toward extrinsically motivated learning. In middle and high schools, students have multiple teachers, switch classes, and often have schedules with academic subjects organized into short periods. Teachers in middle and high schools have many students to teach and tend to use more lecture and fewer hands-on activities. Middle and high schools also have stricter academic and behavioral policies than elementary schools and emphasize competition among students to a greater extent, as evidenced by honor rolls, class rankings, and standardized testing for reporting mastery levels to the states as well as for college admissions. Therefore, adolescents in middle and high school increasingly encounter: ■ ■ ■ decontextualized learning where students do not see the relevance of academic material (Lepper et al., 2005); few opportunities to make decisions, more rules and discipline, and poorer teacher-student relationships (Anderman & Maehr, 1994); and competition among students and more evaluation of student performance (Gottfried et al., 2001). All these experiences lead students to become more extrinsically motivated. Extrinsic motivators can be an important part of teachers’ motivational techniques when used appropriately. Let’s look at two extrinsic approaches teachers use to encourage motivation for learning in students: rewards and praise. REWARDING STUDENTS FOR LEARNING Educators often use extrinsic rewards in an attempt to stimulate students’ intrinsic motivation for academic tasks. Consider the Pizza Hut Book It!® program, a national reading incentive program currently used by teachers in 900,000 classrooms to encourage children to read. When students reach their reading goals set by their teachers, they receive a voucher for a free personal pan pizza. The op- boh7850x_CL5Mod15.p266-277.indd 268 10/9/08 8:53:11 AM
  4. 4. module fifteen behavioral theory 269 Module 15: Behavioral Theory erant conditioning model provides a rationale for the practice of rewarding learning activities in this way. A reward given for a behavior will increase the likelihood that the behavior will be performed again, enhancing motivation to produce the behavior in that environment (Skinner, 1953). However, do students continue to read once they are no longer rewarded for reading? According to operant conditioning, when the reward is withdrawn, the likelihood that the behavior will be performed should eventually return to its prereward level (Skinner, 1953). However, in classic experimental research, Edward L. Deci and colleagues provided the first evidence that individuals performed a task less frequently after withdrawal of extrinsic rewards than they did before rewards were introduced (Deci, 1971; Deci, Koestner, & Ryan, 1999a). Contrary to the predictions of operant conditioning, rewards actually undermined intrinsic motivation. Some experts, however, argue that rewards may be useful, especially in situations where school tasks are necessary but seem to have little intrinsic value or interest to students. Elementary students may groan at practicing spelling words, middle school students may not particularly enjoy working through sets of math problems, and high school students may not initially appreciate reading the Greek tragedies. In these instances, educators use rewards to draw students into an activity, hoping that students will develop an interest in the activity. If students develop an initial interest in a topic or activity, they are more likely to develop intrinsic motivation for the task (Hidi, 2000). Advantages and Disadvantages of Rewards Teachers often use tangible rewards to motivate students. They put stickers on classwork or homework that is well done, or offer the opportunity to pick a prize from a treasure box. Teachers also use activity reinforcers, such as extra recess time or time to chat with classmates, as rewards for completing required assignments or tasks (Premack, 1959, 1963). Some experts caution teachers to use rewards sparingly, because they can cause individuals to shift from an internal to an external locus of control (Deci & Ryan, 1985). Locus of control is a belief that the result of one’s behavior—the chance of getting a reward—is due to either external factors outside one’s control, such as luck or others’ behavior (i.e., external locus), or internal factors under one’s control, such as ability or effort (i.e., internal locus) (Rotter, 1966, 1990). For example, if students who initially were interested in recreational reading receive rewards for reading, they may at first believe that they received rewards for their ability to read well (internal locus of control) but eventually may consider rewards as externally imposed constraints by the teacher (external locus of control). Over time, students may believe that their successful performance is due more to the reward than to internal causes such as ability or effort (Brockner & Vasta, 1981; Pittman, Cooper, & Smith, 1977). To use rewards effectively, teachers should consider not only what rewards to offer and why, but also how and when. Tangible rewards can have different effects on intrinsic motivation depending on several factors: ■ ■ ■ Extrinsic motivation. Reinforcement can take many forms, such as stickers for a job well done as shown here. the purpose of the reward, how students perceive the reward, and the context in which the reward is given. Task-contingent rewards are given for participating in an activity (a certificate or extra free time for working on a science project) or for completing an activity (a sticker for completing a set of math problems). Because students tend to perceive task-contingent rewards as controlling, such rewards undermine intrinsic motivation (Deci et al., 1999a). The student must only do what the teacher wants to get the reward. When given task-contingent rewards, students show less interest in the activity and choose to engage in the activity less often than before the reward (Deci et al., 1999a, Deci, Koestner, & Ryan, 2001). Like task-contingent rewards, educational practices that students perceive as controlling may also lead to diminished intrinsic motivation. These practices include: ■ ■ close monitoring by the teacher (Plant & Ryan, 1985), deadlines and imposed goals (Amabile, DeJong, & Lepper, 1976; Manderlink & Harackiewicz, 1984), boh7850x_CL5Mod15.p266-277.indd 269 10/9/08 8:53:16 AM
  5. 5. 270 cluster five motivation ■ ■ ■ threats and directives (Deci & Cascio, 1972; Koestner, Ryan, Bernieri, & Holt, 1984), external evaluation (Hughes, Sullivan, & Mosley, 1985), and competition (Reeve & Deci, 1996; Vallerand, Gauvin, & Halliwell, 1986). The effect of any of these educational practices, though, depends on the context and emphasis (Stipek, 2002). For example, goals may enhance intrinsic motivation if students are encouraged to participate in establishing the goals and if the emphasis is on mastery or personal growth (Deci et al., 1999b; Stipek, 2002). Competition can make an activity more exciting without undermining intrinsic motivation if teachers emphasize the value of learning over winning and losing and if all students have an equal chance of winning (Stipek, 2002). Unlike task-contingent rewards, performance-contingent rewards are less likely to undermine intrinsic motivation and may even enhance it (Cameron, 2001; Deci et al, 1999a). Performancecontingent rewards are those given for doing well or achieving a certain level of performance (receiving a sticker for correctly completing all math problems). Because students perceive performancecontingent rewards as informational—conveying feedback about their achievement—such rewards can increase intrinsic motivation by enhancing students’ perceptions of their competence (Deci et al., 1999b; Ryan, Mims, & Koestner, 1983). The reward indicates something meaningful about the student’s ability in performing a task. Even performance-contingent rewards can undermine intrinsic motivation in certain situations. Rewards that provide feedback about performance may not enhance motivation when the feedback is negative, which suggests a lack of ability (Stipek, 2002). In research that closely reflected what happens in classrooms, where only the top-performing participants received a reward and lower-performing participants received a smaller reward or no reward at all, performance-contingent rewards clearly undermined intrinsic motivation (Deci, Koestner, & Ryan, 2001). In addition, performance-contingent rewards that did not indicate how well individuals performed relative to their peers significantly undermined intrinsic motivation (Harackiewicz, Manderlink, & Sansone, 1984). Think of some instances when you have received rewards for learning in or out of school. Were these rewards task-contingent or performance-contingent, and did they increase or decrease your intrinsic motivation? Applications: Using Rewards Effectively The research literature provides the following guidelines for using tangible rewards in a way that is minimally detrimental to intrinsic motivation (Deci, Ryan, & Koestner, 2001): Occasionally use unexpected rewards. Unexpected rewards, such as surprising students with a movie after a job well done on a group activity, do not significantly affect intrinsic motivation. Students are not specifically working for the opportunity to receive a reward and are more likely to be intrinsically motivated by the task (Cameron, 2001; Deci, Koestner, & Ryan, 2001). Use expected tangible rewards sparingly and withdraw rewards as soon as possible. Expected tangible rewards (e.g., prizes or certificates) generally undermine intrinsic motivation, especially for children in elementary school (Deci et al., 1999a, Deci, Koestner, & Ryan, 2001). When teachers need to use rewards to encourage engagement in a task for which students have little initial interest, they should withdraw rewards as soon as possible to prevent students from engaging in the activity solely to get the reward (Stipek, 2002). Use the most modest reward possible. Individuals will attribute their involvement in an activity to the most salient explanation. Because smaller rewards are not very salient as explanations for student behavior, they will not become the primary reason for students’ engaging in a learning activity (Stipek, 2002). Make rewards contingent on quality of work (Ames & Ames, 1990; Deci, Eghrari, Patrick, & Leone, 1994). Performance-contingent rewards are less likely to undermine intrinsic motivation than are task-contingent rewards. Performance-contingent rewards can be used to reinforce effort as well as achievement. Rewarding students’ efforts toward mastering a particular task fosters intrinsic motivation (Harter, 1978). Some students do not recognize that effort has an effect on task success (Seligman, 1994; Urdan, Midgley, & Anderman, 1998). Teaching them that effort leads to greater achievement will increase their achievement level (Craske, 1985; Van Overwalle & De Metsenaere, 1990). Minimize the use of an authoritarian style. Authoritarian teaching styles that involve controlling language, directives, threats, and close monitoring have been shown to decrease students’ intrinsic motivation (Deci et al., 1994; Koestner et al., 1984). Teachers should avoid using disapproval as a way to motivate students when they fail to achieve mastery on tasks. Punishment for failing to master a boh7850x_CL5Mod15.p266-277.indd 270 10/9/08 8:53:23 AM
  6. 6. module fifteen behavioral theory 271 task inhibits intrinsic interest (Harter, 1978). Disapproval or punishment for failures also leads students to prefer easy tasks and thus to avoid risking the failure that sometimes occurs when initially attempting a challenging task (Stipek, 2002). Module 15: Behavioral Theory PRAISING STUDENTS FOR LEARNING In some situations, the performance of a skill or behavior itself provides an individual with direct reinforcement (Stipek, 2002). A 5-year-old who successfully ties her shoes and an adolescent who beats his highest score on a video game have immediate feedback about mastery of their skills. In other situations, reinforcement of an individual’s performance requires social input. Knowing that your batting swing has improved, your term paper is persuasive, or your homework assignment is correct requires feedback from an adult. In these cases, praise, or positive feedback in the form of written or spoken comments, is useful for providing individuals with feedback. Advantages and Disadvantages of Praise Praise is widely recommended as a reinforcement method because it is free and has the potential to provide encouragement and enhance self-esteem (Brophy, 1981). Praise also may have positive effects partly because it is unexpected, leading students to believe that they genuinely have done something praiseworthy (Brophy, 1981; Deci et al., 1999a). However, like the tangible rewards discussed earlier, praise can enhance or undermine intrinsic motivation depending on how it is given and how it is perceived. Before discussing the effects of praise on intrinsic motivation, we should distinguish two forms of praise: ■ ■ Encouragement is feedback given to help an individual improve, such as “I like the details in your essay.” Researchers refer to this form of praise as informational. It tells students what they have done well and what to do the next time they write an essay. Evaluative praise is a favorable judgment about an individual’s performance or behavior, such as “You’re the best writer in the class.” Researchers refer to this form of praise as controlling. The teacher’s favorable evaluation, rather than students’ intrinsic interest or self-evaluation, controls their motivation. Students work to receive another favorable evaluation. Informational praise tends to enhance intrinsic motivation, while controlling forms of praise undermine intrinsic motivation. Because informational praise provides feedback about students’ competence, it enhances their intrinsic motivation, leading to increased interest, more positive attitudes about the activity, and a greater likelihood of choosing the activity during free time (Cameron, 2001; Deci et al., 1999a). Positive feedback given using controlling language, such as should and ought, tends to undermine intrinsic motivation (Kast & Connor, 1988; Ryan et al., 1983). An example is “Thank you for turning in neat homework. You should keep up the good effort.” Controlling language also can undermine motivation even when teachers are attempting to give students encouragement (Deci et al., 1999a; Ryan et al., 1983). An example is “Good job. You followed the instructions this time!” In developmental terms, praise has a limited window of effectiveness. Children younger than age seven interpret praise as affirmation that they are pleasing authority figures, rather than as feedback about their performance (Brophy, 1981). Elementary school students tend to benefit from praise because they come to realize that praise should occur only after certain types of behavior, such as compliance and academic success. By the time students reach high school, however, they interpret praise from the teacher as an indication of low ability (Meyer et al., 1979). Praise may also benefit some students more than others because of the way they perceive the praise. ■ boh7850x_CL5Mod15.p266-277.indd 271 , ■ Students with an external locus of control—a belief that teacher praise is caused by external factors (teacher’s attitude or liking of them) rather than internal factors (one’s own success)—are more receptive to praise (Brophy, 1981). Lower-achieving students and students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds tend to benefit academically from praise. Students who are more likely to be discouraged academically may interpret teacher praise as more meaningful (Brophy, 1981). Girls may benefit less from praise than boys, because they tend to perceive praise as controlling even when the praise is relatively ambiguous with respect to its informational or controlling qualities (Kast & Connor, 1988; Koestner, Zuckerman, & Koestner, 1987). , ■ 10/9/08 8:53:24 AM
  7. 7. 272 cluster five motivation TA B L E 1 5 . 1 Guidelines for Effective Praise Effective Praise . . . Ineffective Praise . . . is delivered contingently. is delivered randomly or unsystematically. specifies the particulars of the accomplishment. is restricted to global positive reactions. shows spontaneity, variety, and other signs of credibility; suggests clear attention to the student’s accomplishment. shows a bland uniformity that suggests a conditioned response made with minimal attention. rewards attainment of specified performance criteria (which can include effort criteria, however). rewards mere participation, without consideration of performance processes or outcomes. provides information to students about their competence or the value of their accomplishments. provides no information at all or gives students information about their status. orients students toward better appreciation of their own task-related behavior and thinking about problem solving. orients students toward comparing themselves with others and thinking about competing. uses students’ own prior accomplishments as the context for describing present accomplishments. uses the accomplishments of peers as the context for describing students’ present accomplishments. is given in recognition of noteworthy effort or success at difficult (for this student) tasks. is given without regard to the effort expended or the meaning of the accomplishment. attributes success to effort and ability, implying that similar successes can be expected in the future. attributes success to ability alone or to external factors such as luck or low task difficulty. fosters endogenous attributions (students believe that they expend effort on the task because they enjoy the task and/or want to develop task-relevant skills). fosters exogenous attributions (students believe that they expend effort on the task for external reasons—to please the teacher, win a competition or reward, etc.). focuses students’ attention on their own task-relevant behavior. focuses students’ attention on the teacher as an external authority figure who is manipulating them. fosters appreciation of, and desirable attributions about, task-relevant behavior after the process is completed. intrudes into the ongoing process, distracting attention from task-relevant behavior. Source: J. Brophy (1981). “Teacher praise: A functional analysis.” Review of Educational Research, 51(1): 5–32. Copyright © 1981 American Educational Research Association. Reprinted by permission of Sage Publications. Applications: Using Praise Effectively >><< Praise: See page 271. Teachers’ appropriate use of praise can encourage students to focus on the intrinsic value of learning. Jere Brophy (1981) provides many suggestions, shown in Table 15.1, for using praise in ways that do not hinder intrinsic motivation. To use praise effectively, keep in mind these guidelines: Make praise specific to the particular behavior being reinforced. Teachers should refrain from using vague phrases such as “Nice work,” “Good job,” or “You’re so smart!” Instead, they should specifically identify what is good about the behavior. Specific praise is more credible and is informational, providing feedback about students’ performance. Also, praising children and adolescents for being smart leads them to believe that learning is about looking smart and not making mistakes (Dweck, 1999). These children believe intelligence to be innate and fi xed, and they experience lowered motivation when they are confronted with failure. Be sure praise is sincere. Teacher praise must be credible in order for students to believe that their performance is praiseworthy. Praise undermines intrinsic motivation when teachers: ■ ■ praise everyone, because students are not likely to attribute praise to anything special (Brophy, 1981); praise students for easy tasks, because students see the praise as undeserved (Marzano, Pickering, & Pollack, 2005). They perceive praise for performing an easy task as an indication of low ability (Miller & Hom, 1997; Weiner, 1990). Give praise that is contingent on the behavior to be reinforced. When teachers give praise that is contingent on success, students interpret it as feedback that success has been achieved (Brophy, 1981; O’Leary & O’Leary, 1977). However, teacher praise is often noncontingent, and therefore inconsistent. boh7850x_CL5Mod15.p266-277.indd 272 10/9/08 8:53:24 AM
  8. 8. module fifteen behavioral theory 273 Module 15: Behavioral Theory Teachers tend to give praise for success relatively infrequently, only about 10% of the time, suggesting that they do not consistently offer praise despite observing many examples of successful performance in their students (Brophy, 1981). Teachers may also shift their criteria for “success,” leading them to praise a student for a certain achievement on one occasion and not on another (Mehan, 1974). Teachers also sometimes praise incorrect responses in addition to correct responses (Anderson, Evertson, & Brophy, 1979). For example, teachers gave similar praise to students whose oral reading was errorless and to students whose reading contained mistakes. Think of some instances when you have been praised. Did the praise increase your intrinsic motivation or decrease it? Why do you think this happened? WHEN THE REWARD IS THE ACTIVITY ITSELF Flow Theory Some students are intrinsically motivated by the nature of the task in which they are involved and do not need any external reward. Have you ever been doing an interesting experiment or activity in one of your college classes and found that you are surprised at how quickly the time races by? If so, you were in a state of flow, also called optimal experience or, using the sports metaphor, “in the zone.” Flow is a feeling of intrinsic enjoyment and absorption in a task that is challenging and rewarding, making a person feel at one with the task. Mihalyi Csikzentmihalyi (1990, 2000) created flow theory to describe the subjective experiences of individuals who are motivated to engage in an activity for its own sake. Some activities are more likely than others to create the level of engagement and absorption characterized by flow. Playing chess, rock climbing, sailing, and playing a musical instrument are activities conducive to flow. In general, experiences that promote flow often: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ have rules that require the learning of new skills, establish goals, provide feedback, allow the participants to have a sense of control, and facilitate a high level of concentration and involvement. State of flow. Experiences such as playing chess can promote flow. When have you been in a flow state? Based on these characteristics, what classroom experiences do you suspect might be flow-inducing? At the upper elementary level, vocabulary relay races in which teams of students compete against one another to define a set of vocabulary terms could have flowinducing components: a sense of friendly competition, rules of the relay, immediate feedback (as each vocabulary word’s definition is checked), heightened concentration, and active participation. At the middle school or high school level, flow might be induced by a living history assignment in which students learn about the Civil War and then spend time planning and implementing a live reenactment of a certain battle. In these classroom activities, flow happens when students’ attention is invested in a challenging but realistic goal and when skills they have developed match their opportunities for action. The challenge of the activity should correspond to the student’s skill for engaging in the activity, as balancing the two is critical to creating boh7850x_CL5Mod15.p266-277.indd 273 10/9/08 8:53:25 AM
  9. 9. 274 cluster five motivation an environment conducive to flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1997). A student whose skills exceed the requirements of the activity likely will find the task boring and not conducive to flow. Likewise, a student who lacks skills for a particular activity may find it frustrating and will not experience a state of flow. Individuals must devote an extensive amount of time and practice if an activity that at first requires conscious focus and effort is to become intrinsically rewarding (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990). Applications: Creating an Intrinsically Motivating Learning Environment >><< Disequilibrium: See page 120. Teachers can create an intrinsically motivating learning environment through the way they introduce material, design learning tasks, group students for activities, and display students’ work. Let’s explore each of these. Introduce a lesson by conveying its importance or relevance. Students often ask teachers, “Why do I have to know this?” If students perceive the value of what they are learning, their intrinsic motivation increases (Turner & Paris, 1995). Relating information to students’ interests is particularly effective in conveying the value of to-be-learned material (Covington, 2000; Stipek, 1996). For example, if a high school physics teacher begins teaching a new physics law by telling students how it relates to many uses relevant to their lives, this should pique their interest and intrinsically motivate them to learn. When students have a personal interest in material, they are more likely to process information meaningfully and to learn more (Ainley, Hidi, & Berndorff, 2002; Cordova & Lepper, 1996). Use enthusiasm, novelty, and surprise. Introducing new material through the use of enthusiasm, novelty, and surprise can spark interest in learning (Covington, 2000; Stipek, 1996). Using novelty and surprise is consistent with Piaget’s (1954, 1963) notion of disequilibrium, a state of cognitive imbalance in which new information does not fit with an individual’s existing way of thinking. In Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, individuals are motivated to learn in order to resolve their disequilibrium. Design tasks of optimal difficulty (Covington, 2000; Stipek, 1996). Providing tasks that are just slightly beyond the skill level of students is an effective way to challenge them (Piaget, 1985; Vygotsky, 1978). Optimal challenge fosters feelings of competence and self-esteem. Teachers must be careful to tailor tasks to the ability levels of their students (Stipek, 2002). Work that is too difficult increases anxiety, but tasks that are too easy can lead to boredom. Provide students with choices for learning activities (Deci & Ryan, 1992; Ryan & Stiller, 1991). Even though students might develop feelings of competence in response to praise and extrinsic re- Using Surprise When Teaching. Novelty or surprise, as shown here by the teacher demonstrating a chemical reaction, can spark intrinsic motivation. boh7850x_CL5Mod15.p266-277.indd 274 10/9/08 8:53:28 AM
  10. 10. module fifteen behavioral theory 275 Module 15: Behavioral Theory wards, they might not become intrinsically motivated unless they have a sense of autonomy, or self- >><< determination(Ryan & Deci, 2000a). In other words, students should feel that they have control over Selftheir learning. Teachers who allow students a level of autonomy create more responsible, indepen- determination, dent, self-regulated learners. If they are provided with too many choices, however, students can be- see page 303. come overwhelmed. An effective teacher must be selective about how and under what circumstances to involve students in the decision-making process. For example, a teacher might require groups of students to develop social studies projects about a particular country but allow each group to choose >><< which country to research based on their personal interests. Create tasks that involve collaborative grouping. Collaborative group activities can focus students’ Collaborative attention on the intrinsic value of learning (Turner & Paris, 1995). Learning in a social context not group activities: only challenges students to think in more advanced ways but also can satisfy students’ need for af- See page 377. fi liation (Deci & Ryan, 2000; Vygotsky, 1978). Collaboration works best when students depend on one another to reach a desired goal, when they are shown how to work together effectively, and when group performance is valued or rewarded in some way (Driscoll, 2005). Display student work to emphasize effort, creativity, and pride in accomplishments. Displaying students’ work on an art wall, bulletin board, or Web site or at events like a science fair can lead to an increase in intrinsic motivation depending on what teachers choose to display (Malone & Lepper, 1983). Putting only A papers on a bulletin board can undermine feelings of competence in students who did well but did not earn an A. This competitive focus can foster feelings of incompetence in students who have performed well but did not outperform classmates (Stipek, 2002). In contrast, displaying students’ work is effective if it conveys the message that there isn’t only one correct way to complete a project and if students can view their own work and that of others. This recognition process creates positive feelings about effort, ownership, achievement, and responsibility (Turner Collaborative Activities. Collaboration has both academic and social benefits, and can lead to greater intrinsic motivation. & Paris, 1995). Imagine a grade level you intend to teach. How would you use these guidelines to create an intrinsically motivating classroom environment? boh7850x_CL5Mod15.p266-277.indd 275 10/9/08 8:53:30 AM
  11. 11. 276 case studies: reflect and evaluate Summary Explain how motivation changes from elementary through middle school, and discuss what factors might account for this trend. Students’ motivation shifts as they grow, from an intrinsic focus to an extrinsic focus. Extrinsic motivation refers to engaging in an activity to obtain an external reward, while intrinsic motivation refers to engaging in an activity that is itself rewarding. Students’ intrinsic motivation for academic tasks declines from elementary through middle school. This may be due to changes in the structure of the classroom environment, a greater focus on grades and evaluations of performance, decontextualized learning, and the use of extrinsic rewards for learning. Discuss the conditions under which praise can enhance or diminish intrinsic motivation, and explain individual and developmental differences in the effectiveness of praise. Praise generally enhances intrinsic motivation because it is unexpected and provides feedback about a student’s competence. However, praise may diminish intrinsic motivation if teachers use it as feedback for easy tasks or convey it in a controlling or insincere manner. Praise is more likely to benefit students in the middle elementary grades, lower-achieving students, students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds, males, and students with an external locus of control. Explain why task-contingent rewards tend to diminish intrinsic motivation and performance-contingent rewards tend to enhance intrinsic motivation. Taskcontingent rewards, given for merely completing a task or an activity, diminish intrinsic motivation. Students perceive task-contingent rewards as controlling and work only to get the reward. Performancecontingent rewards are less likely to undermine intrinsic motivation and may even enhance it, because they provide information about a student’s level of mastery. However, even performance-contingent rewards can undermine intrinsic motivation if the feedback is negative. Discuss methods teachers can use to create an intrinsically motivating learning environment. Teachers have several options for creating intrinsically motivating environments. In general, they can convey the importance of a new lesson or concept and spark interest in academic subjects by using enthusiasm, novelty, and surprise. Teachers can create tasks that involve collaborative learning, provide students with a choice in learning tasks, and be sure that tasks are optimally challenging for all students. Teachers can appropriately display students’ work, making sure that these create positive feelings about effort, achievement, and responsibility. Key Concepts academic intrinsic motivation intrinsic motivation praise extrinsic motivation locus of control reinforcement flow performance-contingent rewards task-contingent rewards Case Studies: Reflect and Evaluate Early Childhood: “The Worksheets” These questions refer to the case study on page 258. 1. Is the kindergarten class as a whole extrinsically motivated or intrinsically motivated? Are there any students for whom your answer would be different? Based on the research presented in the module, would you expect the same type of motivation in a sixth-grade class? Explain. 2. Elizabeth is rewarding Emanuel, Kristina, and Martin by allowing them to play after satisfactorily completing their seatwork. What type of reward is this called? Is this reward effective in promoting students’ intrinsic motivation, according to the research evidence? 3. Does Claire have an external locus of control or an internal locus of control? How do you know? How might that influence the effect that praise has on her motivation? 4. What guideline did Elizabeth violate when praising Alannah and Mahiro? What alternative praise would you suggest Elizabeth use? Give an example. boh7850x_CL5Mod15.p266-277.indd 276 10/9/08 8:53:31 AM
  12. 12. case studies: reflect and evaluate 277 5. Some of the children want to rush through their work so they can play like Martin and his friends. How can you use rewards to motivate these children to focus on their schoolwork? 6. How can Elizabeth encourage Martin to have an intrinsic motivation to learn math? Elementary School: “Writer’s Block” These questions refer to the case study on page 260. 1. Identify the instances of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation in this case. 2. Yuiko announces that students may select an activity of their choice after they’ve completed their writing. What type of reward is this called? Is this effective in promoting intrinsic motivation, according to the research evidence? 3. Based on the research evidence, explain why Yuiko’s free-writing activity might discourage intrinsic motivation. What could she do differently to enhance students’ intrinsic motivation for writing? 4. What type of praise did Yuiko use with Shanti, controlling or informational? According to the guidelines for praise discussed in the module, is the praise given to Shanti effective? Why or why not? 5. Based on your reading of the module and the information presented in the case, does the practice of displaying students’ writing on the bulletin board motivate students? If so, which students and in which way, intrinsically or extrinsically? How would you display students’ work in your own classroom? 6. Outside of writing activities, identify strategies Yuiko can implement to foster intrinsic motivation in her third graders. Middle School: “The Math Review” These questions refer to the case study on page 262. 1. Do the eighth graders appear to be intrinsically or extrinsically motivated in math class? According to the research evidence presented in the module, is their motivation typical of middle school students? 2. Based on the research evidence discussed in the module, are the first prize and class prize likely to enhance students’ intrinsic motivation for math? Why or why not? 3. Is the feedback Jack gives to Jeremy likely to be perceived as informational or controlling? How might that affect Jeremy’s motivation? 4. Based on the guidelines for effective praise, evaluate Jack’s interaction with Sam. Imagine that Jack and Sam talk further after class. What can Jack say to increase Sam’s intrinsic motivation for math? 5. What should the first prize and class prize be? How would that enhance students’ intrinsic motivation? 6. Instead of creating a competition, what other things could Jack do to foster intrinsic motivation for math? High School: “Exam Grades” These questions refer to the case study on page 264. 1. Contrast the motivational orientation—intrinsic or extrinsic—of students in general science and students in AP physics. 2. Is the motivational orientation of students in Curtis’s classes typical of high school students? What factors might contribute to their motivational orientation? 3. According to the research presented in the module, is praising Madelyn for the highest grade on the physics exam an effective motivator? Why or why not? 4. How can Curtis encourage students like Chelsea to focus more on learning and less on grades? 5. If Curtis wants to use rewards to stimulate students’ intrinsic motivation and interest in science in his general science class, what types of rewards would you recommend? Be sure your answer is supported by the research evidence discussed in the module. 6. Aside from offering rewards, how can Curtis create an intrinsically motivating environment in his general science class? boh7850x_CL5Mod15.p266-277.indd 277 10/9/08 8:53:33 AM