Technology in education


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Technology in education

  1. 1. Technology in Education<br />ArticlesRecommended ReadingRelated linksCritical QuestionsPossible Actions<br />Many people warn of the possible harmful effects of using technology in the classroom. Will children lose their ability to relate to other human beings? Will they become dependent on technology to learn? Will they find inappropriate materials? The same was probably said with the invention of the printing press, radio, and television. All of these can be used inappropriately, but all of them have given humanity unbounded access to information which can be turned into knowledge. Appropriately used-- interactively and with guidance-- they have become tools for the development of higher order thinking skills.<br />Inappropriately used in the classroom, technology can be used to perpetuate old models of teaching and learning. Students can be "plugged into computers" to do drill and practice that is not so different from workbooks. Teachers can use multimedia technology to give more colorful, stimulating lectures. Both of these have their place, but such use does not begin to tap the power of these new tools.<br />In this area, you will find descriptions of how computers can be used to stimulate and develop writing skills, collaborate with peers in foreign countries, do authentic kinds of research that is valuable to the adult world, and do complex kinds of problem solving that would otherwise be impossible.<br />Articles<br />Technology and Academic Achievement   Les FoltosNew research provides substantial evidence connecting the use of technology to academic achievement.<br />Americans Need to Know More About Technology    The National Academy of Engineering A 2002 report.<br />Take Back the Afternoon: Preserving the Landscape of Childhood In Spite of Computers    David SobelThe Director of Teacher Certification Programs at Antioch New England and Co-Director of the Center for Place-Based Education describes the importance of hands-on learning and creative activities in helping children develop their fullest capacities.<br />Classroom Applications:<br />Implications of New Media for K-12 Education    Chris DedeVirtual Reality researcher Chris Dede's testimony to Congress on the implications of introducing new technologies in the classroom. Link to an outline of important themes and policy issues surrounding the use of information technology to support innovative models of teaching and learning.<br />Nanoscale Science and Technology: Connections with K-12 Education    Ethan AllenUW professor and researcher considers the implications of nanoscale science and technology for K-12 education.<br />The Web of Knowledge: Vision, Design, and Practice    Patrick McKercher, Judy Bonne and Andy RogersA description of James Burke's Knowledge Web project and its application in the classroom.<br />Intercultural Education and Virtual Reality   Judy Bonne and Patrick McKercherJudy Bonne Kane, the Director of Curriculum and Instruction for the Crawford AuSable Schools and Educational Project Director for the K-Web, and Patrick McKercher, K-Web project manager, give us an update on this project developed by James Burke.<br />Advancement of Science Knowledge In Language Learning ( ASKILL )     John Shaffer and V. A. Lindley-BrunnTwo educational researchers discuss a project that focuses on enhancing English language acquisition at the middle school level by English Language Learners through the study of science.<br />Learning with the Internet    S. L. MuthukumarA Singaporean researcher shares how to effectively use technology as a positive student learning experience.<br />Changing the Face of Education in Missouri   Monica Beglau A statewide education program that focuses on the use of technology in the classroom.<br />Generation Y: Student Inclusion = Technology Infusion   Sylvia MartinezA curriculum model that combines project based learning for students with professional development for teachers.<br />Technology and MI    Thomas Hoerr How technology can be used to implement the Multiple Intelligences theory in the classroom.<br />Linking Students with Their World: A Good Day in French Class    Nancy A. BaconOne practical and successful application of special technology in the classroom.<br />Technology in Environmental Education   Clancy J. Wolf How technology not only enhances learning but also helps students to explore and understand the world around them.<br />Listen Up!: Using Audio Files in the Curriculum    Tuiren Bratina, Tom Bratina and Anthony BratinaHow to add audio files to online course content.<br />A New Generation Meets the Ancient Mariner    Raúl daSilvaLiterature can come alive for students as a sensory experience by using new technologies. The text remains intact, but these technological enhancements can provide a context which connects the work to music, art, history and more.<br />Harnessing the Best of Technology for an Exceptional Information Literacy Library Program   Deborah Gallaher and Sue RobertsA library program that combines student research, technology and learning to think critically.<br />Working Together: Students with Disabilities and Computer Technology    Sheryl Burgstahler, Ph.D.Special needs students can particularly benefit from the use of new technology.<br />What's ONADIME?    Bruce MitchellOnadime Composer is a software tool kit for making multi-media, multi-sensory real time interactive computer programs for teaching, learning and entertainment. <br />The Internet:<br />Questions for Potential Online Instructors    Nancy Prince-CohenOnline educator addresses some pedagogical, sociological, and psychological issues educators need to examine before they begin to create an online course.<br />Lessons on Teaching Writing from Website Design  Jennifer C. StoneUniversity of Washington Professor showcases ways that students can transfer skills used to build a website to the writing process.<br />Clickers, Be Aware!    Cheryl Edwards and Lydia McCardleThrough their experiences teaching a senior-level methods class and supervising student teachers, two teacher educators found that teacher candidates are increasingly looking to the Internet for help with lesson planning. However, many lack discretion in selecting effective lesson plans from the proliferation of websites. This article points out the importance of raising candidates' awareness of pitfalls and informing them of ways to identify reliable websites and effective lesson plans.<br />Mr. Coulter's Internet Tendency: to Infinity and Beyond Brad CoulterVeteran elementary school teacher uses online publishing to motivate young writers. <br />Instant Messaging: Friend or Foe of Student Writing?   Amanda O'ConnorGraduate student in Educational Technology discusses the impact of "internet speak" on student writing.<br />Chaim Potok's My Name is Asher Lev, Art History and Images From the World Wide WebAlan WarhaftigIncluding art history creates a richer, more powerful lesson.<br />The Learning Space: A Unique Online Community of Teachers    Bretta BeveridgeA grassroots organization uniting teachers on the internet.<br />Releasing the Isolated Warrior    Marlene A. K. Goss, Ph.D. What teachers need in order to make use of new technologies in the classroom.<br />e-Quality    Dr. Miriam Masullo and Dr. Antonio RuizWhen the internet was born, educational leaders had high hopes that access to information would make education better for everyone, everywhere in the world.  Now, in the year 2000, we see that these hopes have been dashed.  Too few have access to the technologies.  Schools do not have the equipment necessary to make use of the information superhighway, many do not even have access to telephones, much less the internet.  Dr. Masullo and Dr. Ruiz propose a new way to renew the promise of equity access to education.<br />People Are the Only Thing that Matter    Dr. Miriam Masullo and Dr. Antonio Ruiz According to our Department of Education, in the US only 14% of poor and minority classrooms are wired. Thus, even for developed countries, diminished resources, lack of educators, and safety in the schools are higher priority issues than figuring out how to make the Internet and the Web new vehicles for improved learning.<br />The Future of Learning in a New Free World and how to Build a World Wide Learning Web    Gordon DrydenNew Zealand author of the New Learning Revolution notes that millions of teachers and billions of students continue to work mainly in isolation, yet in today's world of instant communication, collaboration is essential in order to make the most effective changes.<br />Americans All: Searching for Sponsors for a History and Civics Data Base System   Allen S. KullenIn this essay, Kullen calls for sponsors to support Americans All, a program that will serve as the national operating entity to gather, organize, distribute and maintain electronic databases that will support how individual states teach and test history and civics at various grade levels. These inclusive databases will comprise the complete political, social and cultural history of the nation, organized by state and grade level.<br />The Guilds: A New Curriculum for Education and Internet Reform   George GormanCould the internet become the forum for a lifelong learning program for all?<br />Virtual and Augmented Reality:<br />Virtual Reality In Education   John ShafferA science teacher shares ideas on virtual reality and how it could potentially enhance a multiple intelligences teaching strategy.<br />Learning Through Virtual Reality    Bill WinnHow virtual reality can help students learn and what kinds of virtual reality models are available now to be used in the classroom.<br />Augmented Reality in Education   Mark BillinghurstA pioneer in the field of AR explains its practical uses.<br />Augmented Reality and Education: Current Projects and the Potential for Classroom Learning   Brett E. SheltonMore on the future of augmented reality.<br />Multimedia:<br />Multimedia Technology and Children's Development    Dee DickinsonImplications of the technology revolution.<br />Technology As the Catalyst    Linda A. Tsantis, Ph.D. The author suggests that multimedia technology (a marriage of technology and the arts) can be utilized in ways that enhance the unique characteristics of each learner.<br />Learning by Design: Integrating Technology into the Curriculum Through Student Multimedia Design Projects   Ted M. Kahn, Ph.D. and Linda K. Taber Ullah, M. Ed. In order for technology to be effective in today's education system, it needs to be intelligently integrated into a rich, meaning-centered curriculum.<br />Multimedia Encourages New Learning Styles   David Thornburg, Ph.D. Modern technological tools let us work with information in ways that honor the unique learning modalities of each student.<br />Beyond the classroom:<br />Using New Educational Technologies to Empower Youth: The Power of Youth-Adult Partnerships in e-Learning   Gary Goldman and Barbara L. McCombsTapping the resource of young peoples' technological skills can benefit the whole community.<br />Inventing Workshops: Hands on Technology   Ed SobeyProject based learning outside the classroom.<br />Washington Aerospace Scholars Program    Bonnie J. DunbarThe Museum of Flight in Seattle and Washington Governor Christine Gregoire announce a pioneering new aerospace program to foster student interest in math and science.<br />Giant Campus: Experience Based Technology Learning   Maura WhalenTeaching young people to use technology benefits students at every point of the achievement spectrum.<br />Technology Access Foundation (TAF)   Trish Millines Dziko This foundation brings free computer and technology access to those who have been traditionally underrepresented in the field of technology.<br />WildTech Learning   Eric Christianson What can happen when a school gets involved with the Wilderness Technology Alliance? A win-win situation results for school, students and community.<br />Learning to Do: Students Develop IT Projects that Deliver ServiceIn British Columbia, Canada, students in grades 10-12 in an Information Technology Management (ITM) course take a project-driven approach to studying information technology. Students learn to manage technology and in the process about taking responsibility for getting the job done. The teacher-student collaboration is empowering for both.<br />A Call to Action:  A Global Youth Empowerment Society (YES)   Gary Goldman and Allen SchmiederThe authors call for young persons in America to make  significant contributions to their community, thereby energizing their lives and spearheading the revitalization of schools and neighborhoods.<br />Campaign Against American E-Partheid    Timothy Jenkins Timothy Jenkins believes there is a need for radically different educational interventions, and a redirecting of education dollars from anti-crime and drug prevention programs to positive skill-building and access opportunities for all children.<br />Recommended Reading<br />The Knowledge Web   James Burke<br />The New Basics: Education and the Future of Work in the Telematic Age   David Thornburg<br />Teaching Every Student in the Digital Age: Universal Design for Learning   David H. Rose and Anne Meyer<br />The Internet and the Law: What Educators Need to Know   Kathleen Conn<br />Using the Internet to Strengthen Curriculum   Larry Lewin<br />Project-Based Learning Using Information Technology, second ed.    David Moursund<br />Gene Genie   Thomas Bass<br />Making Technology Standards Work for You--A Guide for School Administrators   Susan Brooks-Young<br />Telecosm: How Infinite Bandwidth Will Revolutionize Our World   George Gilder<br />NETS�S Curriculum Series�Multidisciplinary Units for Grades 3�5   ISTE<br />National Educational Technology Standards for Teachers: Preparing Teachers to Use Technology M. G. Kelly, ed.<br />Visual Literacy: Learn to See, See to Learn   Lynell Burmark<br />Related links<br />Long Island Consortium for Interconnected Learning in Quantitative DisciplinesPresents physics problems, calculus projects, problem sets for precalculus, multiple choice and essay questions for Calculus I- III, business/math problems using spreadsheets and calculators, and 23 math research projects.<br />New Jersey Center for Advanced Technological EducationThe Center offers a curriculum model for engineering and science technology disciplines, professional development for teachers, competitions for students, and course descriptions.<br />Learning in the Real World Learning in the Real World makes research grants to university investigators to develop, analyze and distribute information which will allow parents and planners to make rational decisions about when and where education technology is a positive tool for children and when it detracts from their development. Go to Further Reading for a great collection of articles about technology in schools.<br />Technology and Art: "Art Zone" The US National Gallery of Art invites children of all ages to create interactive art online: design a virtual mobile; create a collage, painting, or a geometric sculpture, design and texturize 3-dimensional shapes and see how artists create these effects without a computer, create a "pixel face."  While you are making the art, you are also gaining new computer skills. <br />Educational technology is the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using and managing appropriate technological processes and resources."[1] The term educational technology is often associated with, and encompasses, HYPERLINK "" o "Instructional theory" instructional theory and learning theory. While instructional technology is "the theory and practice of design, development, utilization, management, and evaluation of processes and resources for learning," according to the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) Definitions and Terminology Committee[2] , educational technology includes other systems used in the process of developing human capability. Educational Technology includes, but is not limited to, software, hardware, as well as Internet applications and activities. But there is still debate on what these terms mean. HYPERLINK "" l "cite_note-2" [ Cone of Experience <br />Michael Molenda <br />Indiana University <br />DRAFT <br />Submitted for publication in A. Kovalchick & K. Dawson, Ed's, Educational Technology: An <br />Encyclopedia. Copyright ABC-Clio, Santa Barbara, CA, 2003. <br />This version includes only the text of the article. The figures are found in the published version. <br /> Introduced by Edgar Dale (1946) in his textbook on audiovisual methods in teaching, the <br />Cone of Experience is a visual device meant to summarize Dale’s classification system for the <br />varied types of mediated learning experiences. The organizing principle of the Cone was a <br />progression from most concrete experiences (at the bottom of the cone) to most abstract (at the <br />top). The original labels for Dale’s ten categories are: Direct, Purposeful Experiences; Contrived <br />Experiences; Dramatic Participation; Demonstrations; Field Trips; Exhibits; Motion Pictures; <br />Radio – Recordings – Still Pictures; Visual Symbols; and Verbal Symbols. <br /> [Insert Figure 1 here.] <br /> Dale made minor modifications of the visual in the second edition (1954), changing <br />Dramatic Participation to Dramatized Experiences and adding Television. By the third edition of <br />the textbook, Dale (1969) acknowledged the growing popularity of Jerome Bruner’s (1966) <br />cognitive psychology concepts by overlaying Bruner’s classification system for modes of <br />learning—enactive, iconic, and symbolic—on top of his own categories. This adaptation of his <br />own schema may have been portentous, perhaps giving implied license to others to make other <br />creative adaptations and interpretations, not always to the credit of Dale’s original notion. <br /> Application of the construct2<br /> Dale’s textbook in its three editions remained popular for over a quarter century. <br />Inasmuch as the Cone provided the organizing principle for the book, it became ingrained in the <br />thinking of generations of educational technology students and professors who used the <br />textbook. It stimulated many efforts to extend the original idea by developing its implications <br />for elementary education, secondary education, adult education, corporate training, and even <br />counseling. <br /> As a visible leader in audiovisual education, Dale and his work had a great deal of <br />authority within the field. The Cone may be regarded as the earliest highly influential conceptual <br />schema in the field. Dwyer (1978) in his landmark work on visual learning credits Dale as one <br />of the thinkers who inspired the visual education movement: <br />An explanation for the current widespread use of visualization can be traced back <br />to the 1940s and 1950s when a number of theoretical orientations were <br />identified—specifically the iconicity theory identified by Morris (1946) [and] <br />Dale’s (1946) cone of experience… (p. 6) <br /> Dale’s own claims for this classification system were modest and qualified. He advised <br />against viewing the categories as “rigid, inflexible divisions (p. 37).” He insisted that the <br />classifications should not be regarded as any sort of “hierarchy or rank order (p. 47).” This <br />addresses one of the most prevalent misconceptions of the Cone—that the progression from <br />concrete to abstract represented a value judgment about concrete over abstract learning activities. <br />Instead, Dale advocated the use of whatever methods or media were appropriate for the learner <br />and the task, acknowledging that words can be a powerful and efficient means of conveying <br />ideas even for the youngest children. If he had a bias regarding media it was toward rich <br />combinations of concrete and abstract experiences: “Abstractions must be combined, if we are 3<br />to have rich, full, deep, and broad experience and understanding. In brief, we ought to use all the <br />ways of experiencing that we can (p. 48).” <br /> Because many of those who referred to the Cone were advocates for specific media or for <br />audiovisual media in general, they had a tendency to selectively emphasize those parts of Dale’s <br />work that supported their claims. Thus by the time of the third edition of Audiovisual Methods in<br />Teaching (1969) Dale found it necessary to devote six pages of the chapter on the Cone to <br />“Some Possible Misconceptions (pp. 128-134).” At the core of the misconceptions are the <br />notions that the value of an activity increases with its realism and that the learner’s <br />understanding grows by beginning with direct experience and progressing to increasingly <br />abstract activities. <br /> One explanation for the prevalence of other interpretations of the Cone is that Dale did <br />not explicitly draw the distinction between a descriptive construct and a prescriptive theory. He <br />surely intended the Cone to be descriptive—a classification system—and not prescriptive—a <br />road map for lesson planning. He came close to drawing this distinction when he stated in the <br />Summary of his chapter on the Cone: “The cone, of course, is merely an aid to understanding <br />this subject…something to help explain the relationship of the various types of sensory <br />materials...(p. 52).” The key words are “understand” and “explain.” These words indicate a <br />descriptive purpose, not a prescriptive one. <br /> On the other hand, Dale himself sometimes fell prey to the urge to extend the descriptive <br />construct to prescriptions, as pointed out by Subramony (in press). References to “uses” or <br />“implications” of the Cone are scattered throughout the various editions of Dale’s textbook (Dale <br />1946, 1954, 1969). An example found in the third edition (1969) states “When properly <br />understood and used, however, the Cone can be a helpful and practical guide (p. 110).” With 4<br />this sort of ambiguity from the author, it is not surprising that many of his followers attempted to <br />use the Cone as a prescriptive guide to lesson planning. <br />Origins of the Cone’s concepts<br />Ideas parallel to those expressed by Dale in the Cone of Experience appeared in the <br />literature of education prior to 1946. Paul Saettler (1990), the historian of the field of <br />instructional technology, points to Exposition and Illustration in Teaching, published in 1910 by <br />John Adams “which included the following ‘order of merit’ concerning concreteness: ‘(1) the <br />real object, for which anything else is a more or less inefficient substitute; (2) a model of the real <br />object; (3) a diagram dealing with some of the aspects of the object; and (4) a mere verbal <br />description of the object.’ (p. 140). However, a more direct ancestor of the Cone is probably a <br />diagram presented by Hoban, Hoban, and Zisman (1937). <br />[Insert Figure 2 here.] <br /> They made the conceptual breakthrough of constructing a graph in which visual media <br />are arranged along the y axis while the learner’s level of development—from the concrete level <br />of thinking to the abstract level of thinking—is arrayed along the x axis. In applying the graph to <br />a particular case, one would locate the learner’s current level of conceptual development <br />(concrete to abstract) then trace up to the slope line and then horizontally over to the visual <br />medium that intersects at the same point. For example, an experienced learner with a highly <br />developed (abstract) knowledge of “jet propulsion” would be expected to be able to learn more <br />about jet propulsion effectively with diagrams and verbal texts. <br /> Hoban, Hoban, and Zisman’s categories were: total situation, objects, models, films, <br />stereographs, slides, flat pictures, maps, diagrams, and words. Dale’s schema differs mainly in <br />the addition of several classes of media and active learning experiences and the simplification of 5<br />the schema by showing only y axis—the media, indicating the other dimension (concreteabstract) by the pyramidal shape of the cone. Although Dale’s schema appears to be quite <br />derivative of Hoban, Hoban, and Zisman’s graph, he does not explicitly acknowledge this <br />source, although he makes several references to their book elsewhere in his textbook. <br />Misappropriation of the Cone <br />It is important to discuss what the Cone is not as well as what it is because of a <br />widespread misrepresentation that has become ubiquitous in recent years. At some point <br />someone conflated Dale’s Cone with a spurious chart that purports to show what percentage of <br />information people remember under different learning conditions. The original version of this <br />chart, shown in Figure 3, has been traced to the Socony-Vacuum Oil Company, according to <br />Dwyer (1978), who cites Treichler (1967). <br />[Insert Figure 3 here.] <br /> As Dwyer points out, the reported percentages are impossible to interpret or verify <br />without specifying at least the method of measurement, the age of the learners, the type of <br />learning task, and the content being remembered (p. 10). Despite the lack of credibility, this <br />formulation is widely quoted, usually without attribution, and in recent years has become <br />repeatedly conflated with Dale’s Cone, with the percentage statements superimposed on the <br />cone, replacing or supplementing Dale’s original categories. The examples are too numerous to <br />document here, but are discussed in detail and with citations in Subramony (in press). A rather <br />sophisticated example of this conflation is shown as Figure 4. <br />[Insert Figure 4 here.] <br /> In summary, the Cone of Experience is essentially a visual metaphor for the idea that <br />learning activities can be placed in broad categories based on the extent to which they convey the 6<br />concrete referents of real-life experiences. Although it has sometimes been interpreted as <br />advocating the selection of certain media and methods over others (favoring “realism”), such was <br />not Dale’s stated intent. It has also been interpreted by many as a prescriptive formula for <br />selecting instructional media. Dale’s own explanations are nebulous enough to enable a wide <br />variety of interpretations to find support. Finally, there is the contemporary problem of the <br />conflation of the Cone with the “Socony-Vacuum percentages.” The fact that the Cone has been <br />taken seriously enough to be used in so many ways testifies to the robustness and attractiveness <br />of Dale’s visual metaphor. <br />References<br />Bruner, J.S. (1966). Toward a theory of instruction. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of <br />Harvard University Press. <br />Dale, E. (1946) Audio-visual methods in teaching. New York: The Dryden Press. <br />Dale, E. (1954) Audio-visual methods in teaching, revised edition. New York: A Holt-Dryden <br />Book, Henry Holt and Company. <br />Dale, E. (1969) Audiovisual methods in teaching, third edition. New York: The Dryden Press; <br />Holt, Rinehart and Winston. <br />Dwyer, F.M. (1978) Strategies for Improving Visual Learning. State College, PA: Learning <br />Services. <br />Hoban, C.F., Hoban, C.F., Jr., Zisman, S.B. (1937) Visualizing the curriculum. New York: The <br />Cordon Company. <br />Saettler, P. (1990) The Evolution of American Educational Technology. Englewood, CO: <br />Libraries Unlimited. 7<br />Subramony, D.P. (in press). Dale’s cone revisited: Critically examining the misapplication of a <br />nebulous theory to guide practice. Educational Technology 43. <br />Treichler, D.G. (1967) Are you missing the boat in training aids? Film and Audio-Visual <br />Communications 1: 14-16. 3]<br />