WHY IS THIS GUY TALKING TO ME? PAST LIFE/ i lived in france for a while, twice. i love french culture. small design consultancy since 2000, creativeroot.com SOME CLIENTS: Amstel Light, Discover Card, Ford Motor Company, Hard Rock Cafe, House of Blues, Island/Def Jam Records, Lexar Media, Los Angeles Times, Macy's, Michelin, Monster.com, Motorola, Pepsi/Mountain Dew, Red Lobster, Sprint Broadband and Universal Studios. SCHOOL/ university of florida (GO GATORS) MFA. teaching assistant and visiting professor ’03 - ’07. CURRENT/ LEAPware, LLC | www.leap-ware.com marketing / design / technology director (owner) catalogs, mailings, website, e-commerce... and software: leapCM.com | leapPM.com
GRAPHIC DESIGN + MARKETING GOALS/ I aim to help explain... 01. marketing 02. graphic design 03. ethnography / process 04. application So you can DIY or work better with designer/marketer/advertisers. HAVE FUN... AND MAKE THIS INTERESTING.
MARKETING <ul><li>Is the activity, set of institutions, and processes for CREATING , COMMUNICATING and DELIVERING offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and/or society at large. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Practice tends to be seen as a CREATIVE industry, which includes ADVERTISING , DISTRIBUTION and SELLING . It is also concerned with anticipating future NEEDS and WANTS , which are often discovered through MARKET RESEARCH . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Marketing is influenced by many of the SOCIAL SCIENCES , particularly PSYCHOLOGY , SOCIOLOGY , ECONOMICS and ANTHROPOLOGY / ETHNOGRAPHY. </li></ul>
<ul><li>often referred to as VISUAL COMMUNICATION . </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creates and combines, SYMBOLS , IMAGES and TYPE to create a visual representation of an IDEA and/or a MESSAGE . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design is both the PROCESS by which the communication is created and the PRODUCTS which are generated. </li></ul></ul>GRAPHIC DESIGN
<ul><li>FOUNDATION </li></ul><ul><li>01. COLOR </li></ul><ul><li>02. TYPE </li></ul><ul><li>03. IMAGE </li></ul>GRAPHIC DESIGN <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Why does McDonalds brand everything in Yellow and Red? What does Blue mean? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>COMPARE THESE TYPEFACES: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outdoor Adventures, Inc. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outdoor Adventures, Inc. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outdoor Adventures, Inc. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outdoor Adventures, Inc. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outdoor Adventures, Inc. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outdoor Adventures, Inc. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>g </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
COLOR <ul><li>PRIMARY COLORS </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hot, passionate, amorous, outspoken, optimistic. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Urgent, danger, blood, devil, angry, enraged. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Makes you hungry by increasing your metabolism. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Warm, cowardice, caution, fearful, bright. </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow enhances concentration, speeds metabolism and intellectuals love yellow. </li></ul><ul><li>Honest, integrity, righteous, puritanical, moral, quality, first place. Severe, prudish, cool, melancholy, sad, glum, downcast, gloomy, unhappy. </li></ul>
COLOR <ul><li>SECONDARY COLORS </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New, Nature, health, regeneration, contentment, harmony, cheerful, lively, friendly, fresh, sickly, unripe, immature, simple, unsophisticated, gullible. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Confident, creative, adventurous, fun loving, sociable. Not a color that everyone loves, but those who do are generally social and fun loving. </li></ul><ul><li>Royalty, intelligence, wealth, beauty, inspiration, sophistication, high rank, exalted, imperial, princely, excessively ornate rhetoric, profane, shocking. </li></ul>
COLOR <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Femininity, sweetness, prime, left-wing. Makes one feel prosperous, a bit pampered. Pink is also used to treat patients suffering from headache disorders. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Solid, reliable brown is the color of earth and is abundant in nature. Brown can also be sad and wistful. Earth, nature, dirt, drab, coffee, solid, sad. </li></ul>
COLOR WARM: suggest warmth and seem to move toward the viewer and appear closer, for example red and orange are the colors of fire. COOL: suggest coolness and seem to recede from a viewer and fall back, for example blue and green are the colors of water and trees).
COLOR COMPLEMENTARY: Two colors opposite one another on the color wheel, for example blue and orange, yellow and purple, red and green. When a pair of high intensity complements are placed side by side, they seem to vibrate and draw attention. INTENSITY: Brightness or dullness of a color. A pure hue is a high-intensity color. A dulled hue, a color mixed with its complement is called a low-intensity color.
TYPOGRAPHY ASPECTS of type: + Type Anatomy + Typeface vs. Fonts + Letter-Spacing + Leading (Line Height) + Kerning + Widows & Orphans + Ligatures + The Ampersand + Hierarchy + The Grid + Good Type
TYPOGRAPHY: ligatures fi ff ffi fi ff ffi In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more LETTERS are joined as a single LETTERS .
TYPOGRAPHY: ampersand The AMPERSAND , commonly referred to as an “and sign” is a logogram representing the conjunction "and". The symbol is a ligature of the letters in ET , Latin for "and".
TYPOGRAPHY: hierarchy Typographic hierarchy expresses an ORGANIZATIONAL system for content. A hierarchy helps readers scan a text, knowing where to enter and exit and how to pick and choose among its offerings. Each level of the hierarchy should be signaled by one or more cues, applied CONSISTENTLY across a body of text. A cue can be spatial (indent, line spacing, placement on page) or graphic (size, style, color of typeface). I AM A HEADLINE I AM A SUB-HEADING I am body copy... I AM A HEADLINE I AM A SUB-HEADING I am body copy...
TYPOGRAPHY: the grid A typographic grid is a two-dimensional structure made up of a series of intersecting vertical and horizontal axes used to ORGANIZE content. The grid serves as a FRAMEWORK on which a designer can organize text and images in a rational and easy to absorb manner.
TYPOGRAPHY: examples Happy Cog — note how the main menu items are incorporated in the opening paragraph.
TYPOGRAPHY: examples Fray — a nice use of a powerful slab-serif.
TYPOGRAPHY: examples AIGA NY — simple and clean.
TYPOGRAPHY: examples Webstock — mixing it up, yet organized.
MARKETING COMMUNICATION Marketing Communications is a subset of the overall subject area known as marketing. PRICE, PLACE, PROMOTION, PRODUCT (know as the four P's). PEOPLE, PROCESS, PHYSICAL EVIDENCE , when marketing services (known as the seven P's). How does marketing communications fit in to your program? Marketing communications is often “promotion”.
MARKETING COMMUNICATION <ul><li>INTEGRATED : Combining the pieces that together make a complete picture. </li></ul><ul><li>This is so that a single message is conveyed by all marketing communications. Different messages confuse your customers and damage brands. So if a TV advertisement carries a particular logo, images and message, then all newspaper adverts and point-of-sale materials should carry the same logo, images or message, or one that fits the same theme. </li></ul><ul><li>Coca-Cola uses its familiar red and white logos and retains themes of togetherness and enjoyment throughout its marketing communications. </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE: GEICO - celebrity/real person, geico gecko and the cavemen </li></ul>
MARKETING COMMUNICATION Marketing Communications/ + Personal Selling + Sales Promotion + Public Relations (and publicity) + Direct Marketing (phone) + Trade Fairs and Exhibitions (hmm) + Advertising (above and below the line) + Sponsorship + Packaging + Merchandising (and point-of-sale) + Online Marketing (and Internet promotions) + Branding
MARKETING: personal selling Prospecting. Prospecting is all about finding prospects, or potential new customers. Prospects should be “ QUALIFIED ”, which means that they need to be assessed to see if there is business potential, otherwise you could be wasting your time. In order to qualify your prospects, one needs to: 01. Plan a sales approach FOCUSED upon the needs of the customer. 02. Determine which products or services BEST MEET THEIR NEEDS . 03. In order to save time, rank the prospects and leave out those that are least likely to buy. LISTS?
MARKETING: public relations Public Relations is a broad concept. Public Relations is any purposeful communications between an organization and its publics that aim to generate goodwill. Public Relations is proactive and future orientated, and has the goal of building and maintaining a positive perception of an organization in the mind of its publics. This is often referred to as goodwill. Yes it is difficult to see the difference between marketing communications and PR since there is a lot of crossover. EXAMPLE: BLOG’s and PUBLIC SPEAKING
MARKETING: advertising Planning for advertising An advertising plan should address the following stages: 01. Who is the potential TARGET AUDIENCE of the advertisement? 02. WHAT do I wish to communicate to this target audience? 03. Why is this message so IMPORTANT to them? 04. What is the BEST MEDIUM for this message to take? 05. What would be the most appropriate TIMING ? 06. What RESOURCES will the advertising campaign need? 07. How do we CONTROL our advertising and monitor success?
<ul><li>01. why brand </li></ul><ul><li>02. semiotics - what does it mean? </li></ul><ul><li>03. logo form - shapes </li></ul><ul><li>04. logo type - letters </li></ul><ul><li>05. slogans - catchy </li></ul><ul><li>06. color palette </li></ul><ul><li>07. type palette </li></ul><ul><li>08. STYLE GUIDE (the culmination of 03 - 07) </li></ul>BRANDING
BRANDING Branding is a marketing strategy. Brand occupies space in the PERCEPTION of the consumer, and is what results from the totality of what the consumer takes into consideration before making a purchase decision. So branding is a STRATEGY, and brand is what has MEANING to the consumer. There are some other terms used in branding. Brand Equity is the addition of the brand's attributes including REPUTATION , SYMBOLS and ASSOCIATIONS . Finally, the financial expression of the elements of brand equity is called BRAND VALUE .
BRANDING <ul><li>A brand that is perceived as having benefits in the mind of the consumer is recognized </li></ul><ul><li>and acts as a shortcut to circumvent large chunks of information. A recognized brand will help you reach a decision more conveniently. You find what you are looking for quickly. </li></ul><ul><li>A BRAND IS... </li></ul><ul><li>simply a logo, for example McDonald's Golden Arches. </li></ul><ul><li>a company, for example Coca-Cola. </li></ul><ul><li>is a risk reducer. The brand reassures you when in unfamiliar territory. </li></ul><ul><li>is positioning... situated in relation to other brands in the mind of the consumer as better, worse, quicker, slower, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>is a personality, beyond function (Apple's iPod versus just any MP3 player). </li></ul>
BRANDING A brand is a cluster of values: Google is reliable, ethical, invaluable, innovative and so on. A brand is a vision: Here managers aspire to see a brand with a cluster of values. In this context vision is similar to goal or mission. A brand is added value: Where the consumer sees value in a brand over and above its competition for example Ford over Chevrolet, and BMW over Audi - despite similarities.
BRANDING A brand can include several components: Body Shop International encapsulates ethics, environmentalism and political beliefs. A brand is an image where the consumer perceives a brand as representing a particular reality , for example Stella Artois Reassuring Expensive. A brand is a relationship where the consumer REFLECTS upon him or herself through the experience of consuming a product or service: 01. What does this say about me? 02. What does this mean to me? 03. Status? Starbucks? Labels? Cars?
BRANDING: semiotics The study of sign processes, or signification and communication, signs and symbols, both individually and grouped into sign systems. It includes the study of how meaning is constructed and understood. Semioticians classify signs or sign systems in relation to the way they are transmitted. This process of carrying meaning depends on the use of codes that may be the individual sounds or letters that humans use to form words, the body movements they make to show attitude or emotion, or even something as general as clothes they wear. How is this visualized?
BRANDING: logos LOGOFORM/ This is a compelling and uncomplicated image emblematic of a company or product. They use imagery that conveys a literal or abstract representation of your firm. Symbols are less direct than straight text, leaving room for broader interpretation (not good?). Should conform to these standards: INSTANTLY RECOGNIZABLE, MEMORABLE and CLEAR WHEN SMALL. LOGOTYPE/ This is commonly known in the design industry as a "word mark", incorporated your name into uniquely styled type. Type come in thousands of possible variations, each conveying a different impression upon your intended audience. Script type = formality and refinement . Thick type = strength and power . Slanted type = motion or movement . Again, of prime consideration is legibility and ease of recognition.
BRANDING: logos COMBINATION MARK/ Combination Marks are graphics with BOTH TEXT AND ICON / SYMBOL that signifies the brand image that you wish to project for your company or organization. CONCISE TEXT can complement an icon or symbol, providing supplemental clarity as to what your enterprise is all about.There are INTEGRATED and stand alone combination marks. For instance, Starbucks logo has the text with the graphic integrated, whereas the AT&T logo has the icon separate from the text.
BRANDING: slogans A slogan is intended to be a memorable motto or phrase used in a political, commercial, religious and other context as a repetitive expression of an IDEA or PURPOSE . Slogans vary from the written and the visual to the chanted and/or vulgar. Often their SIMPLE RHETORICAL nature leaves little room for detail, and as such they serve perhaps more as a social expression of unified purpose, rather than a projection for an intended audience.
BRANDING: type palette <ul><li>Your TYPOGRAPHY PALETTE is the pre-defined typefaces and fonts your firm uses. As certain typefaces elicit emotive responses, one should exercise great care when selecting the type palette that represents your firm. </li></ul><ul><li>SOME EXAMPLES/ </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FUTURA ULTRA BLACK: say it with confidence </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Garamond: Elegant and Proper </li></ul><ul><li>Chopin Script: A Modern Script </li></ul><ul><li>Clarendon: old west / typewriter </li></ul><ul><li>Mrs. Eaves: Better than Baskerville </li></ul><ul><li>Gotham: Great paragraph legibility </li></ul>
<ul><li>Ethnography is a tool for better design. </li></ul><ul><li>Great design connects with people. </li></ul><ul><li>Designers inspire, provoke, validate, entertain </li></ul><ul><li>and provide utility for people. </li></ul><ul><li>To truly connect, designers need to have understand their audiences. </li></ul><ul><li>Designers need to understand the relationship between what they produce and the meaning their product has. </li></ul>MARKETING: ethnography
<ul><li>Ethnography informs design by revealing an understanding of people and how they make sense of their world. (“” mexico) </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnography is a research method based on observing people in their natural environment rather than in a formal research setting. </li></ul><ul><li>When ethnography is applied to design, it helps designers create more compelling solutions. (sensitivity) </li></ul>MARKETING: ethnography
People and culture are incredibly complex. Ethnography offers a way to make sense of this complexity. It lets us see beyond our preconceptions and immerse ourselves in the world of others. Most importantly, it allows us to see patterns of behavior in a real world context — patterns that we can understand both rationally and intuitively . MARKETING: ethnography
Ethnography helps discover meaning. People have a need for meaning in their lives. Ethnography provides rich insights into how people make sense of their world. For example, people incorporate rituals into their lives—but some rituals are large and public while others are small and private. By examining the artifacts that reflect people’s lives, we learn what they value and hold dear. As a result, we can design products and services that evoke meaningful experiences for them. MARKETING: ethnography
Ethnography helps understand norms. Cultural norms influence design decisions. Ethnography reveals the ways in which cultural norms shape people’s perceptions. For example, some cultures emphasize the shape of the body and seek ways to accentuate it, while others try to minimize it. The role and use of color can also vary greatly from place to place. By examining how people express themselves through style and ornamentation, we gain insight into how people define themselves within a group or a community. As a result, a company’s brand and products will resonate with customers instead of striking a culturally off-key note. MARKETING: ethnography
Ethnography makes communications powerful. Things need to be understood. Ethnography helps us learn how to communicate more effectively with target audiences, in a language and way they really understand. For example, a poorly designed communications piece can create confusion or anxiety. By observing how people process information, we learn what words and design elements evoke desired reactions. We also discover whether people miss information completely. As a result, the message comes across more clearly. MARKETING: ethnography
Ethnography Observe reality. What people say is not what they do. Ethnography highlights differences between what people perceive they do and what they actually do. For example, while people say they eat in a healthy way, they sometimes make less than healthy food choices. By observing what people do (rather than taking them at their word), we learn more about the choices they make and how they perceive and filter their own actions. As a result, we can create environments or messages that connect with people’s real emotions and intentions. MARKETING: ethnography
01 State the Goals (Define the problem)/ What are the issues? The team may have very specific questions or just a general sense that more information is needed about a topic. They put the problem into words to give it structure and to nail down the objective. This serves as the “creative brief” in the quest for insights. 02 Find the people/ Who are the people that will most likely shed light on the question? Is it somebody who uses certain products or acts a certain way? Is it somebody who changes or impacts how others act? Are they people who live in a certain environment, culture or geographic location? MARKETING: ethnography
03 Plan an approach/ Figure out a game plan for observations and interactions with respondents. Create a set of questions to ask consistently. Include opportunities for people to show what they own, what they value and how they do things. 04 Collect data/ Meaningful insights don’t come quickly. The process involves slowing down, taking everything in, using all five senses and being curious. Attitudes, mannerisms, vocabulary and group dynamics are all important. Of particular interest is how what you observe supports or contradicts what people say. Take photographs, video, audio, handwritten notes and sketches. MARKETING: ethnography
05 Analyze data and interpret opportunities/ This is the most challenging part of any research. A trained ethnographer brings deep contextual and cultural understanding to analysis, and gets beyond the obvious insights derived from casual observation. Analysis is time-consuming, but links findings to a concrete direction. The outcome of the analysis may include design principles, models, personas, user scenarios and/or experience frameworks. Once the data have been analyzed, the team should be able to tell that story to multiple audiences, and should have a clear set of “aha’s!” and next steps. MARKETING: ethnography
06 Share insights/ The insights that are generated through ethnographic research are useful to the whole team and to the client’s whole organization. Storytelling and information design can be used to communicate the value of the work and the possibilities it holds for creating something wonderful. Information that is presented in a visually compelling way is more likely to intrigue, inspire and engage. The ethnographer and the designer together have the ability to make others see and believe. MARKETING: ethnography