Pangaea USE

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  • Continental drift is the movement of the Earth's continents relative to each other, thus appearing to "drift" across the ocean bed.[2] The speculation that continents might have 'drifted' was first put forward by Abraham Ortelius in 1596. The concept was independently and more fully developed by Alfred Wegener in 1912, but his theory was rejected by some for lack of a mechanism (though this was supplied later by Arthur Holmes) and others because of prior theoretical commitments. The idea of continental drift has been subsumed by the theory of plate tectonics, which explains how the continents move.[3] In 1858 Antonio Snider-Pellegrini created two maps demonstrating how the American and African continents might have once fit together. Contents [hide] 1 History 1.1 Early history 1.2 Wegener and his predecessors 1.3 Rejection of Wegener's theory, 1910s–1950s 2 Evidence of continental drift 3 See also 4 Works cited 5 External links History[edit] Further information: Timeline of the development of tectonophysics (before 1954) Early history[edit] Abraham Ortelius (Ortelius 1596),[4] Theodor Christoph Lilienthal (1756),[5] Alexander von Humboldt (1801 and 1845),[5] Antonio Snider-Pellegrini (Snider-Pellegrini 1858), and others had noted earlier that the shapes of continents on opposite sides of the Atlantic Ocean (most notably, Africa and South America) seem to fit together.[6] W. J. Kious described Ortelius' thoughts in this way:[7] Abraham Ortelius in his work Thesaurus Geographicus ... suggested that the Americas were "torn away from Europe and Africa ... by earthquakes and floods" and went on to say: "The vestiges of the rupture reveal themselves, if someone brings forward a map of the world and considers carefully the coasts of the three [continents]." Writing in 1889, Alfred Russel Wallace remarks "It was formerly a very general belief, even amongst geologists, that the great features of the earth's surface, no less than the smaller ones, were subject to continual mutations, and that during the course of known geological time the continents and great oceans had again and again changed places with each other."[8] He quotes Charles Lyell as saying "Continents, therefore, although permanent for whole geological epochs, shift their positions entirely in the course of ages"[9] and claims that the first to throw doubt on this was James Dwight Dana in 1849. In his Manual of Geology, 1863, Dana says "The continents and oceans had their general outline or form defined in earliest time. This has been proved with respect to North America from the position and distribution of the first beds of the Silurian - those of the Potsdam epoch. … and this will probably prove to the case in Primordial time with the other continents also".[10] Dana was enormously influential in America - his Manual of Mineralogy is still in print in revised form - and the theory became known as Permanence theory.[11] This appeared to be confirmed by the exploration of the deep sea beds conducted by the Challenger expedition, 1872-6, which showed that contrary to expectation, land debris brought down by rivers to the ocean is deposited comparatively close to the shore in what is now known as the continental shelf. This suggested that the oceans were a permanent feature of the earth's surface, and did not change places with the continents.[12] Wegener and his predecessors[edit] Alfred Wegener The speculation that the American continents had once formed a single landmass with Europe and Asia before assuming the present shapes and positions was suggested by several scientists before Alfred Wegener's 1912 paper.[13] Although Wegener's theory was formed independently and was more complete than those of his predecessors, Wegener later credited a number of past authors with similar ideas:[14][15] Franklin Coxworthy (between 1848 and 1890),[16] Roberto Mantovani (between 1889 and 1909), William Henry Pickering (1907)[17] and Frank Bursley Taylor (1908).[18] In addition, Eduard Suess had proposed a supercontinent Gondwana in 1885[19] and the Tethys Ocean in 1893,[20] assuming a land-bridge between the present continents submerged in the form of a geosyncline, and John Perry had written an 1895 paper proposing that the earth's interior was fluid, and disagreeing with Lord Kelvin on the age of the earth.[21] For example: the similarity of southern continent geological formations had led Roberto Mantovani to conjecture in 1889 and 1909 that all the continents had once be
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Pangaea USE

  1. 1. What is a Theory? What is Pangaea? What is Continental Drift?
  2. 2. = Alfred Wegener: German scientist
  3. 3. Geologists study rocks and fossils. Wegener was a geologist.
  4. 4. ? 1912: The Theory of Continental Drift Alfred Wegener
  5. 5. land 1912: The Theory of Continental Drift idea Alfred Wegener movement
  6. 6. 1912: The Theory of Continental Drift Wegener studied fossils from South American and Africa. He saw some fossils were the same.
  7. 7. 1912: The Theory of Continental Drift Wegener studied fossils from South American and Africa. He saw some fossils were the same.
  8. 8. 1912: The Theory of Continental Drift Wegener studied fossils from South American and Africa. He saw some fossils were the same.
  9. 9. 1912: The Theory of Continental Drift Wegener studied fossils from South American and Africa. He saw some fossils were the same.
  10. 10. 1912: The Theory of Continental Drift Some fossils were the same. How did that happen?
  11. 11. 1912: The Theory of Continental Drift
  12. 12. 1912: The Theory of Continental Drift
  13. 13. Pange Wegener wrote an article about this theory. He invented the name ‘Pangea.’
  14. 14. Pangea. From the Greek words Pan = ‘all’ and Gaia = ‘Earth’
  15. 15. Pangea, the Supercontinent
  16. 16. Eurasia Africa Australia Antarctica
  17. 17. 65,000,000 years ago
  18. 18. Now
  19. 19. http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/dynamic/historical.html#anchor4833509
  20. 20. 1,600,000,000 years ago
  21. 21. Today
  22. 22. Copyright: C. R. Scotese, PALEOMap Project http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/geology/anim1.html
  23. 23. Copyright: C. R. Scotese, PALEOMap Project http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/geology/anim1.html
  24. 24. Copyright: C. R. Scotese, PALEOMap Project http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/geology/anim1.html
  25. 25. Copyright: C. R. Scotese, PALEOMap Project http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/geology/anim1.html
  26. 26. Copyright: C. R. Scotese, PALEOMap Project http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/geology/anim1.html
  27. 27. Copyright: C. R. Scotese, PALEOMap Project http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/geology/anim1.html
  28. 28. Question: Why are the continents drifting?
  29. 29. This is a plate. This is a plate. Answer: Plate tectonics
  30. 30. This is a plate. This is a plate. plate = land tectonics = building or moving
  31. 31. Answer: Plate tectonics
  32. 32. This is a plate. This is a plate. This is a plate. This is a plate. This is a plate. Answer: Plate tectonics
  33. 33. http://dogfoose.com/2011/03/plate-tectonics/
  34. 34. The red areas around the plates (the plate boundaries) are ‘hot zones’ where earthquakes happen.
  35. 35. The red areas around the plates (the plate boundaries) are ‘hot zones’ where earthquakes happen.
  36. 36. How do the plates move?
  37. 37. Earthquakes happen between the plates. 1. Plates slide past each other.
  38. 38. Example: The San Andreas Fault in California
  39. 39. Volcanoes erupt between the plates under the ocean. The ocean floor bigger. 2. Plates separate from each other.
  40. 40. Example: This Rift Valley in East Africa
  41. 41. Crashing plates make mountains. 3. Plates crash into each other. http://www.divediscover.whoi.edu/tectonics/tectonics-collide.html
  42. 42. 3. Example: Mountains in Peru, South America
  43. 43. Will the continents continue to drift? What will the earth look like in the future?
  44. 44. Will the continents continue to drift? What will the earth look like in the future? http://files.myopera.com/edwardpiercy/blog/6-Future-250AP-2.jpg
  45. 45. finis

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