DevLearn 2013 Learning Models & Design Patterns

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This is my presentation from October 24, 2013 at eLearning Guild's DevLearn conference in Las Vegas.

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  • What I like about this one is...it's a refresher of what I know I should be doing. Sometimes I have so much content for the courses I have to deliver, I get lost in the creativity. These slides are refreshing and offer me good ideas to present the content. Thanks!
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  • But as eLearning continues to grow (in 2011 it’s a $50 billion + industry!) more and more people within
    organizations are being thrust into the role of eLearning designer. Is it realistic to expect these newbies
    to deliver polished well-designed eLearning? Probably not (unless, of course, they’re just that good).
  • Design strategy defines the methods and activities that will be used to make the user’s learning experience meaningful and memorable. You might call it the design approach or the learning model or any of these terms. I’ve seen them all used to mean roughly the same thing!
  • http://www.bogost.com
  • Know what problem you’re trying to solve. Make sure it contributes to that desired outcome. Did it help someone do their job better? Did it lead to better performance? Did it open eyes the way it was supposed to? And if it’s all about ticking a box to ensure compliance – well, did it even do that? What problems is it helping to solve?
  • As you begin designing the learning experience, work with your subject matter experts and stakeholders to determine the desired outcomes. My favorite question: What do you want the learner to be able to do after completing this program?
    Sometimes the answer is surprising: “Oh, I really want them to know who to contact if they think their computer has a virus.” Or “I want them to tick off that box in the LMS so we can show that they looked at the information.”
    It’s not always straightforward, but it’s important to get the right model that’s fit for purpose. This is back to the standard starting question: What problem are we trying to solve?
    It’s all too common to see solutions that don’t really fit the problem. Have you ever seen a program that really just needed to raise awareness and communicate some fairly simple information, but where the designer chose a needlessly complex learning model filled with interactive case-based branching scenarios? Or where the desired outcome was a true behavioral change and all the program did was share information?
    So take care not to over or under-design for the need you’re facing.
    As you start making design decisions first have these high level learning models in mind. Ask “Is this program mainly about sharing information, building knowledge and skills, solving complex problems or creating a change in attitude or behavior?”
  • As you begin designing the learning experience, work with your subject matter experts and stakeholders to determine the desired outcomes. My favorite question: What do you want the learner to be able to do after completing this program?
    Sometimes the answer is surprising: “Oh, I really want them to know who to contact if they think their computer has a virus.” Or “I want them to tick off that box in the LMS so we can show that they looked at the information.”
    It’s not always straightforward, but it’s important to get the right model that’s fit for purpose. This is back to the standard starting question: What problem are we trying to solve?
    It’s all too common to see solutions that don’t really fit the problem. Have you ever seen a program that really just needed to raise awareness and communicate some fairly simple information, but where the designer chose a needlessly complex learning model filled with interactive case-based branching scenarios? Or where the desired outcome was a true behavioral change and all the program did was share information?
    So take care not to over or under-design for the need you’re facing.
    As you start making design decisions first have these high level learning models in mind. Ask “Is this program mainly about sharing information, building knowledge and skills, solving complex problems or creating a change in attitude or behavior?”
  • J Understand and know are somewhat lame learning objectives as they’re hard to assess. As a responsible instructional designer, you should dig deeper to find out if there’s more below the surface here. Is there really a skill-based objective that would require some practice? Or is it really this simple?
    Presentational and informational models are the right choice when the content is simple to understand and the risk due to errors is relatively low. And be prepared to put your marketing hat on—to think like an ad agency and make content that is compelling and well-presented.
    Information models work really well in e-learning as the learner gets to decide what they need to know. Go for user driven models where the learner can explore the content at their own pace. Think open, browsable experiences like eMagazines or open menus that allow learners to dive into a process or flow.
    When to use information and awareness models:
    When the content is simple and easy to understand
    When the risk of making mistakes is low
    When information can be easily accessed through performance support tools like job aids at the moment of need
    Where true practice isn’t required
  • “They need to know that we have a new policy.”
    “They need to be aware of the risks of clicking on links in emails.”
    “We want people to know what our division does.”
    “We need an overview of our products, no skills taught or assessed.”
    “It’s an introduction to our new 401K program.”
  • http://usablelearning.com
  • Tom Kuhlmann writes that most of what gets created in the name of elearning and instructional design really falls under the category of “Information”. “Sometimes merely the presentation of needed information is sufficient,”
    http://www.articulate.com/rapid-elearning/do-you-really-need-an-instructional-design-degree/
  • Search and find: the ‘Google’ philosophy in which there is no architecture to the information but instead you use a search engine to present nearest matches as links to relevant information objects (like documents, videos, articles and presentations).
  • in this model we embed the information along the path of a task flow e.g. the
    timeline of a project (for a program on project management techniques) or the steps taken
    to manufacture a car. Here is a menu from an information-based module for the European Union on a particular process surrounding Excise Duty. Each section explains the process graphically with illustrative animations but at no time is the user asked to confirm their knowledge through questioning.
  • Topic categories: this model follows an interactive manual approach. Information can always be categorized (often done best by a simple brainstorming/pattern note exercise). Those categories naturally become sections for a menu or hierarchy of menus for short presentational sequences. This example from a financial institution on Fund types displays a two level hierarchy—the overall fund levels e.g. Retail funds and then a sub menu (shown here) which provides access to information on those specific funds. This was never a learning program, it was always designed to be just-in-time information. However, repeated review of the information pages (helped by good use of graphics and animations) can lead to knowledge retention
  • borrowing from other media, an e-Magazine style for presenting information in a structured, indexed format can work well.
  • The Infomercial
  • Jane says that it’s about narrating our work as we go along...making the tacit explicit!:
    •Through blogs
    •Narrated PPT decks or screen casts
    •YouTube videos (talk about why you’re doing something the way that you’re doing, not just what you’re doing – make explicit the thought process behind the decisions you make)
  • When you want the target audience to improve their knowledge and skills, then the need to check understanding and provide feedback on performance within the program is crucial.
    Information and communication programs may not have assessable learning objectives, but skill builders definitely do. You need to ensure the learner comprehends the material and also provide them with the mechanisms to retain this knowledge or skill. You might call this practice. The key here is all about application and building skills that the learner can take out to the real-world and perform when it matters.
  • AIDA = Awareness, Interest, Desire, Action
  • 2. Set direction: tell them where you’re going to take them.
  • 2. Set direction: tell them where you’re going to take them.
  • 2. Set direction: tell them where you’re going to take them.
  • Most of us are pretty used to this model. We get the key things we need to know clearly explained (and, if it’s face-to-face, you even get the chance to immediately clarify any confusion you have). There are many subjects in a corporate environment that just simply need to be explained and this is often where eLearning pays dividends, as complex topics can be explained graphically and can be viewed and reviewed as many times as the learner needs
  • Much of the knowledge in an organization is held in the heads of a few experts. So, an alternative or complementary approach is to directly interview these experts and the subsequent vodcasts or podcasts can form a key part of the presentation of your main learning points. Here is an example from a program on life skills and health and fitness which used top sports people sharing their views on how to achieve excellence:
  • Most of us are pretty used to this model. We get the key things we need to know clearly explained (and, if it’s face-to-face, you even get the chance to immediately clarify any confusion you have). There are many subjects in a corporate environment that just simply need to be explained and this is often where eLearning pays dividends, as complex topics can be explained graphically and can be viewed and reviewed as many times as the learner needs
  • Although we believe that most learning designs should include elements of storytelling, the Guided Story model builds the entire course around the theme. The course might unfold the content through a “day in the life” or a “year in the life” format, providing an opportunity to learn through observation.
  • Summarize
    When constructing a learning program you need to provide a chance for learners to get the key
    messages again—traditionally referred to as the ‘tell them what you told them’ part of the process.
    Obviously, much of the learning they have acquired will be their response to the ideas or activities
    within the core learning sessions. So, you need to summarize the key learning points you want them
    to go away with but also leave space for the learner to reflect.
    A good way to do this is encourage them to think of what they will now do differently which leads us
    to the last step of a formal training program.
  • These tests are useful for learners to confirm that they have reached those levels of knowledge or skills. This, in its own right, builds confidence. It is also useful for the learner and the organization to know if they have acquired the necessary levels of knowledge or capability and decide what needs
    to be done to resolve this. From an organizational point of view, it is also a good way of checking if the overall program has delivered the agreed learning goals.
  • Learning in a training environment without enacting change is an incomplete exercise. You must challenge the learners to reflect on their current way of doing things and make a commitment to change where necessary. A simple ‘What are you going to start, stop and continue?’ question is a great starting point. Other options could involve Action Plans or Affirmations or new SMART goals.
    In our programs, we try to build in line manager follow ups or review sessions within 3 months of the formal completion of a program.
    There will often be a wealth of further information to explore (sometimes what your stakeholders wanted you to cover but you persuaded them not to include in the main program). This is where you can provide the links and give recommendations for further exploration. As you probably know, most learning takes place on the job. The current popularity of Lombardo and Eichinger’s 70/20/10 model shows that learning professionals recognize this as an important factor in designing effective learning programs. (70% of learning happens on the job; 20% through coaching and direct feedback; 10% through formal courses).
    So as a learning designer, we want to set the learner up in that 10% formal course time so that they’ve then got ample space to try things out in the real world (the 70%), while leveraging and building upon that extra 20% of on the job feedback or coaching.
    The Next Steps section of your eLearning should help the learner develop that game plan to take back with them on the job. It could involve a refresher module, or a webinar or an interactive coach (which by asking the right questions and responding to answers helps them carry out their own
    reflections and tweaks to their action plan).
  • This is similar to the full branching simulation approach but the model is designed so that
    should the learner make a mistake in the scenario they get shown to a discrete relevant
    section of the tutorials. Once they complete the relevant module they can then return to the
    choice they got wrong and see if they can continue with the scenario without making further
    mistakes. The appeal of this approach is that learners have that extra degree of motivation to
    absorb the learning points, as they have just confronted that particular learning gap.
  • Learn and Apply (City & Guilds Adapt HTML5 Framework)
    https://clients.kineo.com/cityguilds/file.php/13/moddata/scorm/117/index_scorm.html#m425/t05/p35
  • An overall Present, Exemplify, Explore and Test model that has been the mainstay of process and
    systems training for many years (both online and face-to-face) is usually referred to as Show Me,
    Try It, Test Me.
    In this model, you give the learner the chance to learn through observation (show me), then practice it
    on their own with guided prompts and feedback from the program. The final section (test me) lets the
    learner run through the process on their own with little input from the system – more of a simulation
    or sandbox environment.
  • This is a game-based approach, good for practicing systems and service skills together
  • An overall Present, Exemplify, Explore and Test model that has been the mainstay of process and
    systems training for many years (both online and face-to-face) is usually referred to as Show Me,
    Try It, Test Me.
    In this model, you give the learner the chance to learn through observation (show me), then practice it
    on their own with guided prompts and feedback from the program. The final section (test me) lets the
    learner run through the process on their own with little input from the system – more of a simulation
    or sandbox environment.
  • The second step of this model then moves the learner to an ‘explore’ mode in which they can consolidate their learning with case studies or stories. For many, this is where they truly begin to ‘get it’, especially those learners who struggle with pure ‘concepts’.
    In the classroom situation, this can be through ‘war stories’ or role-plays or discussions with peers around ‘challenges’. With eLearning, it can be a scenario in which they are asked to reflect upon or suggest what the main protagonist should do.
  • User Generated Content -- for the win!
    The YouTube Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RI7AkI5dJzo
    This approach is great when you have a highly motivated audience who will definitely be practicing this skill on their own.
  • Thiagi’s Four Door Model:
    Library: content and presentations – videos, elearning tutorials, PDFs
    Playground: games and activities to provide practice and reinforcement
    Café: Social learning activities for reflection and integration (wikis, blogs, forums, etc.)
    Evaluation Center/Torture Chamber: testing and assessment
    Brandon Carson 2010 eLearning Guild: http://shemp65.typepad.com/eLG-4-DoorModel.pdf
  • Thiagi’s Four Door Model:
    Library: content and presentations – videos, elearning tutorials, PDFs
    Playground: games and activities to provide practice and reinforcement
    Café: Social learning activities for reflection and integration (wikis, blogs, forums, etc.)
    Evaluation Center/Torture Chamber: testing and assessment
    Brandon Carson 2010 eLearning Guild: http://shemp65.typepad.com/eLG-4-DoorModel.pdf
  • 21 focused practical resources
    Most are 5 minutes or shorter
    Follow the whole interview cycle
    Work in sequence, or if experienced as dip-in support
    Variety of interactive approaches:
    Focus on practice
    Animations – perception vs reality
    Videos - good and bad examples and stories
    Observe and critique scenarios
    Question structuring practice
    Candidate rating practice
    Note taking practice
    Takeaways and reminders
    Ongoing occupational psychologist coach to give feedback and support
  • Jane says that it’s about narrating our work as we go along...making the tacit explicit!:
    •Through blogs
    •Narrated PPT decks or screen casts
    •YouTube videos (talk about why you’re doing something the way that you’re doing, not just what you’re doing – make explicit the thought process behind the decisions you make)
  • The Power of Habit, Charles Duhigg http://www.amazon.com/The-Power-Habit-What-Business/dp/1400069289
  • One other approach is to bill the branching scenario as an opportunity for the learner to change how a story unfolds. Here, you can change the nature of a conversation with a manager and team member by choosing a range of different leadership styles:
  • If you have the time and budget, there is one approach that crosses over both Knowledge and Skills based projects and, as you will see later, attitude or behavior change-based learning requirements, this is the use of Goal-Based Scenarios.
    If you’re trying to teach a more complex problem-solving skill, you can immerse the learner in a situation and have them make decisions along the way to drive the action forward. You may provide them with access to supporting documents and job aids that will help inform the decision-making process. These types of tasks feel more like on-the-job simulations.
    Here you want the learner to “learn to fish” -- know how to get the information they need from tools on hand, and -- more importantly -- how to make decisions and solve complicated problems. This is like the real world.
  • In this next example, a module we produced for a retail bank, the program opens by putting the learner in the position of a salesperson meeting with a customer who wants to open a savings account. One hidden objective was to make the learners aware that no product should be sold without an adequate fact find, even something as simple as savings account.
    The learner decides how the salesperson handles the customer conversation.
    When they (as many will do) simply open the savings account (on little examination of the customer’s needs), the program abruptly points out that they have breached the organization’s compliance rules and encourages them to try it all again but now with that key learning clearly understood.
    So, what makes a goal-based scenario designed specifically to change behaviors or attitudes different from a standard knowledge and skills-based version?
    The key is the choice of situations that learners confront and the way you set up and support those situations. Creating plausible ‘attractive’ mistakes takes time, as does creating the branched options and the feedback for each option. In the case of the above example, it was by giving them no upfront learning objectives and explaining that the bank branch was very busy (thus implying they should conduct a brief transaction with the customer).
  • Another way to think of continuous learning...as an ad campaign. Advertisers are relentless. They know how to get into our brains, how to incite our desire and curiosity, and how to get us to buy. Bottom line, marketers know how to change behavior better than almost anyone. And isn’t that what we’re all trying to do?
  • If you really want to change behaviour, you wouldn’t start from the position of event-driven adult-to-child enforcement.
    To move beyond ticking the box and towards transforming behaviour is no small undertaking. Think about other transformation projects outside of the learning context you’ve been involved in. No e-learning module on its own is going to do it. We know you know that.
    This is your brain on drugs: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3FtNm9CgA6U&feature=related
    Crying Indian: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keep_America_Beautiful
    Smoky the Bear: http://www.smokeybear.com/vault/#!prettyPhoto[1950sP]/0/
    Jeremy Gutsche made the point, however that the crying indian didn’t actually have an impact on littering...maybe the Don’t Mess with Texas campaign would be a better choice!
  • Marketing aims to:
    •Attract and convert prospects into advocates and believers, even raving fans (we explore models for this later)
    •Using a range of channels and techniques that are specifically designed to reach the target audience(s)
    •In a sustained campaign that evolves and responds based on early feedback, and brings about measurable results
    (For us campaign management means an ongoing effort to impact behaviour. Learning about compliance is not a one off. It’s something you need to think about every day until it comes as naturally as locking your own front door.
    So a part of this is to space it out, right – remember that forgetting curve? )
  • Marketing aims to:
    •Attract and convert prospects into advocates and believers, even raving fans (we explore models for this later)
    •Using a range of channels and techniques that are specifically designed to reach the target audience(s)
    •In a sustained campaign that evolves and responds based on early feedback, and brings about measurable results
    (For us campaign management means an ongoing effort to impact behaviour. Learning about compliance is not a one off. It’s something you need to think about every day until it comes as naturally as locking your own front door.
    So a part of this is to space it out, right – remember that forgetting curve? )
  • Marketing aims to:
    •Attract and convert prospects into advocates and believers, even raving fans (we explore models for this later)
    •Using a range of channels and techniques that are specifically designed to reach the target audience(s)
    •In a sustained campaign that evolves and responds based on early feedback, and brings about measurable results
    (For us campaign management means an ongoing effort to impact behaviour. Learning about compliance is not a one off. It’s something you need to think about every day until it comes as naturally as locking your own front door.
    So a part of this is to space it out, right – remember that forgetting curve? )
    Marketing professionals. They’re in the persuasion business. If you involve them (as we do) in ‘learning projects’, they are refreshingly disinterested in the efficacy of the design model or the details under the bonnet of your approach. They talk about how you’re going to stimulate demand. Who are you trying to reach? With what message? Where do those people hang out now? How do we use those channels? How are we going to get action? What is the campaign theme? How will we know if it’s working? These and a hundred other questions are their stock in trade.
  • Learning from content marketing
    Campaign for change
    Design for engagement
    Embed results
  • Remember the people – have mercy on them. And love them, even.
  • DevLearn 2013 Learning Models & Design Patterns

    1. 1. Design models and patterns for creating better elearning Cammy Bean VP of Learning Design Kineo
    2. 2. Your organization wants more eLearning.
    3. 3. You’re responsible for building a team and collaborating with a lot of people.
    4. 4. But it’s like you speak a different language!
    5. 5. You want to speak a common language so you can create consistency and jumpstart your process.
    6. 6. So.You’ve got a training “need”. What approach will you take?
    7. 7. What’s in a name? •Design Strategy •Instructional Strategy •Design Approach •Design Model •Learning Model •Instructional Method •Design Pattern
    8. 8. Design Patterns: A look at software dev “A design pattern is a general reusable solution to a commonly occurring problem within a given context in software design. Not a finished design that can be transformed directly into code. It is a description or template for how to solve a problem that can be used in many different situations. Patterns are formalized best practices that the programmer must implement themselves in the application.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Software_design_pattern
    9. 9. Ian Bogost* shared six design patterns, drawn from game-design. • • • • • • World-building Emergence Role-playing Kinship Deliberation Process * http://www.bogost.com
    10. 10. Before you decide the approach, it helps to know what problem you’re solving.
    11. 11. In simple terms, there are three main reasons for a learning experience. Inform or raise awareness Build knowledge and skills Solve complex problems; change attitude or behavior
    12. 12. Consider the e-learning you create. Which is your biggest category? Inform or raise awareness Build knowledge and skills Solve complex problems; change attitude or behavior
    13. 13. I ran this informal survey on my blog... What % of the e-learning that you create falls into these categories?
    14. 14. Information and Communication Models? Models?
    15. 15. When do we use them? ...to know we have a new policy. ...to get an overview of our products... ...to know what our division does. ...an intro to our new 401K program.
    16. 16. Julie Dirksen * Is it reasonable to think someone can be proficient at this task without practice? http://usablelearning.com
    17. 17. Tom Kuhlmann: most elearning is just “information.” Sometimes merely the presentation of needed information is sufficient. http://www.articulate.com/rapid-elearning/do-you-really-need-an-instructional-design-degree/
    18. 18. Go for user driven models.
    19. 19. Let people search and find what they need.
    20. 20. The Process.
    21. 21. The Process.
    22. 22. Browsable Topic Categories.
    23. 23. The eMagazine or the eBook.
    24. 24. The Infomercial.
    25. 25. The Almanac.
    26. 26. Building knowledge and skills? and skills? and skills?
    27. 27. When do we use them? ...how to use SalesForce for data mining. ...how to speak to the FAA tower on radio. ...how to "operate" a medical device like a ventilator. ...how to give feedback to a twenty three year old employee.
    28. 28. The Knowledge & Skill Builder 6 Call to Action 5 Assess & Summari ze 1 Gain Attentio n 4 Exemplif y& Practice 2 Set Directio n 3 Present Content
    29. 29. 1. Get attention.
    30. 30. 1. Get attention.
    31. 31. AIDA (Awareness, Interest, Desire, Action)
    32. 32. 2. Set direction.
    33. 33. 2. Set direction (but not like this). At the end of this course, you will be able to: •blah •blah •blah •blah •blah •and more blah....
    34. 34. 3. Present (in an engaging and memorable way).
    35. 35. 3. Present: In Their Words.
    36. 36. 3. Present: In Their Words.
    37. 37. 3. Present: See it in Action.
    38. 38. 3. Present: Just the Facts, Ma’am.
    39. 39. 3. Present: The Guided Story.
    40. 40. 3. Present: The Guided Story.
    41. 41. 3. Present: The Guided Story.
    42. 42. 3. Present: The Guided Story. What looked like an entertaining comic book was actually…a Knowledge & Skills Builder!
    43. 43. 5. Assess and summarize.
    44. 44. 5. Assess: Has the learner achieved the objectives? Check questions or interactive scenarios immediately after the event After the event to check knowledge and retention On the job assessment performing actual tasks (Level 3 evaluation)
    45. 45. 5. Summarize in a meaningful way.
    46. 46. 6. Call to action.
    47. 47. 6. Call to action.
    48. 48. For review: The Knowledge & Skill Builder. 6 Call to Action 5 Assess & Summari ze 1 Gain Attentio n 4 Exemplif y& Practice 2 Set Directio n 3 Present Content
    49. 49. Learn and Apply.
    50. 50. Learn and Apply.
    51. 51. Show Me, Try It, Test Me
    52. 52. The Challenge.
    53. 53. Show Me, Try It, Test Me
    54. 54. Exemplify and Explore.
    55. 55. The YouTube Video. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RI7AkI5dJzo
    56. 56. Thiagi’s Four Door Model.
    57. 57. Thiagi’s Four Door Model.
    58. 58. The Pick ‘n Mix.
    59. 59. Two-in-one: The Process & Pick ‘n Mix!
    60. 60. Solving complex problems and changing behavior? changing behavior? changing behavior?
    61. 61. When do we use them? ...to teach how to troubleshoot a process. ...to change an entrenched habit or pattern. ...to improve listening skills.
    62. 62. When does learning a skill become changing a behavior?
    63. 63. How do we drive real and lasting behavior change?
    64. 64. Change the story.
    65. 65. Goal-Based Scenarios to practice solving complex problems.
    66. 66. Goal-Based Scenarios: The Hidden Objective.
    67. 67. Branching Scenario: Experience the consequences.
    68. 68. Branching Scenario: Tailored feedback.
    69. 69. Immersive, interactive video.
    70. 70. Immersive, interactive video.
    71. 71. Immersive, interactive video.
    72. 72. Immersive, interactive video.
    73. 73. The Learning Campaign Campaign Campaign
    74. 74. Remember the PSA?
    75. 75. Marketing aims to turn prospects into fans...
    76. 76. ...using a wide range of channels...
    77. 77. ...through a sustained campaign that creates measurable results.
    78. 78. Learning from content marketing. Campaign for change Design for engagement Embed results
    79. 79. The Change Campaign Global Entertainment Company with some dry content (sound familiar?) needed to: •Raise awareness about threats to privacy and information security •Get people to take compliance-related policies seriously •Empower people to take action! AND...they don’t do boring! They wanted to engage attention AND deliver results.
    80. 80. 1. Campaign for change. “Put Yourself in the Picture” Campaign with: •Video promos •Posters/flyers •Catchy jingles! •Branded sweets •Themed cafeteria menus •Competition •Tip Sheets •eLearning
    81. 81. 2. Design for engagement. Focused self-paced elearning tutorials and How Tos, underscoring key policy and regulation campaign messages.
    82. 82. 3. Embed for results. Ask for change! Provide ongoing support! (Tip Sheets, Decoder Wheels) Keep the messages coming! Reward participation!
    83. 83. The results (what really matters). More employees reaching out for help! Chief Privacy Officer getting more requests for guidance (training, tools, rules)! Project teams reaching out to Legal and Information Security earlier than ever before!
    84. 84. Some general guidelines.
    85. 85. Questions?
    86. 86. And most of all, remember the people, man.
    87. 87. Download the Learning Models Guide! www.kineo.com > resources > elearning reports
    88. 88. Cammy Bean email: cammy.bean@kineo.com twitter: @cammybean blog: http://cammybean.kineo.com References and more: https://www.diigo.com/list/cammybean/

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