English Language


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English Language

  2. 2. Proto Indo European Reconstruct ed vocabulary Agricultural Tecnology Climate and geography Barley Wheat Flax Apples Cherrie s Grapes Vines Mead Beer Winter Snow Birch Beech Pine Wolf Salmon Bear Otter Cognate s Words of common origin in different languages Sistematic sound changes Grimm’s law Substratum effect p → f (ped/foot) t → ө (tu/thou). k→ h (cord/heart) d → t (duo/two) g → k (genu/knee). One language is systematically influenced by the languages of a subjugated group. Elbe river 3000 years ago about Began in Weknow aboutitfrom Refered to Learned from
  3. 3. East Germani c North Germani cWest Germani c Common Germanic language Gothic. Modern German, Dutch, Flemish, Frisian, and English. Modern Scandinavian languages PROTO INDO EUROPEAN
  4. 4. Invaded by Celts (500 BC) Invaded by Romans (except Scots and Picts) Weak Celts seek for help Germanic Tribes JUTES ANGLOS SAXONS Invaded Britain Advance in written language (runic inscriptions) Consonant changes /k/= /tʃ/ cild - child /g/= /j/ gieldan – yield /sk/= /ʃ/ skall – shall /f/= /v/ half - halves A kind of assimilation Change in front vowels towards the end of a word affects the vowel of a preceding syllable. POE word Mann (man) and the plural Manniz > menniz > menn (men).
  5. 5. Vikings and their Influence on English History . 1st Viking attacks 800 A.D. plundering English resistance 850 A.D. Stealing lands More serious attacks Bad organized Lack of unity Vikings controlled large part of England 875 A.D. Strongest saxon kingdom Wessex King Alfred The Vikings Leader Guthrum Treaty of Wedmore Vikings leave Wessex alone and accept Christianity attacked consistedon was ledto was from agreed Danelawestablishing Danesfrom a.k.a.
  6. 6. Norse Scandinavi an a.k.a Everyday words Provide to Englis h Nouns bank, birth, booth, egg, husband, law, leg, root, score, sister, skin, trust, wing and window Adjectives awkward, flat, happy, ill, loose, low, odd, sly, ugly, weak, and wrong Verbs to cast, clip, crawl, cut, die, drown, gasp, give, lift, nag, scare, sprint, take, want., and the present plural of ‘to be’, are Pronouns both, same, they, them and their DANES spoke
  7. 7. Jutes, Anglos and Saxons were Christianized Adopt roman alphabet and produce Christian literature Inflectional endings signal grammatical function of words Word order is less important Grammatical cases: nominative, accusative, genitive and dative. Adjectives has inflectional endings and verb system too Celtic: Place Names (Thames, Kent, London, York, Avon) Latin: War (camp, streat, mil) Trade (ceap, pund, win) Domestic Life (cuppe, cycene, disc) Food (ciese, buttere, pipor) Religion (abbot, altar, candle, demon) Scandinavian: Words given by vikings and Anglo- Saxons.
  8. 8. Middle English Period 1100-1500 10,000 french words aprox. Were included by the XIII century Norman French Influences Doom (OE)- Judgment (F) Hearty (OE) – Cordial (F) House (OE) – Mansion (F) Old- English words suplanted Prince, Duke, Majesty, Punish, Battle, soldier, crime, prayer, prison, saint. Norman French words borrowed belong to the court, administration, law, army, Church. etc - The loss of inflections - Loss of gramatical genders - Loss of case system Less freedom in word order Greater use of prepositions Gramatical Changes The Norman invasion of Englad in 1066 by the duke of Normandy, William the Conqueror Begins with